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Children, Volume 7, Issue 9 (September 2020) – 46 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Therapeutic interventions in children with cerebral palsy are focused on increasing the performance of gross motor skills. Hippotherapy is an emerging intervention to promote motor recovery in patients with neurological disorders. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analyzed the effectiveness of hippotherapy to recover gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. We conclude that hippotherapy interventions were effective regarding improvement. Favorable results were obtained in the GMFM-66 total scores and GMFM-88 dimensions A, B, and E. View this paper
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Article
Effects of Social Media and Smartphone Use on Body Esteem in Female Adolescents: Testing a Cognitive and Affective Model
Children 2020, 7(9), 148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090148 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 2362
Abstract
We examined the predictive relations of social media and smartphone use to body esteem in female adolescents and the mechanism that underlies these relations. As a result of frequent social media and smartphone use, adolescents are continually exposed to appearance-related media content. This [...] Read more.
We examined the predictive relations of social media and smartphone use to body esteem in female adolescents and the mechanism that underlies these relations. As a result of frequent social media and smartphone use, adolescents are continually exposed to appearance-related media content. This likely reinforces a thin ideal and fosters appearance-based comparison and increases fear of external evaluation. Hence, we investigated a cognitive-affective framework in which the associations of social media and smartphone use with body esteem are serially mediated by cognitive internalization of an ideal body image, appearance comparisons, and social appearance anxiety. By testing female adolescents (N = 100) aged 13 to 18, we found that excessive social media use leads to unhealthy body esteem via intensified cognitive internalization, which aggravates appearance comparisons and anxiety regarding negative appearance evaluation. Further, we found that screen time for specific smartphone activities also harmed body esteem, independent of social media use. However, overall smartphone screen time did not affect body esteem when social media use was taken into consideration. Our findings underscore the multifactor mechanism that elucidates the negative impacts of social media and smartphone activities on body esteem in female adolescents, who are developmentally susceptible to poor body esteem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders and Obesity in Children and Adolescents)
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Review
Association between Exercise-Induced Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Adiposity among Overweight and Obese Youth: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression Analysis
Children 2020, 7(9), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7090147 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 950
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the minimum change in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) required to reduce adiposity (percent body fat) in exercise programs for overweight and obese youth. Studies were identified through a systematic search of five databases. Studies were limited [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the minimum change in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) required to reduce adiposity (percent body fat) in exercise programs for overweight and obese youth. Studies were identified through a systematic search of five databases. Studies were limited to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise training (e.g., aerobic, strength, concurrent) that assessed percent body fat and CRF for both exercise and control groups in overweight and obese children and adolescents. A series of meta-regressions were conducted to explore links between change in CRF (maximum oxygen consumption, ml/kg/min) and change in percent body fat. Twenty-three RCTs were included (n = 1790, 59% females). Meta-regression analysis suggested that increases of at least 0.38 mL/kg/min in CRF (p < 0.001) were considered to be a clinically important reduction of percent body fat (−2.30%, 95% confidence interval −3.02 to −1.58; p < 0.001; I2 = 92.2%). Subgroup analysis showed that increases of at least 0.17 mL/kg/min in CRF favored a reduction of percent body fat of −1.62% (95% confidence interval −2.04 to −1.20; p < 0.001; I2 = 69.9%). In conclusion, this change in CRF could be considered by pediatric researchers, youth fitness specialists, and health care providers to determine the effectiveness in body fat reductions through exercise. Full article
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Review
Pain Symptomatology and Management in Pediatric Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome: A Review
Children 2020, 7(9), 146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090146 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Ehlers–Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a group of connective tissue disorders that manifest with hyperextensibility of joints and skin, and general tissue fragility. While not a major criterion for clinical diagnosis, pain is a frequently endorsed symptom across subtypes of EDS. As such, the [...] Read more.
Ehlers–Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a group of connective tissue disorders that manifest with hyperextensibility of joints and skin, and general tissue fragility. While not a major criterion for clinical diagnosis, pain is a frequently endorsed symptom across subtypes of EDS. As such, the present review aims to summarize research to date on pain characteristics and management, and the relationship between such pain symptomatology and quality of life in pediatric EDS. Characteristics of pain, including theorized etiology, relative intensity and extent of pain are described, as well as descriptions of frequently endorsed pain sites (musculoskeletal, and non-musculoskeletal). Interventions related to the management of musculoskeletal (e.g., pharmaceutical intervention, physical therapy) and non-musculoskeletal pain (e.g., pharmaceutical and psychological interventions) are discussed, highlighting the need for additional research related to pediatric pain management in the context of hypermobility syndromes. In addition, the relationship between pain in pediatric EDS and quality of life is described. Finally, limitations of literature to date are described and recommendations for future lines of research are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Pain Management)
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Article
Parental Attitudes toward Artificial Intelligence-Driven Precision Medicine Technologies in Pediatric Healthcare
Children 2020, 7(9), 145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090145 - 20 Sep 2020
Viewed by 897
Abstract
Precision medicine relies upon artificial intelligence (AI)-driven technologies that raise ethical and practical concerns. In this study, we developed and validated a measure of parental openness and concerns with AI-driven technologies in their child’s healthcare. In this cross-sectional survey, we enrolled parents of [...] Read more.
