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Children, Volume 8, Issue 4 (April 2021) – 62 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Motor and cognitive function are intricately linked and develop rapidly during childhood. It has been shown that engagement in sports or physical activity is beneficial for children’s executive function. However, it is less clear which type of activity shows the strongest associations with executive function in children. In this regard, the current study is the first to show that, even at a very young age, team sports athletes outperform athletes from self-paced sports, as well as non-athletes, on a multifaceted and comprehensive test battery for executive function. View this paper
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Article
Boredom in Adolescence: Validation of the Italian Version of the Multidimensional State Boredom Scale (MSBS) in Adolescents
Children 2021, 8(4), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8040314 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Boredom in adolescence is often underestimated, although it may be the sign of a profound unease or be associated with psychological disorders. Given the complexity of the construct of boredom and its increasing prevalence among adolescents in recent years, the present study aimed [...] Read more.
Boredom in adolescence is often underestimated, although it may be the sign of a profound unease or be associated with psychological disorders. Given the complexity of the construct of boredom and its increasing prevalence among adolescents in recent years, the present study aimed to validate the factorial structure of the Italian version of the Multidimensional State Boredom Scale (MSBS) in adolescents using a cross-validation approach. The study involved 272 students (33.8% males, 66.2% females) aged 14–19 (M = 15.9, SD = 1.38) living in northern and central Italy. In addition to the MSBS, the Symptoms Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R) and the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) were administered. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses validated a 23-item structure of the MSBS, comprising five correlated factors. The tool showed a good internal consistency for these factors and a good convergent and factor validity. The MSBS consequently seems a valid and reliable method for assessing boredom in adolescence. The cut-off for the total score that could pinpoint cases posing a potential clinical risk was 88. A weak correlation was found between the total level of boredom and the daily Internet usage, while no relationship emerged between boredom and age, gender, and grades. Since excessive levels of boredom may conceal a general unease that could develop into structured psychological disorders, the value of the MSBS lies in enabling us to identify in advance adolescents at potential clinical risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Children)
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Case Report
Complete Penetrance but Different Phenotypes in a Korean Family with Maternal Interstitial Duplication at 15q11.2-q13.1: A Case Report
Children 2021, 8(4), 313; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040313 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 325
Abstract
The 15q duplication syndrome (dup15q) is due to the presence of at least one additional derived copy of the Prader–Willi syndrome/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) critical region that is approximately 5 Mb long within chromosome 15q11.2-q13.1. This report describes distinct roles of the origin of [...] Read more.
The 15q duplication syndrome (dup15q) is due to the presence of at least one additional derived copy of the Prader–Willi syndrome/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) critical region that is approximately 5 Mb long within chromosome 15q11.2-q13.1. This report describes distinct roles of the origin of interstitial (int) dup15q underlining the critical importance of maternally active imprinted genes in the contribution to complete penetrance but different phenotypes of neuropsychotic disorders such as schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a Korean family. The proband’s mother as a consultant visited our hospital for her offspring’s genetic counseling and segregation analysis. She had two daughters diagnosed as SCZ or ASD and one son diagnosed as ASD. To resolve the potential genetic cause of SCZ and ASD in the proband and her sibling, whole genomic screening of chromosomal rearrangements by array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was performed using SurePrint G3 Human CGH + SNP Microarray 4 × 180 K. Results of the array-CGH analysis revealed an interstitial duplication at 15q11.2-q13.1 (duplication size of 5.4 Mb) in the mother and her three offspring with SCZ or ASD. Our case, together with previous findings of high occurrence of psychotic disorder, suggest that maternally expressed gene product in the critical region of PWS/AS might mediate the risk of neurodevelopmental disorder (ASD) as well as psychotic disorder (SCZ). Multiple cytogenetic and molecular methods are recommended for investigating children with 15q11.2-q13.1 duplication and neuropsychotic disorders. Full article
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Article
Venous Malformations and Blood Coagulation in Children
Children 2021, 8(4), 312; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040312 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Introduction: Venous malformations (VMs) are congenital low-flow lesions with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. An increasing number of studies link VMs to coagulation abnormalities, especially to elevated D-dimer and decreased fibrinogen. This condition, termed localized intravascular coagulopathy (LIC), may pose a risk [...] Read more.
Introduction: Venous malformations (VMs) are congenital low-flow lesions with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. An increasing number of studies link VMs to coagulation abnormalities, especially to elevated D-dimer and decreased fibrinogen. This condition, termed localized intravascular coagulopathy (LIC), may pose a risk for hemostatic complications. However, detailed data on the laboratory variables for coagulation and fibrinolytic activity in VM patients are limited. We addressed this question by systematically analyzing the coagulation parameters in pediatric VM patients. Methods: We included 62 patients (median age 11.9 years) with detailed laboratory tests for coagulation and fibrinolytic activity at a clinically steady phase. We assessed clinical and imaging features of VMs and their correlations with coagulation and fibrinolysis variables using patient records and MRI. Results: D-dimer was elevated in 39% and FXIII decreased in 20% of the patients, as a sign of LIC. Elevated D-dimer and decreased FXIII were associated with large size, deep location, and diffuse and multifocal VMs. FVIII was elevated in 17% of the patients and was associated with small VM size, superficial and confined location, discrete morphology, and less pain. Surprisingly, antithrombin was elevated in 55% of the patients but without associations with clinical or other laboratory variables. Conclusions: LIC was common in pediatric patients with VMs. Our results provide a basis for when evaluating the risks of hemostatic complications in children with VMs. Further research is warranted to explore the mechanisms behind coagulation disturbances and their relation to clinical complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thrombosis and Hemostasis in Children)
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Article
Comparative Effectiveness of Pediatric Integrative Medicine: A Pragmatic Cluster-Controlled Trial
Children 2021, 8(4), 311; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040311 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Symptoms of pain, nausea/vomiting, and anxiety (PNVA) are highly prevalent in pediatric inpatients. Poorly managed symptoms can lead to decreased compliance with care, and prolonged recovery times. Pharmacotherapy used to manage PNVA symptoms is of variable effectiveness and carries safety risks. Complementary therapies [...] Read more.
