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Children, Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 112 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong debilitating non-curable neurodevelopmental disorder. The prevalence of ASD is increasing at an alarming rate, yet the causes of ASD still, for the most part, remain unclear. This highlights the critical need for progressing knowledge to support ASD treatment and management. This study shows that early tailored pharmacological intervention, along with standard supportive therapies, can successfully treat core signs and symptoms in ASD patients younger than 4 years and older than 2 years. It is highly recommended to perform double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies to validate these unprecedented findings and further support the development of a cure for this devastating and lifelong neuropsychiatric disorder. View this paper
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Article
Maternal Blood Group and Routine Direct Antiglobulin Testing in Neonates: Is There a Role for Selective Neonatal Testing?
Children 2021, 8(5), 426; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050426 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Recommendations for the screening of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) advise taking a selective approach in using the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) for mothers with blood group O or RhD-negative. This study assessed the relation of DAT results to maternal and neonatal [...] Read more.
Recommendations for the screening of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) advise taking a selective approach in using the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) for mothers with blood group O or RhD-negative. This study assessed the relation of DAT results to maternal and neonatal blood groups and evaluated the risk of HDN. A retrospective analysis of all healthy newborns admitted during 2018 was performed. Of 1463 newborns, 4.4% had a positive DAT. There were 541 (37%) maternal–neonatal pairs with ABO incompatibility, most commonly born to mothers with blood group O. The cohort of neonates born to mothers with blood group O was divided into three groups: the O-A and O-B groups and the O-O group as a control. The DAT was positive in 59 (8.3%) neonates; most were in the O-B group (49.2%), whereas 13.6% were in the control group (p < 0.01). While the neonates in the O-B group were more likely to require phototherapy (p = 0.03), this finding was not related to DAT results. We found that selective testing of mothers with blood group O, mothers with blood group O or RhD-negative, neonates with blood group B, and neonates with blood group B born to mothers with blood group O or RhD-negative was ineffective in detecting phototherapy requirements. Our results indicate no difference regarding the need for phototherapy in neonates born to mothers with different blood types regardless of the DAT results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Neonatology)
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Article
Macronutrient Intake in Pregnancy and Child Cognitive and Behavioural Outcomes
Children 2021, 8(5), 425; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050425 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Prenatal nutrient exposures can impact on brain development and disease susceptibility across the lifespan. It is well established that maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy influences foetal and infant development. Therefore, we hypothesise that macronutrient intakes during pregnancy are correlated with cognitive development during [...] Read more.
Prenatal nutrient exposures can impact on brain development and disease susceptibility across the lifespan. It is well established that maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy influences foetal and infant development. Therefore, we hypothesise that macronutrient intakes during pregnancy are correlated with cognitive development during early childhood. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy and child cognitive and behavioural outcomes at age 4 years. We analysed prospective data from a cohort of 64 Australian mother–child dyads. Maternal macronutrient intake was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 2 timepoints during pregnancy. Child cognition and behaviour were measured at age 4 years using the validated Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd version (WPPSI-III) and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBC). Linear regression models were used to quantify statistical relationships and were adjusted for maternal age, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, breastfeeding duration and birthweight. Child Performance IQ was inversely associated with maternal starch intake (b = −11.02, p = 0.03). However, no other associations were found. Further research is needed to explore the association between different types of starch consumed during pregnancy and child cognitive development. Full article
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Article
Sedation Rate Reduction in Paediatric Renal Nuclear Medicine Examinations: Consequences of a Targeted Audit
Children 2021, 8(5), 424; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050424 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Background: Nuclear medicine investigations are essential diagnostic tools in paediatric urology. Child-orientated examination techniques and the avoidance of sedation or anaesthesia vary in different institutions. We aimed at evaluating child friendly measures in our department to identify the potential for improvement. Based on [...] Read more.
Background: Nuclear medicine investigations are essential diagnostic tools in paediatric urology. Child-orientated examination techniques and the avoidance of sedation or anaesthesia vary in different institutions. We aimed at evaluating child friendly measures in our department to identify the potential for improvement. Based on these data, we changed the standards regarding the sedation policy and consequently re-evaluated sedation rates. Methods: Four-hundred thirty-five consecutive investigations were evaluated regarding the need for sedation, outcome and patient satisfaction at our department. After the revision of our department standards, we re-evaluated 159 examinations. Statistical analysis was performed with JUMBO (Java-supported Münsterian biometrical platform). Results: Eighty-six percent (60/70) would agree to perform an investigation under identical conditions again. Seventy-seven percent (17/22) of eligible patients >5 years of age felt good during the investigation. By changing our sedation policy, we could reduce the sedation rate from 27.1% to 7.5% (p < 0.0001; OR 0.219 95% CI 0.111–0.423). Conclusion: The evaluation of child friendly examination protocols demonstrated high reliability and patient satisfaction using situational sedation with a relatively high proportion of patients being sedated. Through protocol adaption with clear age limits, individual indication and education of staff, as well as the use of optimized sedatives, the need for sedation could be further reduced whilst maintaining a high patient satisfaction. Full article
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Article
The Behavioral Problems in 2.5–5 Years Old Children Linked with Former Neonatal/Infantile Surgical Parameters
Children 2021, 8(5), 423; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050423 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Studies report the link between exposure to major neonatal surgery and the risk of later neurodevelopmental disorders. The aim of this study was to find out the behavioral problem scores of 2.5–5 years old children who had undergone median/major non-cardiac surgery before the [...] Read more.
