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Review

Novel Biomarkers Differentiating Viral from Bacterial Infection in Febrile Children: Future Perspectives for Management in Clinical Praxis

1
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, s-171 65 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Sachs’ Children and Youth Hospital, Södersjukhuset, s-118 61 Stockholm, Sweden
3
Institution of Medicine, School of Public Health, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, s-411 24 Gothenburg, Sweden
4
Department of Pediatrics, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, s-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden
5
Infectious Disease Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, s-171 65 Stockholm, Sweden
6
Research and Development, Norrtälje Hospital, s-761 29 Norrtälje, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cilla Söderhäll
Received: 15 September 2021 / Revised: 31 October 2021 / Accepted: 18 November 2021 / Published: 20 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Infection and Immunity)
Differentiating viral from bacterial infections in febrile children is challenging and often leads to an unnecessary use of antibiotics. There is a great need for more accurate diagnostic tools. New molecular methods have improved the particular diagnostics of viral respiratory tract infections, but defining etiology can still be challenging, as certain viruses are frequently detected in asymptomatic children. For the detection of bacterial infections, time consuming cultures with limited sensitivity are still the gold standard. As a response to infection, the immune system elicits a cascade of events, which aims to eliminate the invading pathogen. Recent studies have focused on these host–pathogen interactions to identify pathogen-specific biomarkers (gene expression profiles), or “pathogen signatures”, as potential future diagnostic tools. Other studies have assessed combinations of traditional bacterial and viral biomarkers (C-reactive protein, interleukins, myxovirus resistance protein A, procalcitonin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) to establish etiology. In this review we discuss the performance of such novel diagnostics and their potential role in clinical praxis. In conclusion, there are several promising novel biomarkers in the pipeline, but well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the safety of using these novel biomarkers to guide clinical decisions. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarkers; pediatric infectious diseases biomarkers; pediatric infectious diseases
MDPI and ACS Style

Rhedin, S.; Elfving, K.; Berggren, A. Novel Biomarkers Differentiating Viral from Bacterial Infection in Febrile Children: Future Perspectives for Management in Clinical Praxis. Children 2021, 8, 1070. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8111070

AMA Style

Rhedin S, Elfving K, Berggren A. Novel Biomarkers Differentiating Viral from Bacterial Infection in Febrile Children: Future Perspectives for Management in Clinical Praxis. Children. 2021; 8(11):1070. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8111070

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rhedin, Samuel, Kristina Elfving, and Anna Berggren. 2021. "Novel Biomarkers Differentiating Viral from Bacterial Infection in Febrile Children: Future Perspectives for Management in Clinical Praxis" Children 8, no. 11: 1070. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8111070

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