Symptoms of pain, nausea/vomiting, and anxiety (PNVA) are highly prevalent in pediatric inpatients. Poorly managed symptoms can lead to decreased compliance with care, and prolonged recovery times. Pharmacotherapy used to manage PNVA symptoms is of variable effectiveness and carries safety risks. Complementary therapies to manage these symptoms are gaining popularity due to their perceived benefits and low risk of harm. Pediatric integrative medicine (PIM) is the combination of complementary therapies with conventional medicine in pediatric populations. A two-arm, cluster-controlled, pragmatic clinical trial was carried out to compare the effectiveness of a PIM service in conjunction with usual care, versus usual care only to treat PNVA symptoms in hospitalized pediatric patients. The primary outcome was the improvement of PNVA symptom severity using a 10-point numerical rating scale. Participant enrollment occurred between January 2013 and January 2016. A total of 872 participants (usual care n = 497; PIM n = 375) were enrolled. The PIM therapies significantly reduced PNVA symptom severity (p < 0.001). This study found that a hospital-based PIM service is both safe and effective for alleviating PNVA symptoms. Future research should carry out this work in other pediatric inpatient divisions, and in other sites to determine the reproducibility of findings. Full article
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Article
Surgical Treatment of Clubfoot in Children with Moebius Syndrome
Children 2021, 8(4), 310; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040310 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Moebius syndrome (MS) is a rare disease, with paralysis of the VI and VII cranial nerves, frequently associated with clubfoot (CF). The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical treatment of CF in MS, providing its peculiarities. Between 1990 and 2019, we [...] Read more.
Moebius syndrome (MS) is a rare disease, with paralysis of the VI and VII cranial nerves, frequently associated with clubfoot (CF). The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical treatment of CF in MS, providing its peculiarities. Between 1990 and 2019, we collected data of 11 MS patients with unilateral (n = 5) or bilateral (n = 6) CF, for a total of 17 feet (9R,8L). Six patients (3M,3F) for a total of 10 feet (6R,4L) were treated elsewhere, performing first surgery at an average age of nine months, and in our hospital for relapse surgery at an average age of 4.5 years (Group 1). Five patients (3M, 2F), for a total of seven feet (3R,4L), were primarily treated in our hospital with a peritalar release according to McKay at an average age of 9.4 months (Group 2). Diméglio score was used to assess CF severity. Three questionnaires were submitted for evaluation of subjective and functional results: American Orthopedics Foot and Ankle Society for Hindfoot (AOFAS), Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM). Average AOFAS/FAOS/FAMM scores were 82.8, 84.8, and 82.3 for Group 1, and 93.2, 94.7, and 95.1 for Group 2 at an average follow-up of 16.9 and 13.3 years, respectively. The average Diméglio score improved from 15.5 to 4.8 in the long-term follow-up in Group 1 and from 14.6 to 3.8 in Group 2. The comparison between the groups showed better results for AOFAS, FAOS, and FAAM scores for Group 2, particularly for pain, function, and foot alignment and for the post-surgical Diméglio score. CF in MS is more severe and presented a higher relapse rate (58.8%) than idiopathic CF. Peritalar release showed no relapse and better subjective and functional results in the long-term follow-up compared to other surgical techniques Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lower Limb Diseases and Injuries in Children and Adolescents)
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Article
Validity of Appendicitis Inflammatory Response Score in Distinguishing Perforated from Non-Perforated Appendicitis in Children
Children 2021, 8(4), 309; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040309 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 530
Abstract
Background: This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate the validity of appendicitis inflammatory response (AIR) score in differentiating advanced (perforated) from simple (non-perforated) appendicitis in pediatric patients. Methods: A single-center prospective cross-sectional study was conducted between 1 January 2019 until 1 May 2020 [...] Read more.
Background: This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate the validity of appendicitis inflammatory response (AIR) score in differentiating advanced (perforated) from simple (non-perforated) appendicitis in pediatric patients. Methods: A single-center prospective cross-sectional study was conducted between 1 January 2019 until 1 May 2020 including 184 pediatric patients who underwent appendectomy. Based on the intraoperative finding of advanced (n = 38) or simple (n = 146) appendicitis the patients were divided into two groups. Recipient-operator curve (ROC), with calculation of sensitivity and specificity of best cutoff and the area under the curve (AUC), were used to measure the diagnostic value and the potential for risk stratification of the AIR score, among the patients with simple or advanced acute appendicitis. Results: The median value of the AIR score in the perforated and non-perforated groups was 10 (interquartile range, IQR 9, 11), and was 7 (IQR 6, 9), respectively (p < 0.001). Based on the calculated value of AIR score, the patients were classified with a high precision into low, indeterminate and high risk groups for acute appendicitis (p < 0.001). A cutoff value of ≥9 was demonstrated to serve as a reliable indicator of perforated appendicitis with a sensitivity and a specificity of 89.5% and 71.9%, respectively (AUC = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.719–0.871; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Acute appendicitis can be detected with a high level of sensitivity and specificity using the AIR score. Also, the AIR score may differentiate perforated from non-perforated appendicitis in pediatric patients with a high level of accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abdominal Surgery in Pediatrics)
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Article
Psychosocial Factors and Obesity in Adolescence: A Case-Control Study
Children 2021, 8(4), 308; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040308 - 18 Apr 2021
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Introduction: The continuously increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is reaching epidemic proportions. Greece is among the countries with the highest childhood obesity prevalence rates. The present study aims to identify psychosocial factors associated with excess body weight of adolescents. Methods: This case-control study [...] Read more.