Studies report the link between exposure to major neonatal surgery and the risk of later neurodevelopmental disorders. The aim of this study was to find out the behavioral problem scores of 2.5–5 years old children who had undergone median/major non-cardiac surgery before the age of 90 days, and to relate these to intraoperative cerebral tissue oxygenation values (rSO2), perioperative duration of mechanical ventilation (DMV) and doses of sedative/analgesic agents. Internalizing (IP) and externalizing problems (EP) of 34 children were assessed using the CBCL for ages 1½–5. Median (range) IP and EP scores were 8.5 (2–42) and 15.5 (5–33), respectively and did not correlate with intraoperative rSO2. DMV correlated and was predictive for EP (β (95% CI) 0.095 (0.043; 0.148)). An aggregate variable “opioid dose per days of ventilation” was predictive for EP after adjusting for patients’ gestational age and age at the day of psychological assessment, after further adjustment for age at the day of surgery and for cumulative dose of benzodiazepines (β (95% CI 0.009 (0.003; 0.014) and 0.008 (0.002; 0.014), respectively). Neonatal/infantile intraoperative cerebral oxygenation was not associated with later behavioral problems. The risk factors for externalizing problems appeared to be similar to the risk factors in preterm infant population. Full article
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Article
Thyroid Microcarcinoma in Pediatric Population in Romania
Children 2021, 8(5), 422; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050422 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 308
Abstract
Thyroid microcarcinoma in pediatric population in Romania Non-medullary thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine malignancy, with an increasing incidence in the recent years, due to the increase of the thyroid microcarcinoma. Thyroid microcarcinoma (mTC) is defined, according to WHO criteria, as [...] Read more.
Thyroid microcarcinoma in pediatric population in Romania Non-medullary thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine malignancy, with an increasing incidence in the recent years, due to the increase of the thyroid microcarcinoma. Thyroid microcarcinoma (mTC) is defined, according to WHO criteria, as ≤1 cm dimension thyroid carcinoma, being a rare disease in children population. In adults, the current guidelines recommend a limited surgical approach. In children, however, there are no specific guidelines for mTC. Due to the scarcity of these tumors, mTC in children have largely been understudied, to our knowledge with only one previous publication reporting on the outcomes of a large historic series of patients with mTC from the USA. In Romania, the incidence of TC is rising, one of the reason may be the effect of Chernobyl nuclear accident in the past and the iodine deficiency. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcome of children diagnosed with mTC in Romania diagnosed from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2018. During the study period we identified 77 cases of differentiated TC (papillary and follicular) and of these 20 cases (19.4%) were mTC. The mTC represented roughly one fifth of our nationwide pediatric population diagnosed in the last 20 years, the majority of cases being recorded in adolescents aged between 15–18 years. Although patients with apparently more unfavorable local phenotype were identified, this was not reflected in the outcome of the patients in terms of remission of the disease and survival. Our study illustrates the heterogeneity of the real-life practice with respect to the pediatric mTC, and underscores the need for carefully designed multicenter international studies, including larger cohorts of patients in order to provide the data required for establishing evidence based uniform protocols. The European Reference Networks (ERN), such as the ERN for Rare Endocrine Diseases (Endo-ERN) provides an ideal platform to initiate such collaborative studies. Full article
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Case Report
Successful Postnatal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Due to Defibrillation
Children 2021, 8(5), 421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050421 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 273
Abstract
An asphyxiated term neonate required postnatal resuscitation. After six minutes of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and two doses of epinephrine, spontaneous circulation returned, but was shortly followed by ventricular fibrillation. CPR and administration of magnesium, calcium gluconate, and sodium bicarbonate did not improve the [...] Read more.
An asphyxiated term neonate required postnatal resuscitation. After six minutes of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and two doses of epinephrine, spontaneous circulation returned, but was shortly followed by ventricular fibrillation. CPR and administration of magnesium, calcium gluconate, and sodium bicarbonate did not improve the neonate’s condition. A counter shock of five Joule was delivered and the cardiac rhythm immediately converted to sinus rhythm. The neonate was transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit and received post-resuscitation care. Due to prolonged QTc and subsequently suspected long-QT syndrome propranolol treatment was initiated. The neonate was discharged home on day 14 without neurological sequelae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stabilization and Resuscitation of Newborns)
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Article
Do Parental Pain Knowledge, Catastrophizing, and Hypervigilance Improve Following Pain Neuroscience Education in Healthy Children?
Children 2021, 8(5), 420; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050420 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Pediatric chronic pain is a challenging problem for children and their families, although it is still under-recognized and under-treated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a pain neuroscience education program for children (PNE4Kids) delivered to healthy children aged 8 to [...] Read more.
Pediatric chronic pain is a challenging problem for children and their families, although it is still under-recognized and under-treated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a pain neuroscience education program for children (PNE4Kids) delivered to healthy children aged 8 to 12 years old and attended by their parents would result in improved parental knowledge about pain neurophysiology, decreased parental pain catastrophizing about their own pain and their children’s, decreased parental pain vigilance and awareness, and decreased fear of pain in children. Twenty-seven healthy child–parent dyads received a 45 min PNE4Kids session. Demographic data were collected, and the Neurophysiology of Pain Questionnaire (NPQ), Fear of Pain Questionnaire—Parent Proxy Report (FOPQ-P), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Parents (PCS-P), and the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire (PVAQ) were completed by the parents before and after the PNE4Kids session. Twenty-six dyads completed study participation. In response to the PNE4Kids session, significant short-term (1 week) improvements were shown in the NPQ (p < 0.001) and the FOPQ-P (p = 0.002). Parents’ level of pain knowledge and children’s fear of pain, reported by their parents, improved after a 45 min PNE4Kids session. Thus, PNE4Kids should likewise be further investigated in healthy child–parent dyads as it might be useful to target parental and children’s pain cognitions at a young age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Pain Rehabilitation)
Article
Vitamin D Status and Its Role in First-Time and Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Children: A Case-Control Study
Children 2021, 8(5), 419; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050419 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Vitamin D has emerged as a key factor in innate immunity. Its involvement in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections (UTIs) has gained a lot of attention recently. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) [...] Read more.