Precision medicine relies upon artificial intelligence (AI)-driven technologies that raise ethical and practical concerns. In this study, we developed and validated a measure of parental openness and concerns with AI-driven technologies in their child’s healthcare. In this cross-sectional survey, we enrolled parents of children <18 years in 2 rounds for exploratory (n = 418) and confirmatory (n = 386) factor analysis. We developed a 12-item measure of parental openness to AI-driven technologies, and a 33-item measure identifying concerns that parents found important when considering these technologies. We also evaluated associations between openness and attitudes, beliefs, personality traits, and demographics. Parents (N = 804) reported mean openness to AI-driven technologies of M = 3.4/5, SD = 0.9. We identified seven concerns that parents considered important when evaluating these technologies: quality/accuracy, privacy, shared decision making, convenience, cost, human element of care, and social justice. In multivariable linear regression, parental openness was positively associated with quality (beta = 0.23), convenience (beta = 0.16), and cost (beta = 0.11), as well as faith in technology (beta = 0.23) and trust in health information systems (beta = 0.12). Parental openness was negatively associated with the perceived importance of shared decision making (beta = −0.16) and being female (beta = −0.12). Developers might support parental openness by addressing these concerns during the development and implementation of novel AI-driven technologies. Full article
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Case Report
Identification of Missense ADGRV1 Mutation as a Candidate Genetic Cause of Familial Febrile Seizure 4
Children 2020, 7(9), 144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090144 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 712
Abstract
Febrile seizure (FS) is related to a febrile illness (temperature > 38 °C) not caused by an infection of central nervous system, without neurologic deficits in children aged 6–60 months. The family study implied a polygenic model in the families of proband(s) with [...] Read more.
Febrile seizure (FS) is related to a febrile illness (temperature > 38 °C) not caused by an infection of central nervous system, without neurologic deficits in children aged 6–60 months. The family study implied a polygenic model in the families of proband(s) with single FS, however in families with repeated FS, inheritance was matched to autosomal dominance with reduced disease penetrance. A 20 month-old girl showed recurrent FS and afebrile seizures without developmental delay or intellectual disability. The seizures disappeared after 60 months without anti-seizure medication. The 35 year-old proband’s mother also experienced five episodes of simple FS and two episodes of unprovoked seizures before 5 years old. Targeted exome sequencing was conducted along with epilepsy/seizure-associated gene-filtering to identify the candidate causative mutation. As a result, a heterozygous c.2039A>G of the ADGRV1 gene leading to a codon change of aspartic acid to glycine at the position 680 (rs547076322) was identified. This protein’s glycine residue is highly conserved, and its allele frequency is 0.00002827 in the gnomAD population database. ADGRV1 mutation may have an influential role in the occurrence of genetic epilepsies, especially those with febrile and afebrile seizures. Further investigation of ADGRV1 mutations is needed to prove that it is a significant susceptible gene for febrile and/or afebrile seizures in early childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child Neurology)
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Article
Elementary Classroom Teachers’ Self-Reported Use of Movement Integration Products and Perceived Facilitators and Barriers Related to Product Use
Children 2020, 7(9), 143; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090143 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
Movement integration (MI) products are designed to provide children with physical activity during general education classroom time. The purpose of this study was to examine elementary classroom teachers’ self-reported use of MI products and subsequent perceptions of the facilitators of and barriers to [...] Read more.
Movement integration (MI) products are designed to provide children with physical activity during general education classroom time. The purpose of this study was to examine elementary classroom teachers’ self-reported use of MI products and subsequent perceptions of the facilitators of and barriers to MI product use. This study utilized a mixed-methods design. Elementary classroom teachers (n = 40) at four schools each tested four of six common MI products in their classroom for one week. Teachers completed a daily diary, documenting duration and frequency of product use. Following each product test, focus groups were conducted with teachers to assess facilitators and barriers. MI product use lasted for 11.2 (Standard Deviation (SD) = 7.5) min/occasion and MI products were used 4.1 (SD = 3.5) times/week on average. Activity Bursts in the Classroom for Fitness, GoNoodle, and Physical Activity Across the Curriculum were most frequently used. Facilitators of and barriers to MI product use were identified within three central areas—logistics, alignment with teaching goals, and student needs and interests. Teachers were receptive to MI products and used them frequently throughout the week. When considering the adoption of MI products, teachers, administrators, and policy makers should consider products that are readily usable, align with teaching goals, and are consistent with student needs and interests. Full article
Article
Changes in Ankle Range of Motion, Gait Function and Standing Balance in Children with Bilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy after Ankle Mobilization by Manual Therapy
Children 2020, 7(9), 142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090142 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1002
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle joint mobilization in children with cerebral palsy (CP) to ankle range of motion (ROM), gait, and standing balance. We recruited 32 children (spastic diplegia) diagnosed with CP and categorized them in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle joint mobilization in children with cerebral palsy (CP) to ankle range of motion (ROM), gait, and standing balance. We recruited 32 children (spastic diplegia) diagnosed with CP and categorized them in two groups: the ankle joint mobilization (n = 16) group and sham joint mobilization (n = 16) group. Thus, following a six-week ankle joint mobilization, we examined measures such as passive ROM in ankle dorsiflexion in the sitting and supine position, center of pressure (COP) displacements (sway length, area) with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC), and a gait function test (timed up and go test (TUG) and 10-m walk test). The dorsiflexion ROM, TUG, and 10-m walk test significantly increased in the mobilization group compared to the control group. Ankle joint mobilization can be regarded as a promising method to increase dorsiflexion and improve gait in CP-suffering children. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Blood Pressure and Kidney Markers between Adolescent Former Preterm Infants and Term Controls
Children 2020, 7(9), 141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090141 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1192
Abstract
Background: Preterm infants are at an increased risk of developing hypertension and chronic kidney disease later in life. No recommendations exist for blood pressure (BP) and renal follow up for these patients. Aim: To compare BP and serum and urinary kidney markers between [...] Read more.