Introduction: The continuously increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is reaching epidemic proportions. Greece is among the countries with the highest childhood obesity prevalence rates. The present study aims to identify psychosocial factors associated with excess body weight of adolescents. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Athens, Greece, and included 414 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Anthropometric measurements were recorded, and an anonymous self-completed questionnaire captured the psychosocial background, family environment, peer relations, and school environment. Results: Of the total sample of adolescents, 54.6% had normal body weight and 45.4% were overweight or obese. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the factors related to the presence of overweight/obesity were adolescents’ age (OR = 0.416, p < 0.001), area of residence, presence of anxiety (OR = 4.661, p = 0.001), presence of melancholia (OR = 2.723, p = 0.016), participation in sports (OR = 0.088, p <0.001), smoking (OR = 0.185, p = 0.005), and mother’s occupation (OR = 0.065, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Psychological problems, maternal occupation, the absence of physical activity, and poor school performance were associated with adolescent overweight/obesity. It is important that screening for the presence of psychosocial issues is included in childhood obesity policies and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood and Adolescent Obesity and Weight Management)
Article
Resuscitation with an Intact Cord Enhances Pulmonary Vasodilation and Ventilation with Reduction in Systemic Oxygen Exposure and Oxygen Load in an Asphyxiated Preterm Ovine Model
Children 2021, 8(4), 307; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040307 - 17 Apr 2021
Viewed by 447
Abstract
(1) Background: Optimal initial oxygen (O2) concentration in preterm neonates is controversial. Our objectives were to compare the effect of delayed cord clamping with ventilation (DCCV) to early cord clamping followed by ventilation (ECCV) on O2 exposure, gas exchange, and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Optimal initial oxygen (O2) concentration in preterm neonates is controversial. Our objectives were to compare the effect of delayed cord clamping with ventilation (DCCV) to early cord clamping followed by ventilation (ECCV) on O2 exposure, gas exchange, and hemodynamics in an asphyxiated preterm ovine model. (2) Methods: Asphyxiated preterm lambs (127–128 d) with heart rate <90 bpm were randomly assigned to DCCV or ECCV. In DCCV, positive pressure ventilation (PPV) was initiated with 30–60% O2 and titrated based on preductal saturations (SpO2) with an intact cord for 5 min, followed by clamping. In ECCV, the cord was clamped, and PPV was initiated. (3) Results: Fifteen asphyxiated preterm lambs were randomized to DCCV (N = 7) or ECCV (N = 8). The inspired O2 (40 ± 20% vs. 60 ± 20%, p < 0.05) and oxygen load (520 (IQR 414–530) vs. 775 (IQR 623–868), p-0.03) in the DCCV group were significantly lower than ECCV. Arterial oxygenation and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels were significantly lower and peak pulmonary blood flow was higher with DCCV. (4) Conclusion: In asphyxiated preterm lambs, resuscitation with an intact cord decreased O2 exposure load improved ventilation with an increase in peak pulmonary blood flow in the first 5 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonatal Resuscitation with Placental Circulation Intact)
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Article
Peer Influence during Adolescence: The Moderating Role of Parental Support
Children 2021, 8(4), 306; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040306 - 17 Apr 2021
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Although many studies show that peers influence the development of adolescent internalizing and externalizing difficulties, few have considered both internalizing and externalizing difficulties in the same study, and fewer have considered the contributions of parents. Using a longitudinal sample of 385 adolescents, the [...] Read more.
Although many studies show that peers influence the development of adolescent internalizing and externalizing difficulties, few have considered both internalizing and externalizing difficulties in the same study, and fewer have considered the contributions of parents. Using a longitudinal sample of 385 adolescents, the contributions of best friends’ internalizing and externalizing difficulties (as assessed in Grade 6; G6: Mage = 13.64 years; 53% female; 40% ethnic or racial minority) were examined as they predicted subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing difficulties (at G8); in addition, the moderating role of both maternal and paternal support (at G6) was explored. Structural equation modelling revealed that best friend internalizing difficulties predicted decreases, but that best friend externalizing difficulties predicted increases in adolescents’ externalizing difficulties over time. Significant interactions involving both maternal and paternal support revealed that the negative impact of a G6 best friend having internalizing problems on later G8 adolescent externalizing problems was stronger at low levels of maternal and paternal support. The findings highlight the complex, and interactive, influences of friends and parents on the development of internalizing and externalizing symptomatology during adolescence, and underscore the importance of targeting both sources of social influence in research and clinical work. Full article
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Editorial
Physical Activity and Motor Competence in Preschool Children
Children 2021, 8(4), 305; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040305 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Longitudinal evidence has demonstrated that engagement in physical activity (PA) and the development of motor competence (MC) have numerous tangible health and developmental benefits [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Motor Competence in Preschool Children)
Article
Parental Education and the Association between Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Asthma in Adolescents: The Greek Global Asthma Network (GAN) Study
Children 2021, 8(4), 304; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040304 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Background: Evidence suggests that nutritional factors, such as consumption of fruits and vegetables, along with socioeconomic factors such as parental education level, are associated with asthma prevalence. Our study examined the role of parental education in the association between fruit and vegetable consumption [...] Read more.
Background: Evidence suggests that nutritional factors, such as consumption of fruits and vegetables, along with socioeconomic factors such as parental education level, are associated with asthma prevalence. Our study examined the role of parental education in the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and adolescent asthma. Methods: 1934 adolescents (mean age: 12.7 years, standard deviation: 0.6 years, boys: 47.5%) and their parents were voluntarily enrolled and completed a validated questionnaire assessing current asthma status, fruit and vegetable consumption and parental educational level. Participants were categorized as high or low intake for five food groups: fruits, cooked vegetables, raw vegetables, all vegetables (cooked and raw), and all three food groups together (fruits and all vegetables). Results: Adolescents who were high consumers of all three food groups (fruits, cooked and raw vegetables) were less likely to have asthma, adjusted for several confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25–0.97). Moreover, in adolescents who had parents with tertiary education and were in the high consumption of all three food groups, the inverse association was almost twofold higher than the one for adolescents with parents of primary/secondary education (aOR: 0.35, 95% CI: (0.21–0.89) and aOR: 0.61, 95% CI: (0.47–0.93) respectively). Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of the adoption of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables for all asthmatic adolescents and emphasize the important role of parental influences in this association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Research on Nutrition and Childhood Obesity)
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Article
Health-Related Quality of Life across Recent Pediatric Obesity Classification Recommendations
Children 2021, 8(4), 303; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040303 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Extreme body mass index (BMI) values (i.e., above the 97th and below the 3rd percentiles) are inaccurately represented on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s growth curves, which may limit the utility of BMI percentile and BMI z-score for capturing changes in [...] Read more.