Vitamin D has emerged as a key factor in innate immunity. Its involvement in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections (UTIs) has gained a lot of attention recently. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and first-time or recurrent UTIs in children. A prospective, case-control study was conducted on 101 pediatric patients, who were divided into two groups: 59 patients with UTIs and 42 age-matched healthy controls. Serum 25(OH)D was determined in each child and expressed in ng/mL. Vitamin D presented significantly lower values in study group subjects than in healthy controls (p < 0.01). Moreover, a significantly higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was found in children with UTIs (p < 0.01). Patients with recurrent UTIs presented significantly lower levels of vitamin D than those with first-time UTIs (p = 0.04). Urinary tract abnormalities did not seem to exercise an additional effect upon vitamin D levels within the study group. In conclusion, first-time and recurrent UTIs are associated with lower vitamin D levels. Further studies are necessary to validate our findings, as well as future longitudinal research regarding efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in children with UTIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nephrology)
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Review
An Overview of the Relevance of IgG4 Antibodies in Allergic Disease with a Focus on Food Allergens
Children 2021, 8(5), 418; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050418 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Antibodies of the IgG4 isotype are strongly associated with allergic disease but have several properties such as not precipitating with allergens, not activating complement and poor binding to Fcγ receptors that argue against a pro-inflammatory role. In keeping with that, IgG4 antibodies are [...] Read more.
Antibodies of the IgG4 isotype are strongly associated with allergic disease but have several properties such as not precipitating with allergens, not activating complement and poor binding to Fcγ receptors that argue against a pro-inflammatory role. In keeping with that, IgG4 antibodies are a striking feature of the response to immunotherapy. In two naturally occurring situations IgG4 antibodies are common with low or absent IgE antibodies. The first example is children raised in a house with a cat and the second is eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In many population-based cohorts, the ownership of a cat in early childhood is associated with a decreased prevalence of a cat allergy at age 10. The second example (i.e., EoE) is a novel form of food allergy that is not mediated by IgE and is related to consuming cow’s milk or wheat. In EoE, patients have IgG4 to milk proteins in high > 10 µg/mL or very high > 100 µg/mL titers. Enigmatically these patients are found to have deposits of IgG4 in the wall of their inflamed esophagus. The factors that have given rise to EoE remain unclear; however, changes in food processing over the past 50 years, particularly ultra-heat treatment and the high pressure homogenization of milk, represent a logical hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Research and Recent Advances in Paediatric Allergic Diseases)
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Article
Poor Glycemic Control Can Increase the Plasma Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Concentration in Normoalbuminuric Children and Adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus
Children 2021, 8(5), 417; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050417 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious microvascular complication in childhood diabetes and microalbuminuria has been a solid indicator in the assessment of DN. Nevertheless, renal injury may still occur in the presence of normoalbuminuria (NA) and various tubular injury biomarkers have been proposed [...] Read more.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious microvascular complication in childhood diabetes and microalbuminuria has been a solid indicator in the assessment of DN. Nevertheless, renal injury may still occur in the presence of normoalbuminuria (NA) and various tubular injury biomarkers have been proposed to assess such damage. This case-controlled study aimed to evaluate plasma and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) levels in diabetic children particularly in those with normo- and high-NA stages and determine their role in predicting DN. Fifty-four children/adolescents with type 1 and 2 diabetes and forty-four controls aged 7–18 years were included. The baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics including plasma and urinary biomarkers were compared. The plasma KIM-1 levels were significantly higher in diabetic children than in the controls and in high-NA children than normo-NA children. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was identified as a significant risk factor for increased plasma KIM-1. The optimal cutoff for HbA1c when the plasma KIM-1 was > 23.10 pg/mL was 6.75% with an area under the curve of 0.77. For diabetic children with mildly increased albuminuria, the plasma KIM-1 complementary to MA may help increase the yield of detecting DN. Our findings also suggested an HbA1c cutoff of 6.75% correlated with increased plasma KIM-1. Full article
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Article
Bedtime Oral Hygiene Behaviours, Dietary Habits and Children’s Dental Health
Children 2021, 8(5), 416; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050416 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Background: Oral hygiene behaviours as well as dietary habits before bed can affect children’s dental health resulting in higher prevalence of dental disease. Dental disease can affect children’s health, development and even school performance. If left untreated, dental disease can progress and it [...] Read more.
