Next Issue
Volume 7, May
Previous Issue
Volume 7, March
Due to scheduled maintenance work on our core network, there may be short service disruptions on this website between 16:00 and 16:30 CEST on September 25th.

Children, Volume 7, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 14 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Optimising nutrition education in primary schools creates an opportunity to help improve children’s dietary habits and contribute to preventing weight gain throughout life. However, it is unclear how children and parents feel about nutrition education in school and at home, and what is required for implementing an appealing nutrition education program in schools. This study combined qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data on gaps in children’s nutrition knowledge and the attitudes, feelings, concerns and desires of both the children and their parents in regards to nutrition (education). Several knowledge gaps were identified and themes regarding the views on nutrition education emerge from the semi-structured interviews and are discussed. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Psychosocial Mechanism of Adolescents’ Depression: A Dose-Response Relation with Physical Activity
Children 2020, 7(4), 37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040037 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
Depression has become the most prevalent mental health problem in developing countries, and especially among adolescents. Lubans and his colleagues proposed a psychosocial mechanism to understand the trajectory of mental health (i.e., depression). Thus, this study aimed (1) to examine the relations between [...] Read more.
Depression has become the most prevalent mental health problem in developing countries, and especially among adolescents. Lubans and his colleagues proposed a psychosocial mechanism to understand the trajectory of mental health (i.e., depression). Thus, this study aimed (1) to examine the relations between different doses of physical activity (PA), light PA (LPA), moderate PA (MPA), and vigorous PA (VPA), academic self-efficacy, and depression among adolescents, and (2) to investigate the direct and indirect relations of various doses of PA to depression through academic self-efficacy among middle school adolescents. Participants were 428 (235 boys, Mean age = 13.7) adolescents recruited from two middle schools in China. They completed previously validated questionnaires to measure different intensity levels of PA (LPA, MPA, and VPA), academic self-efficacy, and depression. There were significant associations of academic self-efficacy with three different doses of PA (p < 0.01). Both LPA and MPA were negatively associated with depression but not VPA. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed a well-fit model suggesting the psychosocial pathway from different doses of PA to depression through academic self-efficacy. Findings of this study indicated that academic self-efficacy regulates adolescents’ depression. Tailoring different intensities of PA benefits adolescents’ academic self-efficacy by framing the positive and supportive environment in schools, which can potentially reduce the prevalence of depression during adolescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Temperamental Development among Preterm Born Children. An RCT Follow-Up Study
Children 2020, 7(4), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040036 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
A randomized controlled trial study recruited 146 preterm born children, either to participate in a modified version of the Mother–Infant Transaction Program (MITP-m) or to receive the usual follow-up services, before and after discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit. This follow-up study [...] Read more.
A randomized controlled trial study recruited 146 preterm born children, either to participate in a modified version of the Mother–Infant Transaction Program (MITP-m) or to receive the usual follow-up services, before and after discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit. This follow-up study investigates whether MITP participation is associated with parental perceptions of child temperament from two to seven years. Children’s temperament was reported by mothers and fathers separately at children’s ages of 2, 3, 5, and 7 years. Parents in the MITP-m group reported lower levels of negative emotionality in their children compared to the control group. In maternal reports, a group effect (F(1, 121) = 9.7, p = 0.002) revealed a stable difference in children’s negative emotionality from two to seven years, while a group-by-time interaction related to an increasing difference was detected in reports from fathers (F(1, 94) = 4.8, p = 0.03). Another group difference appeared in fathers’ reports of children’s soothability (F(1, 100) = 14.2, p < 0.0005). MITP-m fathers seemed to perceive their children as easier to soothe at all ages as no interaction with time appeared. Parental reports on children’s sociality, shyness, and activity did not differ between the groups. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Multi-Modal Family Peer Support-Based Program to Improve Quality of Life among Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study
Children 2020, 7(4), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040035 - 20 Apr 2020
Viewed by 2375
Abstract
Background: Pediatric brain tumor (PBT) survivors and their families are at risk for diminished psychosocial and quality of life outcomes. Community-based programs that leverage peer support in the context of integrative modalities such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) represent a promising avenue for [...] Read more.