Extreme body mass index (BMI) values (i.e., above the 97th and below the 3rd percentiles) are inaccurately represented on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s growth curves, which may limit the utility of BMI percentile and BMI z-score for capturing changes in clinical outcomes for patients at extreme weights. Modeling child obesity severity based upon the percentage of BMI in excess of the 95th percentile (BMI95pct) has been proposed as an improved metric to better capture variability in weight at extreme ends of growth curves, which may improve our understanding of relationships between weight status and changes in clinical outcomes. However, few studies have evaluated whether the use of BMI95pct would refine our understanding of differences in clinical psychosocial constructs compared to previous methods for categorization. This cross-sectional study evaluated child obesity severity based on BMI95pct to examine potential group differences in a validated, obesity-specific measure of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Four hundred and sixty-five children with obesity completed Sizing Me Up, a self-report measure of HRQoL. Children were classified into categories based on BMI95pct (i.e., class I: ≥100% and <120%; class II: ≥120% and <140%; class III: ≥140%). The results indicate that children with class III obesity reported lower HRQoL than children with class I and class II obesity; however, there were no differences between Class II and Class I. In much of the previous literature, children with class II and class III obesity are often combined under the category “Severe Obesity” based upon BMI above the 99th percentile. This study suggests that grouping children from various classes together would neglect to capture critical differences in HRQoL. Future research including children with severe obesity should consider obesity classes to best account for functioning and clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Integrative Pediatrics)
Review
The Most Common Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms (ApaI,FokI, TaqI, BsmI, and BglI) in Children with Dental Caries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Children 2021, 8(4), 302; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040302 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 311
Abstract
Vitamin D participates in the calcification of enamel and dentin and the appropriate immune responses to oral microbial infections. We aimed to assess the association between the most common vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms (ApaI,FokI, TaqI, BsmI [...] Read more.
Vitamin D participates in the calcification of enamel and dentin and the appropriate immune responses to oral microbial infections. We aimed to assess the association between the most common vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms (ApaI,FokI, TaqI, BsmI, and BglI) and the risk of dental caries in children. Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were comprehensively searched until 19 January 2021. Meta-analysis with odds ratios as the effect estimate along with 95% confidence intervals and subgroup analysis were conducted using Review Manager 5.3 software. Publication bias and sensitivity analyses were conducted by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2.0 software. Results: Seventy-eight studies were retrieved from the databases, with nine studies included in the final analysis. Based on five genetic models, there was no association between ApaI (rs7975232), TaqI (rs731236), BsmI (rs1544410), FokI (rs2228570), and BglI (rs739837) polymorphisms and susceptibility to dental caries, except for the FokI (rs10735810) polymorphism. Conclusion: Among the VDR polymorphisms considered, an association was found between the FokI (rs10735810) polymorphism and the risk of dental caries, with a protective role of the f allele and ff genotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Caries and Oral Health in Children)
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Article
A Quality Improvement Initiative to Reduce Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in a Level 4 NICU—Golden Hour Management of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Newborns
Children 2021, 8(4), 301; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040301 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Background: Prevention of chronic lung disease (CLD) requires a multidisciplinary approach spanning from the delivery room to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) discharge. In 2018, a quality improvement (QI) initiative commenced in a level 4 NICU with the goal of decreasing chronic lung [...] Read more.
Background: Prevention of chronic lung disease (CLD) requires a multidisciplinary approach spanning from the delivery room to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) discharge. In 2018, a quality improvement (QI) initiative commenced in a level 4 NICU with the goal of decreasing chronic lung disease rates below the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) average of 24%. Methods: Improvement strategies focused on addressing the primary drivers of ventilation strategies, surfactant administration, non-invasive ventilation, medication use, and nutrition/fluid management. The primary outcome was VON CLD, defined as need for mechanical ventilation and/or supplemental oxygen use at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. Statistical process control charts were used to display and analyze data over time. Results: The overall CLD rate decreased from 33.5 to 16.5% following several interventions, a 51% reduction that has been sustained for >18 months. Changes most attributable to this include implementation of the “golden hour” gestational age (GA) based delivery room protocol that encourages early surfactant administration and timely extubation. Fewer infants were intubated across all GA groups with the largest improvement among infants 26–27 weeks GA. Conclusions: Our efforts significantly decreased CLD through GA-based respiratory guidelines and a comprehensive, rigorous QI approach that can be applicable to other teams focused on improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonatal Respiratory Distress)
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Article
Gastric Volume Changes in Preterm Neonates during Intermittent and Continuous Feeding-GRV and Feeding Mode in Preterm Neonates
Children 2021, 8(4), 300; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040300 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Background: We aimed to evaluate gastric volume changes during intermittent milk feeds (IMF) and continuous milk feeds (CMF) in very premature neonates (VPN), with gastric residual volume (GRV) based on antral cross-sectional area (ACSA) measurements and to examine if there were differences in [...] Read more.