Background: Oral hygiene behaviours as well as dietary habits before bed can affect children’s dental health resulting in higher prevalence of dental disease. Dental disease can affect children’s health, development and even school performance. If left untreated, dental disease can progress and it can lead to extractions under general anaesthetic causing further distress for children and families. Consistent and appropriate oral hygiene behaviours and dietary habits can prevent dental diseases from occurring in the first place. Objective: This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between oral hygiene behaviours, dietary habits around bedtime and children’s dental health. Methods: A total of 185 parents with children between the ages of 3 and 7 years from deprived areas participated in the study. Data on bedtime routine activities were collected using an automated text-survey system. Children’s dental health status was established through examination of dental charts and dmft (decayed, missed, filled teeth) scores. Results: In total, 52.4% of parents reported that their children’s teeth were brushed every night. The majority of children (58.9%) had dmft scores over zero. In total, 51 (46.7% of children with dmft score over 0 and 27.5% of all children) children had active decay. The mean dmft score for those experiencing decay was 2.96 (SD = 2.22) with an overall mean dmft score of 1.75 (SD = 2.24). There were significant correlations between frequency of tooth brushing, frequency of snacks/drinks before bed and dmft scores (r = −0.584, p < 0.001 and r = 0.547, p = 0.001 respectively). Finally, higher brushing frequency was associated with a lower likelihood of a dmft score greater than 0 (Exp(B) = 0.9). Conclusions: Despite families implementing oral hygiene behaviours as part of their bedtime routines those behaviours varied in their consistency. Results of this study highlight the need for additional studies that consider bedtime routine-related activities and especially the combined effects of oral hygiene practices and dietary habits due to their potentially important relationship with children’s dental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Dentistry)
Review
The Impact of COVID-19 School Closure on Child and Adolescent Health: A Rapid Systematic Review
Children 2021, 8(5), 415; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050415 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 685
Abstract
School closures during pandemics raise important concerns for children and adolescents. Our aim is synthesizing available data on the impact of school closure during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on child and adolescent health globally. We conducted a rapid systematic review by [...] Read more.
School closures during pandemics raise important concerns for children and adolescents. Our aim is synthesizing available data on the impact of school closure during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on child and adolescent health globally. We conducted a rapid systematic review by searching PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar for any study published between January and September 2020. We included a total of ten primary studies. COVID-19-related school closure was associated with a significant decline in the number of hospital admissions and pediatric emergency department visits. However, a number of children and adolescents lost access to school-based healthcare services, special services for children with disabilities, and nutrition programs. A greater risk of widening educational disparities due to lack of support and resources for remote learning were also reported among poorer families and children with disabilities. School closure also contributed to increased anxiety and loneliness in young people and child stress, sadness, frustration, indiscipline, and hyperactivity. The longer the duration of school closure and reduction of daily physical activity, the higher was the predicted increase of Body Mass Index and childhood obesity prevalence. There is a need to identify children and adolescents at higher risk of learning and mental health impairments and support them during school closures. Full article
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Assessment of Psychopathology in Adolescents with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes (IDD) and the Impact on Treatment Management
Children 2021, 8(5), 414; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050414 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 240
Abstract
Assessing mental health in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) is an issue that is underperformed in clinical practice and outpatient clinics. The evaluation of their thoughts, emotions and behaviors has an important role in understanding the interaction between the individual and [...] Read more.
Assessing mental health in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) is an issue that is underperformed in clinical practice and outpatient clinics. The evaluation of their thoughts, emotions and behaviors has an important role in understanding the interaction between the individual and the disease, the factors that can influence this interaction, as well as the effective methods of intervention. The aim of this study is to identify psychopathology in adolescents with diabetes and the impact on treatment management. A total of 54 adolescents with IDD and 52 adolescents without diabetes, aged 12–18 years, completed APS–SF (Adolescent Psychopathology Scale–Short Form) for the evaluation of psychopathology and adjustment problems. There were no significant differences between adolescents with diabetes and control group regarding psychopathology. Between adolescents with good treatment adherence (HbA1c < 7.6) and those with low treatment adherence (HbA1c > 7.6), significant differences were found. In addition, results showed higher scores in girls compared with boys with IDD with regard to anxiety (GAD), Major Depression (DEP), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Eating Disturbance (EAT), Suicide (SUI) and Interpersonal Problems (IPP). No significant differences were found regarding the duration of the disease. Strategies such as maladaptive coping, passivity, distorted conception of the self and the surrounding world and using the negative problem-solving strategies of non-involvement and abandonment had positive correlation with poor glycemic control (bad management of the disease). The study highlighted the importance of promoting mental health in insulin-dependent diabetes management. Full article
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Review
Early Microbial–Immune Interactions and Innate Immune Training of the Respiratory System during Health and Disease
Children 2021, 8(5), 413; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050413 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 385
Abstract
Over the past two decades, several studies have positioned early-life microbial exposure as a key factor for protection or susceptibility to respiratory diseases. Birth cohorts have identified a strong link between neonatal bacterial colonization of the nasal airway and gut with the risk [...] Read more.
Over the past two decades, several studies have positioned early-life microbial exposure as a key factor for protection or susceptibility to respiratory diseases. Birth cohorts have identified a strong link between neonatal bacterial colonization of the nasal airway and gut with the risk for respiratory infections and childhood asthma. Translational studies have provided companion mechanistic insights on how viral and bacterial exposures in early life affect immune development at the respiratory mucosal barrier. In this review, we summarize and discuss our current understanding of how early microbial–immune interactions occur during infancy, with a particular focus on the emergent paradigm of “innate immune training”. Future human-based studies including newborns and infants are needed to inform the timing and key pathways implicated in the development, maturation, and innate training of the airway immune response, and how early microbiota and virus exposures modulate these processes in the respiratory system during health and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Infection and Immunity)
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Article
Parental Educational Attainment, the Superior Temporal Cortical Surface Area, and Reading Ability among American Children: A Test of Marginalization-Related Diminished Returns
Children 2021, 8(5), 412; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050412 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Background: Recent studies have shown that parental educational attainment is associated with a larger superior temporal cortical surface area associated with higher reading ability in children. Simultaneously, the marginalization-related diminished returns (MDRs) framework suggests that, due to structural racism and social stratification, returns [...] Read more.