Background: Pediatric brain tumor (PBT) survivors and their families are at risk for diminished psychosocial and quality of life outcomes. Community-based programs that leverage peer support in the context of integrative modalities such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) represent a promising avenue for meeting the multidimensional needs of survivors and their families. Methods: Parents and children were enrolled in a 12-week program that included weekly group TCM, a moderated private Facebook support group designed through social support and modeling theory, and weekly parent-only health behavior education and yoga. Process measures and quantitative and qualitative survey data was collected to gauge participant adherence, acceptability, and satisfaction, as well as exploratory outcomes. Results: Eleven parents completed surveys at all time points. Six of nine families attended at least 80% of the group TCM sessions, and eight of nine families interacted in the Facebook support group at least five days a week. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction and perceived benefits for the program. Baseline emotional distress, health behaviors, and QoL measurements improved during the three-month intervention. Qualitative data indicated parents perceived both in-person and the Facebook group peer support contributed to the benefits of the program. Conclusion: This feasibility study demonstrated that a multimodal peer support-based intervention that included in-person and online group interaction is feasible and acceptable to parents of pediatric brain tumor patients. Further research on interventions for caregivers that include in-person and online group-based peer support is warranted, with the goal of exploring similar outcomes in other childhood cancer diagnoses. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
The Author’s Contributions to Echocardiography Literature (Part II—1991–2020)
Children 2020, 7(4), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040034 - 13 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1726
Abstract
The author’s contribution up to 1990 was reviewed in part I and the echo contributions from 1991 to 2020 will be reviewed in part II. These include defining the relationship between the quantity of shunt across the atrial septal defect (ASD) and the [...] Read more.
The author’s contribution up to 1990 was reviewed in part I and the echo contributions from 1991 to 2020 will be reviewed in part II. These include defining the relationship between the quantity of shunt across the atrial septal defect (ASD) and the diameter of ASD by echo and angio on the one side and the stretched diameter of the ASD on the other; echocardiographic assessment of balloon-stretched diameter of secundum ASDs; development of echocardiographic predictors of accomplishment of percutaneous closure of ASDs with the buttoned device, highlighting limitations of echocardiography in comprehensive assessment of mixed type of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection; description of follow-up echocardiographic results of transcatheter closure of ASD with buttoned device; review of ultrasound studies; depiction of collaborative echocardiographic and Doppler studies; echocardiographic appraisal of the outcome of balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty; editorials; ventricular septal aneurysm causing pulmonary outflow tract obstruction in the morphologic left ventricle in corrected transposition of the great arteries; dependability of echocardiographic assessment of angiographic minimal diameter of the ductus; occurrence of supravalvular pulmonary artery stenosis after a Nuss procedure; echocardiographic assessment of neonates who were suspected of having heart disease; role of echocardiographic studies in the appraisal of patent ductus arteriosus in the premature babies; and the role of pressure recovery in explaining differences between simultaneously measured Doppler and cardiac catheterization pressure gradients across outflow tract stenotic lesions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Child Life Challenges Scale (CLCS): Associations of a Single-Item Rating of Global Child Adversity with Children’s Total Life Stressors and Parents’ Childhood Adversity
Children 2020, 7(4), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040033 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
Background: Although many existing measures tabulate specific risk factors to yield cumulative risk indices, there is a need for low-burden strategies to estimate general adversity exposure. Aims and Methods: This study introduces a brief, new measure of lifetime adversity, the Child Life Challenges [...] Read more.
Background: Although many existing measures tabulate specific risk factors to yield cumulative risk indices, there is a need for low-burden strategies to estimate general adversity exposure. Aims and Methods: This study introduces a brief, new measure of lifetime adversity, the Child Life Challenges Scale (CLCS), and examines its validity in a sample of parents and children residing in emergency housing. The CLCS comprises a single global item for rating cumulative life challenges utilizing either a paper-pencil scale or a sliding scale on a tablet. Parents are provided with anchor examples of mild and extreme challenges and asked to mark a location along the scale reflecting number and severity of challenges in their children’s lives to date. Study participants included 99 parents and their 3- to 6-year-old children. Results: CLCS scores were moderately associated with children’s parent-reported total life stressors, and these associations were robust to controls for parental history of adversity, parental distress, and family demographics. Control variables also did not moderate associations between CLCS scores and total life stressors, suggesting that the CLCS functions similarly across a range of sociodemographic risk. Paper-pencil and tablet versions showed similar convergent validity. Conclusion: The CLCS shows promise as an efficient measure for estimating children’s lifetime adversity with minimal parent or administrator burden. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Author’s Contributions to Echocardiography Literature (Part I—1978–1990)
Children 2020, 7(4), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040032 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
The author has undertaken multiple echocardiographic studies during his academic career; most of these were published in peer-reviewed journals. These studies include an evaluation of the role of echocardiography in the estimation of left-to-right shunt in isolated ventricular septal defects, an examination of [...] Read more.