Background: We aimed to evaluate gastric volume changes during intermittent milk feeds (IMF) and continuous milk feeds (CMF) in very premature neonates (VPN), with gastric residual volume (GRV) based on antral cross-sectional area (ACSA) measurements and to examine if there were differences in GRV between the two feeding methods. Methods: A randomized prospective clinical trial with crossover design was conducted in 31 preterm neonates (gestational age < 30 weeks). Gastric volume was assessed twice in each neonate (during IMF and CMF feeding), at 7 specific time points during a 2-h observation period by measuring ACSA changes via the ultrasound (U/S) method. Results: There was a significantly different pattern of gastric volume changes between the two feeding methods. GRV, expressed as the median percentage of ACSA measurement at 120 min relative to the higher ACSA measurement during IMF, was found to be 3% (range 0–25%) for IMF and 50% (range 15–80%) for CMF. Neonates fed with IMF had a shorter mean gastric emptying time compared to those fed with CMF (p = 0.0032). No signs of feeding intolerance were recorded in either group during the period of observation. Conclusions: Our results showed that gastric volume changes and gastric emptying time in VPN, based on ACSA measurement changes, depend on the milk feeding method. No gastrointestinal complications/adverse events were noted with GRV up to 80% with CMF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Research on Nutrition and Childhood Obesity)
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Emotion Regulation with Parents and Friends and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior
Children 2021, 8(4), 299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040299 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 349
Abstract
This study examined adolescents’ self-reported use of emotion regulation strategies with parents and friends in relation to internalizing and externalizing behavior. A total of 185 children aged 13–14 years old (91 girls, 94 boys) completed three surveys to assess their emotion regulation strategies [...] Read more.
This study examined adolescents’ self-reported use of emotion regulation strategies with parents and friends in relation to internalizing and externalizing behavior. A total of 185 children aged 13–14 years old (91 girls, 94 boys) completed three surveys to assess their emotion regulation strategies with mothers, fathers and best friends. Parents completed surveys assessing adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing behavior. Regression analysis revealed that adolescents’ self-reported ER with mothers and fathers and friends made independent contributions to parent reports of youth internalizing and externalizing behavior. Adolescents who reported engaging in more emotion suppression with friends had higher internalizing scores, whereas adolescents who reported more affective expression with friends had lower internalizing scores. Self-reported emotion regulation strategies with mothers and fathers were unrelated to internalizing behavior. Adolescents who reported engaging in higher levels of affective suppression and cognitive reappraisal with their mothers and fathers had lower parental ratings of externalizing behavior. Emotion regulation strategies with best friends were unrelated to externalizing behavior. Full article
Review
Evidence for the Management of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Very Preterm Infants
Children 2021, 8(4), 298; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040298 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 544
Abstract
Background: Very preterm birth often results in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) with an inverse correlation of gestational age and birthweight. This very preterm population is especially exposed to interventions, which affect the development of BPD. Objective: The goal of our review [...] Read more.
Background: Very preterm birth often results in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) with an inverse correlation of gestational age and birthweight. This very preterm population is especially exposed to interventions, which affect the development of BPD. Objective: The goal of our review is to summarize the evidence on these daily procedures and provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of BPD. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature research using MEDLINE/PubMed on antenatal corticosteroids, surfactant-replacement therapy, caffeine, ventilation strategies, postnatal corticosteroids, inhaled nitric oxide, inhaled bronchodilators, macrolides, patent ductus arteriosus, fluid management, vitamin A, treatment of pulmonary hypertension and stem cell therapy. Results: Evidence provided by meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and large observational studies are summarized as a narrative review. Discussion: There is strong evidence for the use of antenatal corticosteroids, surfactant-replacement therapy, especially in combination with noninvasive ventilation strategies, caffeine and lung-protective ventilation strategies. A more differentiated approach has to be applied to corticosteroid treatment, the management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), fluid-intake and vitamin A supplementation, as well as the treatment of BPD-associated pulmonary hypertension. There is no evidence for the routine use of inhaled bronchodilators and prophylactic inhaled nitric oxide. Stem cell therapy is promising, but should be used in RCTs only. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care in Premature Infants)
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Review
Neck and Wrist Circumferences as Indicators of Metabolic Alterations in the Pediatric Population: A Scoping Review
Children 2021, 8(4), 297; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040297 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 593
Abstract
Neck circumference (NC) and wrist circumference (WrC) have been proposed as practical and inexpensive tools with the capacity to indicate metabolic alterations to some extent. Nevertheless, their application in the pediatric population is relatively recent. Thus, the aim of this scoping review was [...] Read more.
Neck circumference (NC) and wrist circumference (WrC) have been proposed as practical and inexpensive tools with the capacity to indicate metabolic alterations to some extent. Nevertheless, their application in the pediatric population is relatively recent. Thus, the aim of this scoping review was to review and analyze the reported evidence regarding the correlation of NC and WrC with metabolic alterations in the pediatric stage. The literature search was performed in January 2021 in seven indexes and databases. A total of 26 articles published between 2011 and 2020 were included. Most significant results were grouped into three categories: serum lipid profile, glucose homeostasis, and blood pressure. The parameter that showed the most significant results regardless of the anthropometric indicator analyzed for association was blood pressure. In contrast, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol showed non-significant associations along with conflicting results. We conclude that the use of NC and WrC, in addition to other well-established indicators, could facilitate the identification of metabolic alterations, specifically in plasma insulin and blood pressure. In fact, further studies are required to address the potential use of NC and WrC as predictors of early metabolic alterations, especially in countries with a fast-growing prevalence in obesity. Full article
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Perspective
Statistical Treatment of Clinical Investigations in Pediatric Cardiology
Children 2021, 8(4), 296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040296 - 12 Apr 2021
Viewed by 362
Abstract
This paper describes various statistical methods used by the author during multiple studies conducted by the author. Initially, the data were scrutinized to ensure normal distribution, and expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD) or standard error of mean (SEM) for normally distributed [...] Read more.