Background: Recent studies have shown that parental educational attainment is associated with a larger superior temporal cortical surface area associated with higher reading ability in children. Simultaneously, the marginalization-related diminished returns (MDRs) framework suggests that, due to structural racism and social stratification, returns of parental education are smaller for black and other racial/ethnic minority children compared to their white counterparts. Purpose: This study used a large national sample of 9–10-year-old American children to investigate associations between parental educational attainment, the right and left superior temporal cortical surface area, and reading ability across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis that included 10,817 9–10-year-old children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Parental educational attainment was treated as a five-level categorical variable. Children’s right and left superior temporal cortical surface area and reading ability were continuous variables. Race/ethnicity was the moderator. To adjust for the nested nature of the ABCD data, mixed-effects regression models were used to test the associations between parental education, superior temporal cortical surface area, and reading ability overall and by race/ethnicity. Results: Overall, high parental educational attainment was associated with greater superior temporal cortical surface area and reading ability in children. In the pooled sample, we found statistically significant interactions between race/ethnicity and parental educational attainment on children’s right and left superior temporal cortical surface area, suggesting that high parental educational attainment has a smaller boosting effect on children’s superior temporal cortical surface area for black than white children. We also found a significant interaction between race and the left superior temporal surface area on reading ability, indicating weaker associations for Alaskan Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AIAN/NHPI) than white children. We also found interactions between race and parental educational attainment on reading ability, indicating more potent effects for black children than white children. Conclusion: While parental educational attainment may improve children’s superior temporal cortical surface area, promoting reading ability, this effect may be unequal across racial/ethnic groups. To minimize the racial/ethnic gap in children’s brain development and school achievement, we need to address societal barriers that diminish parental educational attainment’s marginal returns for middle-class minority families. Social and public policies need to go beyond equal access and address structural and societal barriers that hinder middle-class families of color and their children. Future research should test how racism, social stratification, segregation, and discrimination, which shape the daily lives of non-white individuals, take a toll on children’s brains and academic development. Full article
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Article
Association between Hippocampal Volume and Working Memory in 10,000+ 9–10-Year-Old Children: Sex Differences
Children 2021, 8(5), 411; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050411 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Aim: This study tested sex differences in the association between hippocampal volume and working memory of a national sample of 9–10-year-old children in the US. As the hippocampus is functionally lateralized (especially in task-related activities), we explored the results for the right and [...] Read more.
Aim: This study tested sex differences in the association between hippocampal volume and working memory of a national sample of 9–10-year-old children in the US. As the hippocampus is functionally lateralized (especially in task-related activities), we explored the results for the right and the left hippocampus. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study data. This analysis included baseline ABCD data (n = 10,093) of children between ages 9 and 10 years. The predictor variable was right and left hippocampal volume measured by structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). The primary outcome, list sorting working memory, was measured using the NIH toolbox measure. Sex was the moderator. Age, race, ethnicity, household income, parental education, and family structure were the covariates. Results: In the overall sample, larger right (b = 0.0013; p < 0.001) and left (b = 0.0013; p < 0.001) hippocampal volumes were associated with higher children’s working memory. Sex had statistically significant interactions with the right (b = −0.0018; p = 0.001) and left (b = −0.0012; p = 0.022) hippocampal volumes on children’s working memory. These interactions indicated stronger positive associations between right and left hippocampal volume and working memory for females compared to males. Conclusion: While right and left hippocampal volumes are determinants of children’s list sorting working memory, these effects seem to be more salient for female than male children. Research is needed on the role of socialization, sex hormones, and brain functional connectivity as potential mechanisms that may explain the observed sex differences in the role of hippocampal volume as a correlate of working memory. Full article
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A Retrospective Analysis of Feeding Practices and Complications in Patients with Critical Bronchiolitis on Non-Invasive Respiratory Support
Children 2021, 8(5), 410; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050410 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Limited data exist regarding feeding pediatric patients managed on non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) modes that augment oxygenation and ventilation in the setting of acute respiratory failure. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to explore the safety of feeding patients managed on NRS with [...] Read more.
Limited data exist regarding feeding pediatric patients managed on non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) modes that augment oxygenation and ventilation in the setting of acute respiratory failure. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to explore the safety of feeding patients managed on NRS with acute respiratory failure secondary to bronchiolitis. Children up to two years old with critical bronchiolitis managed on continuous positive airway pressure, bilevel positive airway pressure, or RAM cannula were included. Of the 178 eligible patients, 64 were reportedly nil per os (NPO), while 114 received enteral nutrition (EN). Overall equivalent in severity of illness, younger patients populated the EN group, while the NPO group experienced a higher incidence of intubation. Duration of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit and non-invasive respiratory support were shorter in the NPO group, though intubation eliminated the former difference. Within the EN group, ninety percent had feeds initiated within 48 h and 94% reached full feeds within 7 days of NRS initiation, with an 8% complication and <1% aspiration rate. Reported complications did not result in escalation of respiratory support. Notably, a significant improvement in heart rate and respiratory rate was noted after feeds initiation. Taken together, our study supports the practice of early enteral nutrition in patients with critical bronchiolitis requiring NRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Critical Care)
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Communication
Childhood Obesity in Serbia on the Rise
Children 2021, 8(5), 409; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050409 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 274
Abstract
The aim of the study was to examine changes in obesity prevalence among primary school children in Serbia between 2015 and 2019 rounds of the national WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI-Serbia). Cross-sectional studies were conducted in 2015 and 2019. The nationally [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to examine changes in obesity prevalence among primary school children in Serbia between 2015 and 2019 rounds of the national WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI-Serbia). Cross-sectional studies were conducted in 2015 and 2019. The nationally representative samples of primary school children were measured for body height and weight, following the COSI protocol. Body Mass Index was calculated, and the IOTF and WHO definitions were used to classify children as overweight or obese. Participants were children of both sexes aged 7.00–8.99 years (n = 6105). Significant differences in overweight (obesity included) prevalence between two COSI rounds were identified regardless of definitions applied. According to the WHO definitions, prevalence of overweight and obesity combined increased in 7–9-year-old children in Serbia from 30.7% in 2015 to 34.8% in 2019 (z = −3.309, p < 0.05), and according to the IOTF standards, the increase from 22.8% to 30% was registered (z = −6.08, p = 0.00). The childhood overweight/obesity rate is increasing in Serbia, which places monitoring and surveillance of children’s nutritional status high on the public health agenda. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Composition in Children)
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Brief Report
Prolonged Indwelling Urethral Catheterization as Minimally Invasive Approach for Definitive Treatment of Posterior Urethral Valves in Unstable Premature Babies
Children 2021, 8(5), 408; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050408 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Premature newborns with posterior urethral valves (PUV) may present with medical conditions taking priority over definitive surgical care. We encountered three of such cases who underwent initial bladder decompression via transurethral catheterization and waited 2–3 weeks until they were fit enough for voiding [...] Read more.