The author has undertaken multiple echocardiographic studies during his academic career; most of these were published in peer-reviewed journals. These studies include an evaluation of the role of echocardiography in the estimation of left-to-right shunt in isolated ventricular septal defects, an examination of the utility of contrast echocardiography in the diagnosis of anomalous connection of the right superior vena cava to the left atrium, a description of pitfalls in M-mode echocardiographic assessment of the aortic root in left ventricular hypoplasia syndromes, reviews of echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function, study of the role of contrast echocardiography in the evaluation of hypoxemia following open heart surgery, a quantification of left ventricular muscle mass by m-mode echocardiography in children, an examination of race and sex related differences in echocardiographic measurements in children, study of cardiac size and function in patients with sickle cell disease, an examination of afterload reduction in the management of primary myocardial disease, study of the utility of echo-Doppler studies in the evaluation of the results of balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty, study of the usefulness of Doppler in the prediction of pressure gradients in valvar pulmonary stenosis, a review of Doppler echocardiography in noninvasive diagnoses of heart disease, echo-Doppler studies of the evaluation of the results of balloon angioplasty of aortic coarctation, study of the value of Doppler in the prediction of pressure gradients across coarctation of the aorta, and a characterization of foramen ovale and transatrial Doppler velocity patterns in the normal fetus. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Chronic Pancytopenia Due to Centrally Mediated Hypothermia in Two Children with Severe Neurological Impairment
Children 2020, 7(4), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040031 - 08 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1517
Abstract
We report on recurrent pancytopenia over five years in two children with severe impairment of the central nervous system. Assessment by hematology did not identify an etiology, including bone marrow biopsy in one. Both patients had sustained normalized blood cell counts following interventions [...] Read more.
We report on recurrent pancytopenia over five years in two children with severe impairment of the central nervous system. Assessment by hematology did not identify an etiology, including bone marrow biopsy in one. Both patients had sustained normalized blood cell counts following interventions to maintain or return to a temperature above 33 °C. Acute cytopenias following medically induced and environmental hypothermia have been reported. Recurrent pancytopenia due to centrally mediated hypothermia in patients with severe neurological impairment is often not recognized, putting such children at risk for unnecessary testing and transfusions. We provide a practical approach to management that is feasible for caregivers in the home setting with suggestions for monitoring. Full article
Article
Associations between Public Transport Accessibility around Homes and Schools and Walking and Cycling among Adolescents
Children 2020, 7(4), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040030 - 06 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2130
Abstract
Good public transport accessibility is associated with active travel, but this is under-researched among adolescents. We tested associations between public transport accessibility and active travel among school-going adolescents (12–18 years; n = 1329) from Melbourne, Australia analysing Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel and [...] Read more.
Good public transport accessibility is associated with active travel, but this is under-researched among adolescents. We tested associations between public transport accessibility and active travel among school-going adolescents (12–18 years; n = 1329) from Melbourne, Australia analysing Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel and Activity data. Outcomes included main mode of transport to school and accumulating ≥20 min of active travel over the day. Low and high compared to no public transport accessibility around homes were associated with higher odds of public transport use (low (odds ratio (OR): 1.94 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28, 2.94) high (OR: 2.86 95% CI: 1.80, 4.53)). Low and high public transport accessibility around homes were also associated with higher prevalence of achieving ≥20 min of active travel (low (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.14 95% CI: 0.97, 1.34) high (PR: 1.31 95% CI: 1.11, 1.54)) compared to none. Public transport accessibility around schools was associated with public transport use (low (OR: 2.13 95% CI: 1.40, 3.24) high (OR: 5.07 95% CI: 3.35, 7.67)) and achieving ≥20 min of active travel (low (PR: 1.18 95% CI: 1.00, 1.38) high (PR: 1.64 95% CI: 1.41, 1.90)). Positive associations were confirmed between public transport accessibility and both outcomes of active travel. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Assessment of the Relationship between Anthropometric Parameters and Blood Pressure among Polokwane Private School Children
Children 2020, 7(4), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040029 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
High blood pressure (HBP) among children and adolescents has been associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body composition and blood pressure among Polokwane private school children. Mean body [...] Read more.