Background: Preterm infants are at an increased risk of developing hypertension and chronic kidney disease later in life. No recommendations exist for blood pressure (BP) and renal follow up for these patients. Aim: To compare BP and serum and urinary kidney markers between preterm-born adolescents and term-born controls. Methods: BP measurements in 51 preterm-born (≤32 weeks gestational age) and 82 term-born adolescents at the age of 10–15 years were conducted. Stepwise regression analysis explored the association between BP and participant characteristics. Kidney markers measured in the serum and urine were creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and uromodulin. Kidney markers measured in the serum were cystatin C, beta-2 microglobulin, and beta trace protein. Results: Systolic BP was significantly higher in preterm boys compared with term boys, but not in girls, and low birth weight was associated with higher BP in boys. In the preterm group, maternal hypertension/preeclampsia and adolescent height were associated with higher systolic BP. Serum creatinine and NGAL were significantly higher in the preterm group. Conclusions: Our study confirms an inverse sex-dependant relationship between birth weight and BP at adolescent age. The higher serum creatinine and NGAL in the preterm group may indicate that premature birth affects kidney function in the long term. Full article
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Article
Efficacy of Olanzapine for High and Moderate Emetogenic Chemotherapy in Children
Children 2020, 7(9), 140; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090140 - 16 Sep 2020
Viewed by 740
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the safety and efficacy of olanzapine for high and moderate emetogenic chemotherapy in children and young adults. We retrospectively reviewed the records of pediatric patients (n = 13) with cancer who had been administered olanzapine as [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the safety and efficacy of olanzapine for high and moderate emetogenic chemotherapy in children and young adults. We retrospectively reviewed the records of pediatric patients (n = 13) with cancer who had been administered olanzapine as an anti-emetic drug (AED) during a high and moderate emetogenic chemotherapy block from January 2018 to March 2020. Patients were administered other prophylactic AEDs according to practice guidelines. The mean age of the patients was 14.1 ± 5.5 years. The total number of chemotherapy cycles was 41. Twenty-one (51.2%) chemotherapy blocks were high emetogenic chemotherapy and 20 (48.8%) blocks were moderate emetogenic chemotherapy. Olanzapine was used for prophylaxis in 20 (48.8%) blocks of chemotherapy and rescue in 21 (51.2%). Of the 41 cycles, a complete response to olanzapine was achieved in 31 (75.6%), partial response in 6 (14.6%), and no response in 4 (9.8%). The mean dose was 0.07 ± 0.04 mg/kg/dose and 2.50 ± 1.37 mg/m2/dose. Adverse effects included somnolence, hyperglycemia, fatigue, and disturbed sleep. Our findings indicate that olanzapine was effective and safe for treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children. A prospective controlled study is needed to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology and Hematology)
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Review
Pulmonary Hypertension with Prolonged Patency of the Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants
Children 2020, 7(9), 139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090139 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
There continues to be a reluctance to close the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants. The debate on whether the short-term outcomes translate to a difference in long-term benefits remains. This article intends to review the pulmonary vasculature changes that can occur [...] Read more.
There continues to be a reluctance to close the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants. The debate on whether the short-term outcomes translate to a difference in long-term benefits remains. This article intends to review the pulmonary vasculature changes that can occur with a chronic hemodynamically significant PDA in a preterm infant. It also explains the rationale and decision-making involved in a diagnostic cardiac catheterization and transcatheter PDA closure in these preterm infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary Hypertension in Neonates and Infants)
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Commentary
COVID-19 Impact on Behaviors across the 24-Hour Day in Children and Adolescents: Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep
Children 2020, 7(9), 138; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090138 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 6981
Abstract
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, social restrictions to contain the spread of the virus have disrupted behaviors across the 24-h day including physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep among children (5–12 years old) and adolescents (13–17 years old). Preliminary evidence reports [...] Read more.
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, social restrictions to contain the spread of the virus have disrupted behaviors across the 24-h day including physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep among children (5–12 years old) and adolescents (13–17 years old). Preliminary evidence reports significant decreases in physical activity, increases in sedentary behavior, and disrupted sleep schedules/sleep quality in children and adolescents. This commentary discusses the impact of COVID-19-related restrictions on behaviors across the 24-h day in children and adolescents. Furthermore, we suggest recommendations through the lens of a socio-ecological model to provide strategies for lasting behavior change to insure the health and well-being of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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Article
Bidirectional Ductal Shunting and Preductal to Postductal Oxygenation Gradient in Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn
Children 2020, 7(9), 137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090137 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
Background: The aim was to evaluate the relationship between the direction of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) shunt and the pre- and postductal gradient for arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters in a lamb model of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) with persistent pulmonary hypertension [...] Read more.