Premature newborns with posterior urethral valves (PUV) may present with medical conditions taking priority over definitive surgical care. We encountered three of such cases who underwent initial bladder decompression via transurethral catheterization and waited 2–3 weeks until they were fit enough for voiding cysto-urethrography to confirm PUV. An unexpected good urinary flow and negligible residual urine volume were documented during micturition, suggestive of valve disruption induced by insertion and prolonged duration of indwelling urethral catheter drainage. Cystoscopy documented non-obstructing remnant leaflets. Non-operative treatment may be considered as a viable alternative therapeutic option for PUV in tiny babies facing prolonged intensive care unit stay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urology in Pediatrics)
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Article
Percentile Reference Values for the Neck Circumference of Mexican Children
Children 2021, 8(5), 407; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050407 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Neck circumference was studied for the first time in a pediatric population in 2010. Since then, various countries have proposed cutoff values to identify overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, no reference values have been established for the Mexican child population. The aim [...] Read more.
Neck circumference was studied for the first time in a pediatric population in 2010. Since then, various countries have proposed cutoff values to identify overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, no reference values have been established for the Mexican child population. The aim of this study is to provide percentile reference values for the neck circumference of Mexican schoolchildren. Only normal-weight schoolchildren aged 6–11 years were included. Percentiles and growth charts were constructed based on the “Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape” (GAMLSS). A total of 1059 schoolchildren (52.9% female) was evaluated. Weight, height, and BMI values were higher for males; however, this difference was not statistically significant. The 50th percentile for females was 24.6 cm at six years old and 28.25 cm at 11 years old, and for males, it was 25.75 cm and 28.76 cm, respectively. Both males and females displayed a pronounced increase in neck circumference between 10 and 11 years of age. The greatest variability was found in the 11-year-old group, with an increase of 5.5 cm for males and 5.4 cm for females. This study presents the first reference values for neck circumference for a Mexican child population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Composition in Children)
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Article
Perceptions of Family-Level Social Factors That Influence Health Behaviors in Latinx Adolescents and Young Adults at High Risk for Type 2 Diabetes
Children 2021, 8(5), 406; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050406 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Given that health behaviors occur within the context of familial social relationships, a deeper understanding of social factors that influence health behaviors in Latinx families is needed to develop more effective diabetes prevention programming. This qualitative study identified perceived family-level social factors that [...] Read more.
Given that health behaviors occur within the context of familial social relationships, a deeper understanding of social factors that influence health behaviors in Latinx families is needed to develop more effective diabetes prevention programming. This qualitative study identified perceived family-level social factors that influence health behaviors in Latinx adolescents (12–16 years; N = 16) and young adults (18–24 years; N = 15) with obesity and explored differences in perceptions across sex and age. Participants completed an in-depth interview that was recorded, transcribed, and coded using thematic content analysis. Emergent themes central to health behaviors included: perceived parental roles and responsibilities, perceived family social support for health behaviors, and familial social relationships. Mom’s role as primary caregiver and dad’s role as a hard worker were seen as barriers to engaging in health behaviors among adolescent females and young adults, males and females. Adolescents perceived receiving more support compared to young adults and males perceived receiving more support compared to females. Health behaviors in both age groups were shaped through early familial social interactions around physical activity. These insights suggest that traditional gender roles, social support, and social interaction around health behaviors are critical components for family-based diabetes prevention programs in high-risk Latinx youth and young adults. Full article
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Article
ADHD Symptomatology, Executive Function and Cognitive Performance Differences between Family Foster Care and Control Group in ADHD-Diagnosed Children
Children 2021, 8(5), 405; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050405 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Children in foster care have a high prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, together with other difficulties in inattentive/hyperactive behaviors, executive and cognitive processes. Early exposure to adversity is a risk factor for developing ADHD via neurodevelopmental pathways. The goal [...] Read more.
Children in foster care have a high prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, together with other difficulties in inattentive/hyperactive behaviors, executive and cognitive processes. Early exposure to adversity is a risk factor for developing ADHD via neurodevelopmental pathways. The goal of this research is (a) to study the cognitive and executive performance and inattentive/hyperactive behavior of ADHD-diagnosed children living in foster families in Spain, and (b) to analyze the role of placement variables in their performance. The sample was composed of 102 ADHD-diagnosed children aged 6- to 12-years-old, divided into two groups: 59 children living with non-relative foster families and 43 children not involved with protection services. Children’s executive function–inhibition, working memory, flexibility, attention, intellectual capacity, verbal comprehension, perceptive reasoning, working memory and processing speed were assessed using objective testing measures. At the same time, parents and teachers reported on children’s inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Children in foster care obtained lower scores in the general ability index than the control group after controlling the age at assessment. However, no differences were found in executive processes. Regarding placement factors, children with shorter exposure to adversities in their birth families and more time in foster care showed better executive performance. Professionals should consider the placement history of children in foster care and its influence on their symptomatology and cognitive capacities. Full article
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Article
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Seasonal Variations in Childhood and Adolescent Growth: Experience of Pediatric Endocrine Clinics
Children 2021, 8(5), 404; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050404 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Background: Children experience seasonal variations in growth whereby height increases most in spring and least in autumn, and weight increases least in spring and most in autumn. We hypothesized that activity restriction caused by efforts to contain the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 [...] Read more.