High blood pressure (HBP) among children and adolescents has been associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body composition and blood pressure among Polokwane private school children. Mean body fat % was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in girls (23.74) than the boys (16.77). There was a significant (P < 0.05) association between systolic blood pressure (BP) and waist circumference (WC) unadjusted (OR = 1.125) and adjusted (OR = 1.097) for age and gender. This study included a total of 1665 children and adolescents (846 boys and 819 girls) aged 5 to 15 years old. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, hip circumference (HC) and waist circumference (WC) were taken according to standard procedures. Descriptive statistics were done to determine the prevalence of hypertension and mean of all the variables. Pearson correlation, linear regression and logistic regression were all done to determine the association between blood pressure (BP) and the anthropometric measurements. All statistical analysis were done using SPSS. There was a significant association between body composition and blood pressure among Polokwane Private School children. Lowering the risk factors of high BP in children and adolescents will lower their risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Full article
Article
Multiple Points Change in the Association of Blood Pressure Subtypes with Anthropometric Indices of Adiposity among Children in a Rural Population
Children 2020, 7(4), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040028 - 02 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1549
Abstract
Background: Hypertension has gained global significance and risk of cardiovascular disease, and adiposity is the most important of the conditions associated with and considered responsible for hypertension in children. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether indices of adiposity independently predicted blood [...] Read more.
Background: Hypertension has gained global significance and risk of cardiovascular disease, and adiposity is the most important of the conditions associated with and considered responsible for hypertension in children. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether indices of adiposity independently predicted blood pressure at multiple points in gender-specific groups. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 10 randomly selected primary schools within the Ellisras Longitudinal Study, and involved 1816 adolescents (876 girls and 940 boys) aged 8 to 17 years. All the anthropometric indices and blood pressures (BP) were examined according to the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocol. Results: In an adjusted linear quantile regression analysis of boys, waist circumference (WC) was associated with BP across all multiple points of systolic blood pressure (SBP). Furthermore, the triceps skinfold site was associated with high SBP. In girls, body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with SBP after adjustment for potential confounders. Other anthropometric indices of adiposity, including WC, biceps, and triceps skinfold sites were not associated with SBP. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that in black South African children, variables such as WC and triceps skinfold site may provide stronger explanatory capacity to SBP variance and systolic hypertension risk in boys than other adiposity indices; whereas in girls, only WC and BMI predict diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and SBP, respectively. Full article
Article
Impact of Psycho-Educational Activities on Visual-Motor Integration, Fine Motor Skills and Name Writing among First Graders: A Kinematic Pilot Study
Children 2020, 7(4), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040027 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
This pilot study presents the effects on acquisition of pre-writing skills of educational activities targeting visual-motor integration and fine motor skills on a convenient sample of first graders. After a 10-week intervention program, visual perceptual skills and fine motor control were tested on [...] Read more.
This pilot study presents the effects on acquisition of pre-writing skills of educational activities targeting visual-motor integration and fine motor skills on a convenient sample of first graders. After a 10-week intervention program, visual perceptual skills and fine motor control were tested on 13 six-year-old aged children. Participants completed the Beery-Buktenica VMI and the manual dexterity scale of the Movement ABC-2 at baseline (T1), after the intervention program (T2), and one month after the end of the educational activities (T3). Children’s writing pressure, frequency, and automaticity were measured using a digitizer during the administration of name writing test at T1, T2, and T3. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in visual-perceptual abilities and fine motor skills after the intervention program and examine correlational effects on children’s kinematic writing performances. Findings reveal that educational activities impacted positively on children’s visual motor coordination component of writing improving VMI scores. No statistically significant difference was detected across the three time points on students’ manual dexterity skills. Measurement of writing kinematics allows to report and document variations in children’s writing during intervention. This pilot study discusses these findings and their implications for the field on early childhood acquisition of foundational skills for handwriting. It also proposes potential topics for future research on this field. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characterization of Pediatric Seizures in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
Children 2020, 7(4), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040026 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1649
Abstract
Saipan is a United States (US) territory Western Pacific island where little recent data exists regarding epidemiology, clinical presentation, and standard of care for pediatric seizures. This paper characterizes these features in Saipan’s pediatric population with comparisons to mainland US. This is a [...] Read more.