Background: The aim was to evaluate the relationship between the direction of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) shunt and the pre- and postductal gradient for arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters in a lamb model of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Methods: PPHN was induced by intermittent umbilical cord occlusion and the aspiration of meconium through the tracheal tube. After delivery, 13 lambs were ventilated and simultaneous 129 pairs of pre- and postductal ABG were drawn (right carotid and umbilical artery, respectively) while recording the PDA and the carotid and pulmonary blood flow. Results: Meconium aspiration resulted in hypoxemia. The bidirectional ductal shunt had a lower postductal partial arterial oxygen tension ([PaO2] with lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio—97 ± 36 vs. 130 ± 65 mmHg) and left pulmonary flow (81 ± 52 vs. 133 ± 82 mL/kg/min). However, 56% of the samples with a bidirectional shunt had a pre- and postductal saturation gradient of < 3%. Conclusions: The presence of a bidirectional ductal shunt is associated with hypoxemia and low pulmonary blood flow. The absence of a pre- and postductal saturation difference is frequently observed with bidirectional right-to-left shunting through the PDA, and does not exclude a diagnosis of PPHN in this model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary Hypertension in Neonates and Infants)
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Article
Stress in Caregivers and Children with a Developmental Disorder Who Receive Rehabilitation
Children 2020, 7(9), 136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090136 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the stress levels of caregivers and children with developmental disorders who were receiving rehabilitation treatment. The relationships between stress levels and factors such as early rehabilitation and home rehabilitation were quantified. Methods: This study was conducted in children [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the stress levels of caregivers and children with developmental disorders who were receiving rehabilitation treatment. The relationships between stress levels and factors such as early rehabilitation and home rehabilitation were quantified. Methods: This study was conducted in children with development disorders, aged from 1.5 years to 18 years, who were undergoing rehabilitation. The Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and the Adult Self-Report (K-ASR) were used to evaluate stress levels in children and caregivers, respectively. Results: Questionnaires were provided to 150 caregivers who agreed to participate. However, only 76 copies of the K-CBCL and 75 copies of the K-ASR were collected. The mean K-CBCL and K-ASR t scores were in the normal range. The K-CBCL score correlated positively with the K-ASR score (p value < 0.5). K-CBCL externalizing problems score correlated positively with the age at the start of rehabilitation, and the K-CBCL and K-ASR externalizing problems scores correlated negatively with home treatment delivered by caregivers. Conclusions: Stress levels of children and caregivers were closely related. Home rehabilitation provided by caregivers reduced stress in both caregivers and children. Early rehabilitation did not impart additional psychological burden on caregivers or children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mindful and Integrative Approaches to Pediatric Mental Health)
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Article
Motivation, Self-Concept and Discipline in Young Adolescents Who Practice Rhythmic Gymnastics. An Intervention
Children 2020, 7(9), 135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090135 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
This study aims to develop an intervention based on TARGET strategies in young people practicing rhythmic gymnastics, with the aim of observing whether motivation, discipline, self-concept and flexibility are improved. This research is a longitudinal study of a quasi-experimental nature. A total of [...] Read more.
This study aims to develop an intervention based on TARGET strategies in young people practicing rhythmic gymnastics, with the aim of observing whether motivation, discipline, self-concept and flexibility are improved. This research is a longitudinal study of a quasi-experimental nature. A total of 104 young adolescents between the ages of 11 and 12 years (11.66 ± 0.47) participated in the study, of which 60 belong to the control group and 44 to the experimental group. The intervention programme lasted two months (17 sessions). TARGET strategies were applied to the experimental group during training. While the experimental group continued with its routine training. To measure the psychological variables, the instrument used were the Youth Physical Self-Concept Scale (C-PSQ), Reason Scale for Discipline (RSD) and Success Perception Questionnaire (SPQ), and for flexibility, the tests were applied to the Sit and Reach and Deep trunk flexion test. The results showed that those teenagers who participated in the intervention, obtained an increased climate task, which entails an enjoyment by the practice of physical activity itself, more optimal levels of physical self-concept and discipline, subsequently, obtaining better results of flexibility. While in the control group gymnasts the ego climate and demotivation increased. TARGET strategies applied to young adolescents have positive effects, improve motivation towards physical activity, self-concept and discipline. This results in greater performance in flexibility. This will encourage young adolescents to continue to engage in physical activity in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Children Physical Development)
Article
Understanding School-Aged Childhood Obesity of Body Mass Index: Application of the Social-Ecological Framework
Children 2020, 7(9), 134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090134 - 13 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1063
Abstract
In order to understand the prevalence of school-aged childhood obesity in the United States and suggest better methods to prevent and treat the public health problem, we examined it with significant and identifiable factors within the social-ecological model. To investigate the association between [...] Read more.
In order to understand the prevalence of school-aged childhood obesity in the United States and suggest better methods to prevent and treat the public health problem, we examined it with significant and identifiable factors within the social-ecological model. To investigate the association between social-ecological factors and child obesity/overweight (BMI), we used the 5th wave of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. The dataset included information on 9-year-old children. The sample size for our study was 2054. We utilized multiple normal distributions for missing values and the Ordinary Least Square regression analysis. Black and Hispanic children were more likely to be obese/overweight than White children; children with higher physical activity were negatively associated with higher obesity; older mothers were more likely to be associated with children’s obesity; family structure was also significantly related to the likelihood of childhood obesity; finally, school environment was significantly associated with child obesity. To combat childhood obesity, more school physical activities should be implemented, such as increasing physical education opportunities as well as building more sizable playgrounds and accessible recreation facilities at school and in communities. School environments also should be pleasant and safe for children. Health practitioners need to assess home environments to intervene for children’s health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
Review
COVID-19: Neurological Considerations in Neonates and Children
Children 2020, 7(9), 133; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090133 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2728
Abstract
The ongoing worldwide pandemic of the novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the ensuing disease, COVID-19, has presented enormous and unprecedented challenges for all medical specialists. However, to date, children, especially neonates, have been relatively spared from the devastating consequences of this infection. Neurologic [...] Read more.
