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Review

Early Microbial–Immune Interactions and Innate Immune Training of the Respiratory System during Health and Disease

1
Division of Pediatric Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Children’s National Hospital, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA
2
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota 111321, Colombia
3
Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, School of Medicine, Universidad El Bosque, Bogota 110121, Colombia
4
Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anna Nilsson
Received: 27 April 2021 / Revised: 12 May 2021 / Accepted: 16 May 2021 / Published: 19 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Infection and Immunity)
Over the past two decades, several studies have positioned early-life microbial exposure as a key factor for protection or susceptibility to respiratory diseases. Birth cohorts have identified a strong link between neonatal bacterial colonization of the nasal airway and gut with the risk for respiratory infections and childhood asthma. Translational studies have provided companion mechanistic insights on how viral and bacterial exposures in early life affect immune development at the respiratory mucosal barrier. In this review, we summarize and discuss our current understanding of how early microbial–immune interactions occur during infancy, with a particular focus on the emergent paradigm of “innate immune training”. Future human-based studies including newborns and infants are needed to inform the timing and key pathways implicated in the development, maturation, and innate training of the airway immune response, and how early microbiota and virus exposures modulate these processes in the respiratory system during health and disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiome; early-life; bronchiolitis; asthma microbiome; early-life; bronchiolitis; asthma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nino, G.; Rodriguez-Martinez, C.E.; Gutierrez, M.J. Early Microbial–Immune Interactions and Innate Immune Training of the Respiratory System during Health and Disease. Children 2021, 8, 413. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050413

AMA Style

Nino G, Rodriguez-Martinez CE, Gutierrez MJ. Early Microbial–Immune Interactions and Innate Immune Training of the Respiratory System during Health and Disease. Children. 2021; 8(5):413. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050413

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nino, Gustavo, Carlos E. Rodriguez-Martinez, and Maria J. Gutierrez. 2021. "Early Microbial–Immune Interactions and Innate Immune Training of the Respiratory System during Health and Disease" Children 8, no. 5: 413. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050413

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