Background: Children experience seasonal variations in growth whereby height increases most in spring and least in autumn, and weight increases least in spring and most in autumn. We hypothesized that activity restriction caused by efforts to contain the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) would result in increased body mass index (BMI) in children, differing from conventional seasonal growth variations. Methods: We included 169 children who visited endocrine clinics of three hospitals in Korea at regular intervals under the same conditions for two years. Visit dates were D1 (January, 2019), D2 (July, 2019), D3 (January, 2020) before the COVID-19 outbreak, and D4 (July, 2020) during the pandemic. Differences in the z-score for height (HT), weight (WT), and BMI among time points and between spring seasons (i.e., S1–S3) were compared. Results: There were significant differences in BMIz among time points, which decreased from D1–D2 and increased from D2–D3 and D3–D4. WTz significantly increased from D2–D3 and D3–D4. BMIz values of S1 (spring 2019) and S3 (spring 2020) were −0.05 and 0.16, respectively, showing significant differences. WTz values between S1 and S3 were significantly different (−0.02 vs. 0.13). Conclusions: In 2019, there were conventional seasonal variations in BMIz, which declined in spring and increased in autumn, while in 2020, BMIz increased even in spring. The COVID-19 pandemic may have affected seasonal variations in the growth of children attending endocrine clinics. Full article
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Article
Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Health Problems among Chinese Adolescents with Frequent Peer Victimization Experiences
Children 2021, 8(5), 403; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050403 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 277
Abstract
This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of mental health outcomes, particularly depression, anxiety, and insomnia, in adolescents with frequent peer victimization experiences (FPVEs). In this cross-sectional study, 490 adolescents reported having FPVEs (prevalence, 4.2%; mean age, 13.40 ± 1.38 years old; 52.2% [...] Read more.
This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of mental health outcomes, particularly depression, anxiety, and insomnia, in adolescents with frequent peer victimization experiences (FPVEs). In this cross-sectional study, 490 adolescents reported having FPVEs (prevalence, 4.2%; mean age, 13.40 ± 1.38 years old; 52.2% male) completed a series of surveys to evaluate their demographic factors and mental health status. The results showed that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia were 50.3%, 33.8%, and 40.2%, respectively. Older age, being female, being left behind, and more adverse childhood experiences were correlated with more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among adolescents with FPVEs. At the same time, social support and self-compassion were good for ameliorating these mental health problems. Implications for intervention programs designed to improve the mental health of adolescents with FPVEs were also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
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Article
Prognostic Significance of Computed Tomography Findings in Pulmonary Vein Stenosis
Children 2021, 8(5), 402; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050402 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 252
Abstract
(1) Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) can be a severe, progressive disease with lung involvement. We aimed to characterize findings by computed tomography (CT) and identify factors associated with death; (2) Veins and lung segments were classified into five locations: right upper, middle, and [...] Read more.
(1) Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) can be a severe, progressive disease with lung involvement. We aimed to characterize findings by computed tomography (CT) and identify factors associated with death; (2) Veins and lung segments were classified into five locations: right upper, middle, and lower; and left upper and lower. Severity of vein stenosis (0–4 = no disease–atresia) and lung segments (0–3 = unaffected–severe) were scored. A PVS severity score (sum of all veins + 2 if bilateral disease; maximum = 22) and a total lung severity score (sum of all lung segments; maximum = 15) were reported; (3) Of 43 CT examinations (median age 21 months), 63% had bilateral disease. There was 30% mortality by 4 years after CT. Individual-vein PVS severity was associated with its corresponding lung segment severity (p < 0.001). By univariate analysis, PVS severity score >11, lung cysts, and total lung severity score >6 had higher hazard of death; and perihilar induration had lower hazard of death; (4) Multiple CT-derived variables of PVS severity and lung disease have prognostic significance. PVS severity correlates with lung disease severity. Full article
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Article
Impact of Perceived Social Support on the Relationship between ADHD and Depressive Symptoms among First Year Medical Students: A Structural Equation Model Approach
Children 2021, 8(5), 401; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050401 - 16 May 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with depression among college students, while perceived social support is also associated with depression, especially among young adults. This study aimed to examine to what extent perceived social support mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms [...] Read more.
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with depression among college students, while perceived social support is also associated with depression, especially among young adults. This study aimed to examine to what extent perceived social support mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and depressive symptoms. Methods: In total, 124 first year medical students completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener (ASRS), the Patient Health questionnaire-9 and the revised Thai Multidimensional scale of perceived social support reflecting ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and perceive social support, i.e., family members, friends and other significant people, respectively. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the hypothesized mediation model. Results: ADHD symptoms exhibited a significant indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived social support. ADHD symptoms initially had a direct effect on depression; thereafter, it reduced to a non-significance effect after perceived social support was added. The total variance explained by this model was 35.2%. The mediation model with family support as a mediator showed the highest effect size. Conclusions: The study highlighted the importance of perceived social support, particularly family support, on depressive symptoms among young medical students experiencing ADHD symptoms. The model suggests promising relationships for further research on ADHD-related depression and potential treatment in the future. Full article
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Editorial
New Surgical Frontiers for Nutrition in Children
Children 2021, 8(5), 400; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050400 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Nutrition in pediatric age, if properly adapted to the various developmental phases, can be considered the first prevention tool for the most common pathologies of this age [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Review
Neonates with Maternal Colonization of Carbapenemase-Producing, Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: A Mini-Review and a Suggested Guide for Preventing Neonatal Infection
Children 2021, 8(5), 399; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050399 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Carbapenemase-producing, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) are highly drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. They include New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM)-producing carbapenemase (50.4% of all species in Ontario). Antibiotic challenges for resistant bacteria in neonates pose challenges of unknown dosing and side effects. We report two antenatally diagnosed CP-CRE [...] Read more.
Carbapenemase-producing, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) are highly drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. They include New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM)-producing carbapenemase (50.4% of all species in Ontario). Antibiotic challenges for resistant bacteria in neonates pose challenges of unknown dosing and side effects. We report two antenatally diagnosed CP-CRE colonization scenarios with the NDM 1 gene. The case involves extreme preterm twins who had worsening respiratory distress at birth requiring ventilator support, with the first twin also having cardiovascular instability. They were screened for CP-CRE, and a polymyxin antibiotic commenced. In the delivery room, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and the follow-up clinic, in collaboration with the interdisciplinary group, contact precautions and isolation procedures were instituted. None of the infants exhibited infection with CP-CRE. Consolidating knowledge with regard to CP-CRE and modifying human behavior associated with its spread can mitigate potential negative consequences. This relates to now and later, when travel and prolific human to human contact resumes, from endemic countries, after the current COVID-19 pandemic. Standardized efforts to curb the acquisition of this infection would be judicious given the challenges of treatment and continued emerging antibiotic resistance. Simple infection control measures involving contact precautions, staff education and parental cohorting can be useful and cost-effective in preventing transmission. Attention to NICU specific measures, including screening of at-risk mothers (invitro fertilization conception) and their probands, careful handling of breastmilk, judicious antibiotic choice and duration of treatment, is warranted. What does this study add? CP-CRE is a nosocomial infection with increasing incidence globally, and a serious threat to public health, making it likely that these cases will present with greater frequency to the NICU team. Only a few similar cases have been reported in the neonatal literature. Current published guidelines provide a framework for general hospital management. Still, they are not specific to the NICU experience and the need to manage the parents’ exposure and the infants. This article provides a holistic framework for managing confirmed or suspected cases of CP-CRE from the antenatal care through the NICU and into the follow-up clinic targeted at preventing or containing the spread of CP-CRE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care in Premature Infants)
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Article
Respiratory Trajectory after Invasive Interventions for Patent Ductus Arteriosus of Preterm Infants
Children 2021, 8(5), 398; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050398 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 360
Abstract
Invasive interventions have been conducted in preterm infants with significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) when medical treatment has failed, and methods of invasive intervention have been reported. Surgical ligation via lateral thoracotomy has been a well-established procedure for decades. Recently, transcatheter occlusion has [...] Read more.
Invasive interventions have been conducted in preterm infants with significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) when medical treatment has failed, and methods of invasive intervention have been reported. Surgical ligation via lateral thoracotomy has been a well-established procedure for decades. Recently, transcatheter occlusion has been safely and feasibly applied to the premature population. However, little research has been conducted on the benefits of transcatheter occlusion in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants compared to surgical ligation. This study compared transcatheter and surgical techniques in VLBW infants in terms of short-term respiratory outcomes. The medical records of 401 VLBW infants admitted to a tertiary hospital between September 2014 and January 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who were diagnosed with a congenital anomaly, a chromosomal anomaly, or congenital heart disease, except for an inter-atrial shunt, were excluded. The perinatal conditions, neonatal morbidities, periprocedural vital signs, and respiratory support trajectories were compared between the transcatheter-treated and surgically ligated group. A total of 31 eligible VLBW infants received invasive intervention: 14 were treated with transcatheter occlusion (Group A), and 17 infants were treated with surgical ligation (Group B). Respiratory outcomes were not statistically significant between the two groups, despite Group A showing a trend toward early improvement in post-intervention respiratory trajectory. In this small case study, a different trend in post-intervention respiratory trajectories was observed. Future research with larger case numbers should be conducted to address our preliminary observations in more detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Heart Disease Research—Neonatal Interventions)
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Article
Growth and Weight Status in Chinese Children and Their Association with Family Environments
by and
Children 2021, 8(5), 397; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050397 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 321
Abstract
The growth status and weight status of Chinese children have experienced remarkable changes in the past decades. Using China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data, this paper examines the secular trends and disparity of the growth status and weight status in Chinese children [...] Read more.
The growth status and weight status of Chinese children have experienced remarkable changes in the past decades. Using China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data, this paper examines the secular trends and disparity of the growth status and weight status in Chinese children and further investigates the impact of various family environments on children’s growth from 1991 to 2011. We found an increasing trend in standardized growth indicators (height, weight, and BMI), overweight, and obesity from 1991 to 2011. We also observed an increasing disparity in overweight and obesity over time. Family environments had a significant impact on children’s growth status and weight status. In particular, children that live in families with a small size, higher family income, better sanitary conditions, and with well-educated parents or overweight parents tended to be taller and heavier and have a higher BMI, lower risk of being underweight, and higher risk of exhibiting overweight and obesity. Further decomposition analysis showed that more than 70% of the disparity in standardized height, weight, and overweight and around 50% of the disparity in standardized BMI, underweight, and obesity could be attributed to heterogeneity in family environments. Moreover, the disparity associated with family environments tended to increase over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
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