The ongoing worldwide pandemic of the novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the ensuing disease, COVID-19, has presented enormous and unprecedented challenges for all medical specialists. However, to date, children, especially neonates, have been relatively spared from the devastating consequences of this infection. Neurologic involvement is being increasingly recognized among adults with COVID-19, who can develop sensory deficits in smell and taste, delirium, encephalopathy, headaches, strokes, and peripheral nervous system disorders. Among neonates and children, COVID-19-associated neurological manifestations have been relatively rare, yet reports involving neurologic dysfunction in this age range are increasing. As discussed in this review, pediatric neurologists and other pediatric specialists should be alert to potential neurological involvement by this virus, which might have neuroinvasive capability and carry long-term neuropsychiatric and medical consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child Neurology)
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Article
Patterns of Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Acute Kidney Injury in Neonates Receiving Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Children 2020, 7(9), 132; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090132 - 09 Sep 2020
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Elevated urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) predicts acute kidney injury (AKI) in children following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery, but little is known about uNGAL’s predictive ability in neonates in this setting. We sought to determine the relationship between AKI and post-CPB [...] Read more.
Elevated urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) predicts acute kidney injury (AKI) in children following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery, but little is known about uNGAL’s predictive ability in neonates in this setting. We sought to determine the relationship between AKI and post-CPB uNGAL in neonates in the first 72 post-operative hours. Methods: Urine samples for uNGAL analysis were collected at preoperative baseline and serially post-operatively from 76 neonates undergoing CPB. Mixed-effects regression models and logistic models assessed associations between uNGAL and AKI (controlling for sex, gestational age, CPB time, surgical complexity, and age at surgery). Receiver-operator curves were applied to define optimal uNGAL cut-off values for AKI diagnosis. Results: Between 0 and 4 h post-operatively, uNGAL values did not differ between neonates with and without AKI. After 4 h until 16 h post-operatively, significant time-wise separation occurred between uNGAL values of neonates with AKI and those without AKI. Odds ratios at each time point significantly exceeded unity, peaking at 10 h post-operatively (3.48 (1.58, 8.71)). Between 4 and 16 h post-operatively, uNGAL discriminated AKI from no-AKI, with a sensitivity of 0.63 (0.49, 0.75) and a specificity of 0.68 (0.62, 0.74) at a cut-off value of 100 ng/mL. Conclusion: After 4 h until 16 h post-operatively, elevated uNGAL is associated with AKI in neonates receiving CPB during cardiac surgery; however, this relationship is more complex than in older children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Renal Diseases)
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Article
Relationship between High Blood Pressure and Microalbuminuria in Children Aged 6–9 Years in a South African Population
Children 2020, 7(9), 131; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090131 - 07 Sep 2020
Viewed by 816
Abstract
Though the association between high blood pressure and microalbuminuria is well established in adults, there is a paucity of information on microalbuminuria in children. This study investigated the relationship between high blood pressure and microalbuminuria in 6–9-year-old children. A cross-sectional study, which included [...] Read more.
Though the association between high blood pressure and microalbuminuria is well established in adults, there is a paucity of information on microalbuminuria in children. This study investigated the relationship between high blood pressure and microalbuminuria in 6–9-year-old children. A cross-sectional study, which included 306 primary school children of age 6–9 years old from urban areas (n = 154) and rural areas (n = 152) of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, was conducted. Participants’ anthropometric data were determined and systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured and converted to BP percentiles for age, sex and height. Creatinine and albumin concentrations were assayed in early morning midstream urine and the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) was calculated. There was a 42.8% prevalence of elevated blood pressure/high blood pressure (E-BP/H-BP) and a 10.1% prevalence of microalbuminuria. Among the 131 children with E-BP/H-BP, 17 had elevated ACR with a prevalence of 13.95%. SBP and HR increased with increasing range of ACR and, furthermore, SBP was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in children with moderately and severely increased ACR. SBP was associated with ACR and increased SBP predicted microalbuminuria (R2 = 0.42, adj R2 = 0.039, B: 0.120, p = < 0.05). In conclusion, microalbuminuria was present in 6–9-year-old South African children of African Ancestry and a weak association was observed with SBP in children. Full article
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Review
Parent–Child Reminiscing about Past Pain as a Preparatory Technique in the Context of Children’s Pain: A Narrative Review and Call for Future Research
Children 2020, 7(9), 130; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090130 - 07 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Pain permeates childhood and remains inadequately and/or inconsistently managed. Existing research and clinical practice guidelines have largely focused on factors influencing the immediate experience of pain. The need for and benefits of preparing children for future pain (e.g., painful procedures) has been well [...] Read more.
