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Article

Quantification of Cytokines in Lip Tissue from Infants Affected by Congenital Cleft Lip and Palate

1
Department of Morphology, Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Riga Stradiņš University, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
2
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Genesis Institute of Dental Sciences & Research, Ferozepur, Punjab 152002, India
3
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Institute of Stomatology, Riga Stradiņš University, Dzirciema Street 16, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
4
Department of Biology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Riga Stradiņš University, Dzirciema Street 16, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 January 2021 / Revised: 3 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 12 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Integrative Pediatrics)
Cleft lip and palate are amongst the most common congenital malformations worldwide presenting with variable manifestations. Previous research has been primarily focused on the genetical aspects of its complex and multifactorial etiology. In the present study, we investigated the role of cytokines as mediators of epithelial–mesenchymal crosstalk and local site inflammation in cleft affected infants. Lip material was obtained from 12 children aged before primary dentition who suffered from orofacial clefting. The quantification of 12 cytokines (Interleukin-2,4,5,6,10,12,13,17A, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interferon-γ, Transforming Growth Factor beta-1 and Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor) was done using ELISA. Nonparametric Spearman Rho was used to ascertain the correlation between the expression levels of different cytokines. A significantly strong positive correlation was found between IL-2 and IFN-γ coupled with an IL4/IFN-γ ratio favoring IFN-γ. These findings indicate a shift towards the preferential activation of the Th1 differentiation pathway. Further, a pathological reduction in TGFβ-1 levels was noted, which may contribute to mucosal damage. IL-6 was more highly correlated to IFN-γ and IL-12 indicating its potential proinflammatory role in cleft affected tissues. This preferential activation of Th1 cell differentiation and consistent expression of IL-2,6,13 and TNF-α in cleft patients may indicate certain underlying mechanisms for inflammation mediation at the site of clefting. View Full-Text
Keywords: cleft lip; cytokines; ELISA; cleft palate; interleukin; newborn cleft lip; cytokines; ELISA; cleft palate; interleukin; newborn
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pilmane, M.; Jain, N.; Jain, S.; Akota, I.; Kroiča, J. Quantification of Cytokines in Lip Tissue from Infants Affected by Congenital Cleft Lip and Palate. Children 2021, 8, 140. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8020140

AMA Style

Pilmane M, Jain N, Jain S, Akota I, Kroiča J. Quantification of Cytokines in Lip Tissue from Infants Affected by Congenital Cleft Lip and Palate. Children. 2021; 8(2):140. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8020140

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pilmane, Māra, Nityanand Jain, Shivani Jain, Ilze Akota, and Juta Kroiča. 2021. "Quantification of Cytokines in Lip Tissue from Infants Affected by Congenital Cleft Lip and Palate" Children 8, no. 2: 140. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8020140

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