This paper describes various statistical methods used by the author during multiple studies conducted by the author. Initially, the data were scrutinized to ensure normal distribution, and expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD) or standard error of mean (SEM) for normally distributed variables. Medians and ranges were given for the data with skewed distribution. Two tailed, paired t tests or independent sample t tests (analysis of variance) were used for normally distributed data, while non-parametric chi-square or similar other tests were utilized for data with skewed distribution. Statistical significance was set at a p value of < 0.05. Bonferroni correction was applied when the study involves multiple comparisons. A number of other statistical methods used during these studies were also discussed. Finally, special methods used in evaluating aortic remodeling subsequent to balloon angioplasty of native aortic coarctation were reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Heart Disease Research—Neonatal Interventions)
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Article
Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance-Based Methods on Body Composition in Young Patients with Obesity
Children 2021, 8(4), 295; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040295 - 11 Apr 2021
Viewed by 572
Abstract
(1) Background: The determination of body composition is an important method to investigate patients with obesity and to evaluate the efficacy of individualized medical interventions. Bioelectrical impedance-based methods are non-invasive and widely applied but need to be validated for their use in young [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The determination of body composition is an important method to investigate patients with obesity and to evaluate the efficacy of individualized medical interventions. Bioelectrical impedance-based methods are non-invasive and widely applied but need to be validated for their use in young patients with obesity. (2) Methods: We compiled data from three independent studies on children and adolescents with obesity, measuring body composition with two bioelectrical impedance-based devices (TANITA and BIACORPUS). For a small patient group, additional data were collected with air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). (3) Results: Our combined data on 123 patients (age: 6–18 years, body mass index (BMI): 21–59 kg/m²) and the individual studies showed that TANITA and BIACORPUS yield significantly different results on body composition, TANITA overestimating body fat percentage and fat mass relative to BIACORPUS and underestimating fat-free mass (p < 0.001 for all three parameters). A Bland–Altman plot indicated little agreement between methods, which produce clinically relevant differences for all three parameters. We detected gender-specific differences with both methods, with body fat percentage being lower (p < 0.01) and fat-free mass higher (p < 0.001) in males than females. (4) Conclusions: Both bioelectrical impedance-based methods provide significantly different results on body composition in young patients with obesity and thus cannot be used interchangeably, requiring adherence to a specific device for repetitive measurements to ascertain comparability of data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Composition in Children)
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Article
Learning Curve for Laparoscopic Repair of Pediatric Inguinal Hernia Using Percutaneous Internal Ring Suturing
Children 2021, 8(4), 294; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040294 - 11 Apr 2021
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Background: Percutaneous internal ring suturing (PIRS) is a simple and popular technique for the treatment of inguinal hernia in children. The aim of this study was to analyze the learning curves during implementation of PIRS in our department. Methods: A total of 318 [...] Read more.
Background: Percutaneous internal ring suturing (PIRS) is a simple and popular technique for the treatment of inguinal hernia in children. The aim of this study was to analyze the learning curves during implementation of PIRS in our department. Methods: A total of 318 pediatric patients underwent hernia repair using the PIRS technique by three pediatric surgeons with different levels of experience in laparoscopic surgery. These patients were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during the period October 2015–January 2021. Surgical times, intraoperative and postoperative complications, in addition to outcomes of treatment were compared among the pediatric surgeons. Results: Regarding operative time a significant difference among the surgeons was found. Operative time significantly decreased after 25–30 procedures per surgeon. The surgeon with advanced experience in laparoscopic surgery had significantly less operative times for both unilateral (12 (interquartile range, IQR 10.5, 16.5) min vs. 21 (IQR 16.5, 28) min and 25 (IQR 21.5, 30) min; p = 0.002) and bilateral (19 (IQR 14, 21) min vs. 28 (IQR 25, 33) min and 31 (IQR 24, 36) min; p = 0.0001) hernia repair, compared to the other two surgeons. Perioperative complications, conversion, and ipsilateral recurrence rates were higher at the beginning, reaching the benchmarks when each surgeon performed at least 30 PIRS procedures. The most experienced surgeon had the lowest number of complications (1.4%) and needed a fewer number of cases to reach the plateau. The other two surgeons with less experience in laparoscopic surgery had higher rates of complications (4.4% and 5.4%) and needed a higher number of cases to reach the plateau (p = 0.190). Conclusions: A PIRS learning curve for perioperative and postoperative complications, recurrences, and conversion rates reached the plateau after each surgeon had performed at least 30 cases. After that number of cases PIRS is a safe and effective approach for pediatric hernia repair. A surgeon with an advanced level of experience in pediatric laparoscopic surgery adopted the technique more easily and had a significantly faster learning curve. Full article
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Case Report
Regulation of Serum Sodium Levels during Chemotherapy Using Selective Arginine Vasopressin V2-Receptor Antagonist Tolvaptan in a Four-Year-Old Girl with a Suprasellar Germ Cell Tumor
Children 2021, 8(4), 293; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040293 - 10 Apr 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
There are limited reports on the use of tolvaptan for syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in children. Managing serum sodium levels in SIADH patients during chemotherapy is often difficult because of the need for massive fluid infusions. We report the course [...] Read more.
There are limited reports on the use of tolvaptan for syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in children. Managing serum sodium levels in SIADH patients during chemotherapy is often difficult because of the need for massive fluid infusions. We report the course of the use of tolvaptan for the treatment of hyponatremia during chemotherapy in a four-year-old girl with a suprasellar germ cell tumor. The patient was a Japanese girl who presented with left ptosis with a mass in the pituitary gland and cavernous sinus. She was diagnosed with an intermediate-grade germ cell tumor and was treated with carboplatin and etoposide combination chemotherapy. She developed hyponatremia due to SIADH caused by intravenous infusion therapy before chemotherapy. Subsequently, tolvaptan (3.25 mg; 0.20 mg/kg/dose) was administered orally to control serum sodium levels. After 4 h of administration, a marked increase in urine volume of up to 15 mL/kg/h was observed, and serum sodium level increased from 126 to 138 mEq/L after 10 h of tolvaptan administration, followed by a decrease in urine volume. The use of tolvaptan in pediatric patients with SIADH who require intravenous hydration during chemotherapy can be useful for the management of serum sodium balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy in Children)
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Article
Assessment of Post-Stroke Consequences in Pediatric Ischemic Stroke in the Context of Neuroimaging Results—Experience from a Single Medical Center
Children 2021, 8(4), 292; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040292 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in children is a rare condition; its frequency is estimated at 0.58 to 7.9 new onsets in 100,000 children per year. The knowledge on risk factors, clinical outcomes and consequences of pediatric AIS is increasing. However, there are still [...] Read more.
Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in children is a rare condition; its frequency is estimated at 0.58 to 7.9 new onsets in 100,000 children per year. The knowledge on risk factors, clinical outcomes and consequences of pediatric AIS is increasing. However, there are still many unknowns in the field. The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical presentation of pediatric AIS and its consequences according to the neuroimaging results and location of ischemia. The research was retrospective and observational. The analyzed group consisted of 75 AIS children (32 girls, 43 boys), whereby the age of the patients ranged from 9 months to 18 years at stroke onset. All the patients were diagnosed and treated in one tertiary center. The most frequent stroke subtype was total anterior circulation infarct (TACI) with most common ischemic focus location in temporal lobe and vascular pathology in middle cerebral artery (MCA). The location of ischemic focus in the brain correlated with post-stroke outcomes: intellectual delay and epilepsy, hemiparesis corresponded to the location of vascular pathology. A correlation found between ischemic lesion location and vascular pathology with post-stroke consequences in pediatric AIS may be important information and helpful in choosing proper early therapy. The expected results should lead to lesser severity of late post-stroke outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ischemic Stroke in Children)
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Editorial
How to Provide Motherside Neonatal Resuscitation with Intact Placental Circulation?
Children 2021, 8(4), 291; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040291 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Immediate clamping and cutting of the umbilical cord have been associated with death and/or neurodisability [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonatal Resuscitation with Placental Circulation Intact)
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Article
Associations between Free Sugar and Sugary Beverage Intake in Early Childhood and Adult NAFLD in a Population-Based UK Cohort
Children 2021, 8(4), 290; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040290 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 310
Abstract
(1) Background: High sugar intake is prevalent among children and is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this study is to determine if a high intake of free sugars and sugary beverages (SB) in childhood is associated with NAFLD [...] Read more.
(1) Background: High sugar intake is prevalent among children and is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this study is to determine if a high intake of free sugars and sugary beverages (SB) in childhood is associated with NAFLD in adulthood; (2) Methods: At 24 years, 3095 participants were assessed for severe hepatic steatosis (controlled attenuation parameter >280 dB/m) and had dietary data collected via a food frequency questionnaire at age three years. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for total energy intake, potential confounders, and a mediator (offspring body mass index (BMI) at 24 years); (3) Results: Per quintile increase of free sugar intake association with severe hepatic steatosis at 24 years after adjusting for total energy was odds ratio (OR):1.07 (95% CL: 0.99–1.17). Comparing the lowest vs. the highest free sugar consumers, the association was OR:1.28 (95% CL: 0.88–1.85) and 1.14 (0.72, 1.82) after full adjustment. The OR for high SB consumption (>2/day) compared to <1/day was 1.23 (95% CL: 0.82–1.84) and OR: 0.98 (95% CL: 0.60–1.60) after full adjustment; (4) Conclusions: High free sugar and SB intake at three years were positively but weakly associated with severe hepatic steatosis at 24 years. These associations were completely attenuated after adjusting for confounders and 24-year BMI. Full article
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Article
Self-Reported Dental Caries by Mexican Elementary and Middle-School Schoolchildren in the Context of Socioeconomic Indicators: A National Ecological Study
Children 2021, 8(4), 289; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040289 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 368
Abstract
The objective of the present research was to quantify the association between dental caries self-report and socioeconomic indicators in Mexican children. An ecological study included a self-report of dental caries in schoolchildren enrolled in public elementary and middle schools derived from the National [...] Read more.
The objective of the present research was to quantify the association between dental caries self-report and socioeconomic indicators in Mexican children. An ecological study included a self-report of dental caries in schoolchildren enrolled in public elementary and middle schools derived from the National School Health Survey. A total of 73,560 schoolchildren (representing 19,745,366 students) aged 5 to 16 years were included. Socioeconomic variables included were scales depicting physical characteristics of housing, purchasing power, etc. used in national surveys in Mexico to measure deprivation, poverty, and income inequality in official data. Data were analyzed in Stata using Spearman’s correlation test. For the most part, no association (p > 0.05) was found between caries self-report, socioeconomic variables, or the Gini index. However, caries self-report in elementary schoolchildren and total (elementary + middle-school) schoolchildren groups was positively correlated (p < 0.05) with two poverty variables: extreme poverty by income (value of personal food purchases per month) and poverty by income (value of personal food and non-food purchases per month). National data for dental caries self-report were associated—at the ecological level—with a few socioeconomic indicators but not with most of the usual and customary indicators used in national surveys in Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Caries and Oral Health in Children)
Article
Changes in Children’s Body Composition and Posture during Puberty Growth
Children 2021, 8(4), 288; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040288 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
The main goal of our study was to determine how the age of children, puberty and anthropometric parameters affect the formation of body composition and faulty body posture development in children. The secondary goal was to determine in which body segments abnormalities most [...] Read more.