Pain permeates childhood and remains inadequately and/or inconsistently managed. Existing research and clinical practice guidelines have largely focused on factors influencing the immediate experience of pain. The need for and benefits of preparing children for future pain (e.g., painful procedures) has been well established. Despite being a robust predictor of future pain and distress, memories of past painful experiences remain overlooked in pediatric pain management. Just as autobiographical memories prepare us for the future, children’s memories for past pain can be harnessed to prepare children for future painful experiences. Children’s pain memories are malleable and can be reframed to be less distressing, thus reducing anticipatory distress and promoting self-efficacy. Parents are powerful agents of change in the context of pediatric pain and valuable historians of children’s past painful experiences. They can alter children’s pain memories to be less distressing simply by talking, or reminiscing, about past pain. This narrative review summarizes existing research on parent–child reminiscing in the context of acute and chronic pediatric pain and argues for incorporation of parent–child reminiscing elements into preparatory interventions for painful procedures. Full article
Review
Peer Support in the Treatment of Chronic Pain in Adolescents: A Review of the Literature and Available Resources
Children 2020, 7(9), 129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090129 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
Peer support has found applications beyond the mental health field and is useful for managing several chronic disorders and supporting healthy lifestyle choices. Communication through telephone and the Internet allows for greater access to those who cannot meet in person. Adolescent chronic pain [...] Read more.
Peer support has found applications beyond the mental health field and is useful for managing several chronic disorders and supporting healthy lifestyle choices. Communication through telephone and the Internet allows for greater access to those who cannot meet in person. Adolescent chronic pain would seem ideally suited to benefit from online peer support groups. Research is lacking, however, to characterize benefit in terms of pain and function, despite a clear desire among adolescents for access to such programs. More rapid development of online applications is needed for peer support, and research into the associated outcomes will be necessary to optimally design such programs. Full article
Brief Report
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties during COVID-19 Pandemic in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Children 2020, 7(9), 128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090128 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3556
Abstract
Children and young people (CYP) with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) may be particularly vulnerable to adverse mental health effects due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional U.K. parent-reported study from 2nd April–2nd June 2020, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. CYP with [...] Read more.
Children and young people (CYP) with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) may be particularly vulnerable to adverse mental health effects due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional U.K. parent-reported study from 2nd April–2nd June 2020, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. CYP with NDDs (n = 371), compared to neurotypical controls, had a higher prevalence of emotional symptoms (42% vs. 15%) and conduct problems (28% vs. 9%), and fewer prosocial behaviours (54% vs. 22%). All groups had worse emotional symptoms than pre-COVID groups, and those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed inflated conduct problems, while those with autism spectrum disorder exhibited decreased prosocial behaviours. Females with ASD had higher emotional symptoms compared to males. CYP with NDDs, and those without, showed higher levels of parent-reported mental health problems than comparable cohorts pre-COVID-19. Full article
Article
Application of Low-Intensity Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy to Improve the Affected Upper Limb Functionality in Infantile Hemiplegia with Moderate Manual Ability: Case Series
Children 2020, 7(9), 127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090127 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1423
Abstract
Objective: To assess the functionality of the affected upper limb in children diagnosed with hemiplegia aged between 4 and 8 years after applying low-intensity modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (mCIMT). Methods: Prospective case series study. A mCIMT protocol was applied for five weeks, with [...] Read more.
Objective: To assess the functionality of the affected upper limb in children diagnosed with hemiplegia aged between 4 and 8 years after applying low-intensity modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (mCIMT). Methods: Prospective case series study. A mCIMT protocol was applied for five weeks, with two hours of containment per day. The study variables were quality of movement of the upper limb, spontaneous use, participation of the affected upper limb in activities of daily living, dynamic joint position, grasp–release action, grasp strength, supination and extension elbow movements. Four measurements were performed, using the quality of upper extremity test (QUEST) scale, the Shriners Hospital for Children Upper Extremity Evaluation (SHUEE) Evaluation, a hand dynamometer and a goniometer. Results: The sample was composed of eight children with moderate manual ability. Statistically significant differences were detected in all the studied variables (p < 0.05) between the pre-treatment and post–treatment results (Week 0–Week 5), except for upper limb dressing, putting on splints and buttoning up. In the first week, the changes were statistically significant, except for protective extension, grasp strength, grasp–release and all functional variables (level of functionality and participation of the patient’s upper limbs) in the SHUEE Evaluation (p > 0.05). The greatest increase occurred in spontaneous use from Assessment 1 to Assessment 4 (p = 0.01), reaching 88.87% active participation in bimanual tasks. The quality of movement of the upper limb exhibited a significant value due to the increase in dissociated movements and grasp (p = 0.01). Conclusion: A low dose (50 h) of mCIMT increased the functionality of children diagnosed with congenital hemiplegia between 4 and 8 years of age with moderate manual ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Article
Student Feedback to Tailor the CARD™ System for Improving the Immunization Experience at School
Children 2020, 7(9), 126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090126 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
Increasing the comfort of vaccine delivery at school is needed to improve the immunization experience for students. We created the CARD™ (C—Comfort, A—Ask, R—Relax and D—Distract) system to address this clinical care gap. Originally designed for grade 7 students, this study examined the [...] Read more.
Increasing the comfort of vaccine delivery at school is needed to improve the immunization experience for students. We created the CARD™ (C—Comfort, A—Ask, R—Relax and D—Distract) system to address this clinical care gap. Originally designed for grade 7 students, this study examined the perceptions of grade 9 students of CARD™. Grade 9 students who had experience with school-based immunizations, either as recipients or onlookers (n = 7; 100% females 14 years old) participated. Students answered pre–post surveys, reviewed CARD™ educational materials and participated in a semi-structured focus group discussion. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used as the framework for analysis of qualitative data. Participants reported positive perceptions of CARD™ educational materials and that CARD™ could fit into the school immunization process. CARD™ improved knowledge about effective coping interventions and was recommended for education of both nurses and students. The results provide preliminary evidence that CARD™ is acceptable and appropriate for implementation in grade 9 school-based immunizations. Full article
Article
Contextualizing Parental/Familial Influence on Physical Activity in Adolescents before and during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Prospective Analysis
Children 2020, 7(9), 125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090125 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
Parental and familial factors influence numerous aspects of adolescents’ lives, including their physical activity level (PAL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in PAL which occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to evaluate influence of sociodemographic and parental/familial factors [...] Read more.