Saipan is a United States (US) territory Western Pacific island where little recent data exists regarding epidemiology, clinical presentation, and standard of care for pediatric seizures. This paper characterizes these features in Saipan’s pediatric population with comparisons to mainland US. This is a retrospective chart review of all pediatric patients with a history of seizures at the island’s only hospital and major private neurology clinic over a 10-year period. Variables regarding demographics, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment were collected. A total of 144 patients were included, with 101 patients diagnosed with febrile seizures and 31 patients diagnosed with non-febrile seizures. Age at first presentation peaked at 1 year old overall. The most common identified etiology of epilepsy was found to be hypoxic injury (39%), hemorrhagic injury (10%), cerebral malformation (6%), and brain mass (6%). Simple versus complex classification of febrile seizures, etiologies, and first-line treatment for non-febrile seizures were comparable to the mainland US. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was not used consistently in diagnosis. The findings from this study demonstrate that clinical presentations of pediatric seizures in Saipan are comparable to those in the mainland US. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Association of Hypertension and Obesity with Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases in Children Aged 6–9 Years Old in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa
Children 2020, 7(4), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040025 - 28 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2143
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are known to begin early in life, but limited data on the relationship of obesity and hypertension with other known CVD risk factors, such as endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and chronic low-grade inflammation is available on children. In [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are known to begin early in life, but limited data on the relationship of obesity and hypertension with other known CVD risk factors, such as endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and chronic low-grade inflammation is available on children. In this cross-sectional study involving 6–9 years old school children aged from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa the relationship between obesity/hypertension and other risk factors for CVDs was investigated. General anthropometric parameters were measured, followed by blood pressure (BP) measurements and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Urine samples were collected for the determination of albumin, creatinine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), 8-hydroxy-2deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS). Overweight/obesity (19.28%) and pre-hypertension/hypertension (42.16%) were prevalent in children. Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), a marker of obesity, was positively correlated with ADMA, while ADMA and PWV were significantly different (p < 0.05) between hypertensive and normotensive children. Also, TBARS and 8-OHdG were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in hypertensive subjects. Creatinine was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in obese, as well as in hypertensive children, and positively associated with waist circumference (WC) and neck circumference (NC). In conclusion, obesity and hypertension were associated with renal-cardiovascular disease risk, while oxidative stress showed a possible association with obesity in 6 to 9 year old South African children of African descent. This suggests that South African children of African descent may be becoming more prone to developing CVDs, and therefore may require early intervention for the prevention of CVDs in the near future. Full article
Article
Nutrition Education in the Australian New South Wales Primary School Curriculum: Knowledge and Attitudes of Students and Parents
Children 2020, 7(4), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040024 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3440
Abstract
In NSW, Australia, the views of primary-school aged children and their parents in regard to the importance of nutrition education at school are unclear. The aim of the current study was to explore children’s knowledge of nutrition and eating habits and to identify [...] Read more.
In NSW, Australia, the views of primary-school aged children and their parents in regard to the importance of nutrition education at school are unclear. The aim of the current study was to explore children’s knowledge of nutrition and eating habits and to identify gaps that future school nutrition education programs could target. Students aged 9 to 12 years and their parents (n = 21 dyads) were invited to participate in semi-structured interviews, complete a nutrition knowledge questionnaire, and perform a “healthy-unhealthy” food sorting task in a University food laboratory. Among the children, nutrition knowledge scores concerning “serves & portions” of common foods were lowest, identifying a gap in knowledge related to portion size. All children categorized fruits, vegetables, cola, and water correctly as “healthy” or “unhealthy” in the sorting task, but not for the sausage and muesli bar, suggesting that further support categorising processed foods may be needed. The interviews indicated that parents do actively try to teach their children about nutrition, although they reported feeling uncertain about their own level of nutrition knowledge. Children and parents indicated that there is very little nutrition education in school and more is needed. This research could be used to inform future curriculum components related to nutrition education for primary school children. Full article
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop