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Article

Adolescents’ Explanatory Models for Headaches and Associations with Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes

1
German Paediatric Pain Centre, Children’s and Adolescents’ Hospital, 45711 Datteln, Germany
2
Department of Children’s Pain Therapy and Paediatric Palliative Care, Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Witten/Herdecke University, 58448 Witten, Germany
3
CareTech OWL Center for Health, Welfare and Technology, Faculty of Business, University of Applied Sciences Bielefeld, 33619 Bielefeld, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carl E. Stafstrom
Received: 15 February 2021 / Revised: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 18 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Headache in Children and Adolescents)
More than one-third of adolescents experience recurrent headaches. Usually, these headaches are of primary origin and modulated by different biological and psychosocial factors. While parents are often consulted in scientific research and medical care about the nature of their child’s headache, it is unclear to what extent parents and their children agree upon the factors that cause them. Adolescents’ own attributions of headaches have rarely been investigated, and it is unclear how those attributions affect behavioral and emotional outcomes. In the present study, adolescents with chronic headaches (N = 248) and their parents (N = 120) rated the influence of various biological and psychosocial factors on the adolescents’ headaches. Associations between these factors and several behavioral and emotional outcomes were examined. The most frequently reported factor by both samples was stress; however, concordance between parents and adolescents was generally low. The factor “other disease” was significantly associated with medication consumption and school absence. This study is one of the first to provide insights into adolescents’ own attributions of headaches. Furthermore, the significant associations of the factor with behavioral outcomes reveal the importance of understanding personal explanatory models of headache. Future studies should examine associations between subjective headache causes and the individual’s experience of the disorder to improve headache interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: headaches; biopsychosocial factors; pediatrics; causal explanations; concordance headaches; biopsychosocial factors; pediatrics; causal explanations; concordance
MDPI and ACS Style

Neß, V.; Könning, A.; Hirschfeld, G.; Wager, J. Adolescents’ Explanatory Models for Headaches and Associations with Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes. Children 2021, 8, 234. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8030234

AMA Style

Neß V, Könning A, Hirschfeld G, Wager J. Adolescents’ Explanatory Models for Headaches and Associations with Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes. Children. 2021; 8(3):234. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8030234

Chicago/Turabian Style

Neß, Verena, Anna Könning, Gerrit Hirschfeld, and Julia Wager. 2021. "Adolescents’ Explanatory Models for Headaches and Associations with Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes" Children 8, no. 3: 234. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8030234

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