Parental and familial factors influence numerous aspects of adolescents’ lives, including their physical activity level (PAL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in PAL which occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to evaluate influence of sociodemographic and parental/familial factors on PAL levels before and during pandemic in adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The sample included 688 adolescents (15–18 years of age; 322 females) who were tested on two occasions: in January 2020 (baseline; before the COVID-19 pandemic) and in April 2020 (follow-up; during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown). Variables included PAL (measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents–PAQ-A) as well as sociodemographic-, parental-, and familial factors. A significant decline in PALs was recorded between baseline and follow-up (t-test: 11.88, p < 0.001). Approximately 50% of adolescents underwent sufficient PAL at baseline, while only 24% of them were achieving sufficient PAL at the time of follow-up measurement. Paternal education was positively correlated (OR (95%CI): baseline: 6.63 (4.58–9.96), follow-up: 3.33 (1.19–7.01)), while familial conflict was negatively correlated (baseline: 0.72 (0.57–0.90), follow-up: 0.77 (0.60–0.99)) with PALs before and during the pandemic. This study highlights the importance of the parent–child relationship and parental/familiar support in promoting physical activity both during regular life and during crises and health challenging situations like the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting in Face of Health Challenges: Research and Interventions)
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Review
Early versus Delayed Feeding after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Placement in Children: A Meta-Analysis
Children 2020, 7(9), 124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090124 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
Early feeding after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement is an accepted practice in the treatment of adult patients and the knowledge is clinically extrapolated in the treatment of children. To verify this treatment in children—as there are some specific features of PEG-related practices [...] Read more.
Early feeding after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement is an accepted practice in the treatment of adult patients and the knowledge is clinically extrapolated in the treatment of children. To verify this treatment in children—as there are some specific features of PEG-related practices in children—the present study aimed to review meta-analyses of early feeding (within 4 h) after PEG placement in children. We searched the PubMed database for articles published until July 2020. A quality assessment was performed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method. Three randomized controlled trials (208 patients) were eligible for inclusion. No patients died within 72 h. Early feeding resulted in little to no difference in the length of hospital stay (mean difference [MD] −7.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] −25.16 to 10.21; I2 = 95%) and vomiting events (risk ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.31; I2 = 0%). In a subgroup analysis, early feeding without antibiotics reduced the length of hospital stay in one study (MD −21.60, 95% CI −22.86 to −20.34) but early feeding with antibiotics did not affect the length in two studies (MD 0.28, 95% CI −6.49 to 7.06; I2 = 0%). Overall, the certainty of the evidence was not very high. In summary, early feeding after PEG placement may be a safe alternative to delayed feeding in children. The findings in children seemed similar to those in adults, while there is a need for further studies that specifically investigate PEG placement-related practices in children. Full article
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Article
A Model for a Standardized and Sustainable Pediatric Anesthesia-Intensive Care Unit Hand-Off Process
Children 2020, 7(9), 123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090123 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The hand-off process between pediatric anesthesia and intensive care unit (ICU) teams involves the exchange of patient health information and plays a major role in reducing errors and increasing staff satisfaction. Our objectives were to (1) standardize the hand-off process [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The hand-off process between pediatric anesthesia and intensive care unit (ICU) teams involves the exchange of patient health information and plays a major role in reducing errors and increasing staff satisfaction. Our objectives were to (1) standardize the hand-off process in children’s ICUs, and (2) evaluate the provider satisfaction, efficiency and sustainability of the improved hand-off process. Methods: Following multidisciplinary discussions, the hand-off process was standardized for transfers of care between anesthesia-ICU teams. A pre-implementation and two post-implementation (6 months, >2 years) staff satisfaction surveys and audits were conducted to evaluate the success, quality and sustainability of the hand-off process. Results: There was no difference in the time spent during the sign out process following standardization—median 5 min for pre-implementation versus 5 and 6 min for post-implementation at six months and >2 years, respectively. There was a significant decrease in the number of missed items (airway/ventilation, venous access, medications, and laboratory values pertinent events) post-implementation compared to pre-implementation (p ≤ 0.001). In the >2 years follow-up survey, 49.2% of providers felt that the hand-off could be improved versus 78.4% in pre-implementation and 54.2% in the six-month survey (p < 0.001). Conclusion: A standardized interactive hand-off improves the efficiency and staff satisfaction, with a decreased rate of missed information at the cost of no additional time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Anesthesia)
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Article
Effects of Childhood Adversity and Its Interaction with the MAOA, BDNF, and COMT Polymorphisms on Subclinical Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms in Generally Healthy Youth
Children 2020, 7(9), 122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090122 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 951
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the effects of childhood adversity and its interaction with the polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes on attention and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a community sample of generally healthy [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate the effects of childhood adversity and its interaction with the polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes on attention and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a community sample of generally healthy youth. Participants (N = 432) completed questionnaires assessing ADHD symptoms (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness) and adverse childhood experiences, such as adverse environments (AEs) and childhood maltreatment (CM). Salivary genomic DNA was used to test polymorphisms in MAOA, BDNF, and COMT genes. A gene score (GS) was created based on the number of risk allele in the studied genes. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the genetic and environmental effects on ADHD symptoms. The univariate analysis indicated that CM was significantly associated with inattention (β = 0.48 [95% confidence interval 0.16–0.79]), hyperactivity (0.25 [0.06–0.45]), and impulsiveness (1.16 [0.26–2.05]), while the GS was associated with hyperactivity (0.22 [0.11–0.33]) and impulsiveness (0.56 [0.06–1.05]). Only the GS remained significantly associated with hyperactivity (0.25 [0.12–0.37]) and impulsiveness (0.79 [0.20–1.38]) when the gene-environment interaction term was added in the model. No effects were found for AE and the gene-environment interaction term. In conclusion, CM was associated with ADHD symptoms in emerging adulthood. Genetic factors may also play a significant role in the association with these outcomes. Full article
Review
Psychogastroenterology: A Cure, Band-Aid, or Prevention?
