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Article

Longitudinal Predictors of Self-Regulation at School Entry: Findings from the All Our Families Cohort

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Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
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Department of Pediatrics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 28 Oki Drive NW, Calgary, AB T3B 6A8, Canada
3
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. N.W., Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 September 2020 / Revised: 2 October 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
Self-regulation is the ability to manage emotions, modulate behaviors, and focus attention. This critical skill begins to develop in infancy, improves substantially in early childhood and continues through adolescence, and has been linked to long-term health and well-being. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors and moderators associated with the three elements of self-regulation (i.e., inattention, emotional control, or behavioral control) as well as overall self-regulation, among children at age 5. Participants were mother–child dyads from the All Our Families study (n = 1644). Self-regulation was assessed at age 5. Risk factors included income, maternal mental health, child sex, and screen time, and potential moderation by parenting and childcare. Adjusted odds ratios of children being at risk for poor self were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Twenty-one percent of children had poor self-regulation skills. Risk factors for poor self-regulation included lower income, maternal mental health difficulties, and male sex. Childcare and poor parenting did not moderate these associations and hostile and ineffective parenting was independently associated with poor self-regulation. Excess screen time (>1 h per day) was associated with poor self-regulation. Self-regulation involves a complex and overlapping set of skills and risk factors that operate differently on different elements. Parenting and participation in childcare do not appear to moderate the associations between lower income, maternal mental health, male sex, and screen time with child self-regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: child behavior; child development; self-regulation; parenting; screen time; longitudinal cohort child behavior; child development; self-regulation; parenting; screen time; longitudinal cohort
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hetherington, E.; McDonald, S.; Racine, N.; Tough, S. Longitudinal Predictors of Self-Regulation at School Entry: Findings from the All Our Families Cohort. Children 2020, 7, 186. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7100186

AMA Style

Hetherington E, McDonald S, Racine N, Tough S. Longitudinal Predictors of Self-Regulation at School Entry: Findings from the All Our Families Cohort. Children. 2020; 7(10):186. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7100186

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hetherington, Erin, Sheila McDonald, Nicole Racine, and Suzanne Tough. 2020. "Longitudinal Predictors of Self-Regulation at School Entry: Findings from the All Our Families Cohort" Children 7, no. 10: 186. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7100186

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