The main goal of our study was to determine how the age of children, puberty and anthropometric parameters affect the formation of body composition and faulty body posture development in children. The secondary goal was to determine in which body segments abnormalities most often occur and how gender differentiates the occurrence of adverse changes in children’s body posture and body composition during puberty. The study group consisted of 464 schoolchildren aged from 6–16. Body posture was assessed with the Zebris system. The composition of the body mass was tested with Tanita MC 780 MA body mass analyzer and the body height was measured using a portable stadiometer PORTSTAND 210. The participants were further divided due to the age of puberty. Tanner division was adopted. The cut-off age for girls is ≥10 years and for boys it is ≥12 years. The analyses applied descriptive statistics, the Pearson correlation, stepwise regression analysis and the t-test. The accepted level of significance was p < 0.05. The pelvic obliquity was lower in older children (beta = −0.15). We also see that age played a significant role in the difference in the height of the right pelvis (beta = −0.28), and the difference in the height of the right shoulder (beta = 0.23). Regression analysis showed that the content of adipose tissue (FAT%) increased with body mass index (BMI) and decreased with increasing weight, age, and height. Moreover, the FAT% was lower in boys than in girls (beta negative equal to −0.39). It turned out that older children (puberty), had greater asymmetry in the right shoulder blade (p < 0.001) and right shoulder (p = 0.003). On the other hand, younger children (who were still before puberty) had greater anomalies in the left trunk inclination (p = 0.048) as well as in the pelvic obliquity (p = 0.008). Girls in puberty were characterized by greater asymmetry on the right side, including the shoulders (p = 0.001), the scapula (p = 0.001) and the pelvis (p < 0.001). In boys, the problem related only to the asymmetry of the shoulder blades (p < 0.001). Girls were characterized by a greater increase in adipose tissue and boys by muscle tissue. Significant differences also appeared in the body posture of the examined children. Greater asymmetry within scapulas and shoulders were seen in children during puberty. Therefore, a growing child should be closely monitored to protect them from the adverse consequences of poor posture or excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Composition in Children)
Article
Outcomes of Temporary Hemiepiphyseal Stapling for Correcting Genu Valgum in Children with Multiple Osteochondromas: A Single Institution Study
Children 2021, 8(4), 287; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040287 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Background: Multiple osteochondromas is a rare skeletal disorder characterized by the presence of osteocartilaginous protrusions causing bony deformities, especially around the knee. Guided growth by temporary hemiepiphyseal stapling is the treatment of choice to correct the deformity by modulating the residual physeal growth [...] Read more.
Background: Multiple osteochondromas is a rare skeletal disorder characterized by the presence of osteocartilaginous protrusions causing bony deformities, especially around the knee. Guided growth by temporary hemiepiphyseal stapling is the treatment of choice to correct the deformity by modulating the residual physeal growth of the lower limbs. Although this procedure is increasingly practiced, inconclusive evidence exists regarding its effectiveness in children with multiple osteochondromas. The study aims to compare the outcomes of temporary hemiepiphyseal stapling for correcting genu valgum in children with multiple osteochondromas vs. idiopathic cases. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we included patients admitted at a single institution from 2008 to 2018. A total of 97 children (77 idiopathic, 20 multiple osteochondromas) were enclosed, accounting for 184 limbs treated by temporary hemiepiphyseal stapling. We investigated if children with multiple osteochondromas had a similar successful rate of correction, rate of complications, and correction velocity compared to children with idiopathic genu valgum. Results: Overall, 151 limbs (82%) achieved complete correction or overcorrection, with idiopathic cases having a significantly higher rate of success compared to pathologic cases (88% vs. 55%; p < 0.001). In addition, multiple osteochondromas children sustained a higher rate of major complications (p = 0.021) and showed significantly lower correction velocity (p = 0.029). Conclusion: Temporary hemiepiphyseal stapling is effective in both idiopathic and multiple osteochondromas children, although the latter often achieved incomplete correction, had a higher risk of complications, and required a longer time of stapling. We suggest to anticipate the timing of intervention; otherwise, children with multiple osteochondromas and severe valgus deformity, approaching skeletal maturity, could undergo combined femoral and tibial stapling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Orthopedics)
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Commentary
Leveraging Institutional Support to Build an Integrated Multidisciplinary Care Model in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Children 2021, 8(4), 286; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040286 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 373
Abstract
While the biopsychosocial nature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is now well accepted by clinicians, the need for integrated multidisciplinary care is not always clear to institutional administrators who serve as decision makers regarding resources provided to clinical programs. In this commentary, we [...] Read more.
While the biopsychosocial nature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is now well accepted by clinicians, the need for integrated multidisciplinary care is not always clear to institutional administrators who serve as decision makers regarding resources provided to clinical programs. In this commentary, we draw on our own experience in building successful integrated care models within a division of pediatric gastroenterology (GI) to highlight key considerations in garnering initial approval, as well as methods to maintain institutional support over time. Specifically, we discuss the importance of making a strong case for the inclusion of a psychologist in pediatric IBD care, justifying an integrated model for delivering care, and addressing finances at the program level. Further, we review the benefit of collecting and reporting program data to support the existing literature and/or theoretical projections, demonstrate outcomes, and build alternative value streams recognized by the institution (e.g., academic, reputation) alongside the value to patients. Ultimately, success in garnering and maintaining institutional support necessitates moving from the theoretical to the practical, while continually framing discussion for a nonclinical/administrative audience. While the process can be time-consuming, ultimately it is worth the effort, enhancing the care experience for both patients and clinicians. Full article
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Article
Enhancing Value and Uptake for Whole-Population Cohorts of Children and Parents: Methods to Integrate Registries into the Generation Victoria Cohort
Children 2021, 8(4), 285; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8040285 - 07 Apr 2021
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Health registries are critical to understanding, benchmarking and improving quality of care for specific diseases and conditions, but face hurdles including funding, bias towards clinical rather than population samples, lack of pre-morbid and outcomes data, and absent cross-registry harmonisation and coordination. Children are [...] Read more.
Health registries are critical to understanding, benchmarking and improving quality of care for specific diseases and conditions, but face hurdles including funding, bias towards clinical rather than population samples, lack of pre-morbid and outcomes data, and absent cross-registry harmonisation and coordination. Children are particularly under-represented in registry research. This paper lays out novel principles, methods and governance to integrate diverse registries within or alongside a planned children’s mega-cohort to rapidly generate translatable evidence. GenV (Generation Victoria) will approach for recruitment parents of all newborns (estimated 150,000) over two years from mid-2021 in the state of Victoria (population 6.5 million), Australia. Its sample size and population denominator mean it will contain almost all children with uncommon or co-morbid conditions as they emerge over time. By design, it will include linked datasets, biosamples (including from pregnancy), phenotypes and participant-reported measures, all of which will span pre-morbid to long-term outcomes. We provide a vignette of a planned new registry for high-risk pregnancies to illustrate the possibilities. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to describe such a methodology designed prospectively to enhance both the clinical relevance of a large multipurpose cohort and the value and inclusivity of registries in a population. Full article
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