Children 2020, 7(9), 121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090121 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
Psychogastroenterology is a field that focuses on the brain–gut connection. Many children with gut disorders also struggle with psychological and social factors that affect their disease outcomes. Psychological factors have been suggested to be a cure, a band-aid, or a prevention. This article [...] Read more.
Psychogastroenterology is a field that focuses on the brain–gut connection. Many children with gut disorders also struggle with psychological and social factors that affect their disease outcomes. Psychological factors have been suggested to be a cure, a band-aid, or a prevention. This article examines the underlying models of disease and health that determine how we understand and treat psychosocial factors in gut diseases. The biomedical and biopsychosocial models are presented and applied to pediatric gut disorders. This article should familiarize clinicians as well as children and their families to the challenges and opportunities for addressing psychosocial factors in gut disease. Psychogastroenterology is best thought of as a cog in a complex treatment machine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychogastroenterology: The Connection between the Brain and the Gut)
Article
A Brief Measure of Parental Wellbeing for Use in Evaluations of Family-Centred Interventions for Children with Developmental Disabilities
Children 2020, 7(9), 120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090120 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
Increasing emphasis is placed on the provision of family-centred interventions when children have developmental disabilities with the aim of supporting parents as well as fostering the child’s development. Although various instruments have been developed to assess parental health, stress and quality of life, [...] Read more.
Increasing emphasis is placed on the provision of family-centred interventions when children have developmental disabilities with the aim of supporting parents as well as fostering the child’s development. Although various instruments have been developed to assess parental health, stress and quality of life, these are rarely used by practitioners because of the burden they place on informants. A brief measure, rooted in the concept of subjective wellbeing, was developed and tested with over 400 parents of children with ASD participating in a home-based intervention. Consisting of eight items and using a 10-point rating scale, the measure was readily understood and accepted by parents. The items contributed to one main factor that confirmed the measure’s construct validity. The internal reliability of the scale was reasonable, and there was promising evidence of test–retest reliability. There is evidence too for criterion validity through a significant relationship with a measure of parental mental health. The summary score derived from the measure was sensitive to the predicted differences on wellbeing scores by parent characteristics as well as to features of their engagement with the intervention. This brief assessment tool could help practitioners to evidence the impact of their family-centred interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
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Article
Formative Evaluation of Open Goals: A UK Community-Based Multi-Sport Family Programme
Children 2020, 7(9), 119; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090119 - 01 Sep 2020
Viewed by 993
Abstract
Community parks provide opportunities for physical activity (PA) and facilitate social interactions. This formative evaluation assesses the implementation of ‘Open Goals’ (OG), a novel multi-sport programme aiming to increase family PA and community cohesion, delivered weekly by Liverpool Football Club’s charitable foundation to [...] Read more.
Community parks provide opportunities for physical activity (PA) and facilitate social interactions. This formative evaluation assesses the implementation of ‘Open Goals’ (OG), a novel multi-sport programme aiming to increase family PA and community cohesion, delivered weekly by Liverpool Football Club’s charitable foundation to local parks in Liverpool, North West England. Three Open Goals parks were chosen for the evaluation settings. Formative evaluation measures included: System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) observations (n = 10), direct session observations (n = 8), semi-structured interviews with Open Goals coaching staff (n = 3), and informal feedback from families (n = 5) about their experiences of Open Goals. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were applied to quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Within the three evaluation parks, Open Goals reached 107 participants from May–July 2019, through 423 session attendances. Fidelity of the programme was high (M = 69% of session content delivered as intended). Overall park use when OG was offered compared to when it was not offered was not statistically significant (p = 0.051), however, target area use was significantly increased (p = 0.001). Overall physical activity levels in parks were significantly (p = 0.002) higher when Open Goals was being offered, compared to when it was not. Coaches reported that engagement in OG positively affected family co-participation and children’s behavioural development. Contextual issues included environmental and social barriers to programme engagement, including the co-participation element of the programme and criticism of the marketing of OG. It is evident that community-based multi-sport PA programmes endorsed by professional football clubs are well positioned to connect with local communities in deprived areas and to encourage PA and community engagement. This study suggests that such programmes may have the ability to improve park usage in specific areas, along with improving physical activity levels among families, although further research is required. Effective marketing strategies are needed for promotional purposes. Upskilling of coaches in the encouragement of family co-participation may support regular family engagement in PA in local parks. Full article
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