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Informatics, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The paper describes a complete framework for the setup of a natural user interface based on dynamic hand gestures. RGB-D sensors are used as a capturing device. The system is developed for the challenging automotive context, aiming at reducing the driver’s distraction during driving activity. Specifically, the proposed framework is based on a multimodal combination of convolutional neural networks whose input is represented by depth and infrared images, achieving a good level of light invariance, a key element in vision-based in-car systems. View this paper
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Use of Virtual Reality to Reduce Anxiety and Pain of Adults Undergoing Outpatient Procedures
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030036 - 19 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
(1) Background: Research has demonstrated that virtual reality (VR) has reduced pain and anxiety for patients undergoing health procedures. The aim of this quality improvement project was to implement and evaluate immersive VR as a non-pharmacological intervention to reduce pain and anxiety [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Research has demonstrated that virtual reality (VR) has reduced pain and anxiety for patients undergoing health procedures. The aim of this quality improvement project was to implement and evaluate immersive VR as a non-pharmacological intervention to reduce pain and anxiety in those adults undergoing outpatient procedures under monitored anesthesia care. (2) Methods: This quality improvement project incorporated the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) model and employed a pre/post-implementation evaluation. Seven patients used VR during outpatient surgeries. Pain and anxiety scores were evaluated. (3) Results: Patients using VR exhibited lower pain and anxiety scores post-procedure compared to pre-procedure. Both patients and providers indicated high satisfaction with the VR experience. (4) Conclusions: This quality improvement project demonstrated the successful translation of research into practice. VR is a novel intervention that can reduce both pain and anxiety to improve the patient’s perioperative experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Virtual Simulation and Virtual Reality in Nursing)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Casual COVID-19 Data Visualizations on Twitter: Topics and Challenges
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030035 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2445
Abstract
Social networking sites such as Twitter have been a popular choice for people to express their opinions, report real-life events, and provide a perspective on what is happening around the world. In the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, people have used Twitter to [...] Read more.
Social networking sites such as Twitter have been a popular choice for people to express their opinions, report real-life events, and provide a perspective on what is happening around the world. In the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, people have used Twitter to spontaneously share data visualizations from news outlets and government agencies and to post casual data visualizations that they individually crafted. We conducted a Twitter crawl of 5409 visualizations (from the period between 14 April 2020 and 9 May 2020) to capture what people are posting. Our study explores what people are posting, what they retweet the most, and the challenges that may arise when interpreting COVID-19 data visualization on Twitter. Our findings show that multiple factors, such as the source of the data, who created the chart (individual vs. organization), the type of visualization, and the variables on the chart influence the retweet count of the original post. We identify and discuss five challenges that arise when interpreting these casual data visualizations, and discuss recommendations that should be considered by Twitter users while designing COVID-19 data visualizations to facilitate data interpretation and to avoid the spread of misconceptions and confusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Big Data)
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Open AccessArticle
Review of Kalah Game Research and the Proposition of a Novel Heuristic–Deterministic Algorithm Compared to Tree-Search Solutions and Human Decision-Making
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030034 - 14 Sep 2020
Viewed by 930
Abstract
The Kalah game represents the most popular version of probably the oldest board game ever—the Mancala game. From this viewpoint, the art of playing Kalah can contribute to cultural heritage. This paper primarily focuses on a review of Kalah history and on a [...] Read more.
The Kalah game represents the most popular version of probably the oldest board game ever—the Mancala game. From this viewpoint, the art of playing Kalah can contribute to cultural heritage. This paper primarily focuses on a review of Kalah history and on a survey of research made so far for solving and analyzing the Kalah game (and some other related Mancala games). This review concludes that even if strong in-depth tree-search solutions for some types of the game were already published, it is still reasonable to develop less time-consumptive and computationally-demanding playing algorithms and their strategies Therefore, the paper also presents an original heuristic algorithm based on particular deterministic strategies arising from the analysis of the game rules. Standard and modified mini–max tree-search algorithms are introduced as well. A simple C++ application with Qt framework is developed to perform the algorithm verification and comparative experiments. Two sets of benchmark tests are made; namely, a tournament where a mid–experienced amateur human player competes with the three algorithms is introduced first. Then, a round-robin tournament of all the algorithms is presented. It can be deduced that the proposed heuristic algorithm has comparable success to the human player and to low-depth tree-search solutions. Moreover, multiple-case experiments proved that the opening move has a decisive impact on winning or losing. Namely, if the computer plays first, the human opponent cannot beat it. Contrariwise, if it starts to play second, using the heuristic algorithm, it nearly always loses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper in Informatics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
VNF Chaining Performance Characterization under Multi-Feature and Oversubscription Using SR-IOV
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030033 - 14 Sep 2020
Viewed by 886
Abstract
Network Function Virtualization (NFV) has revolutionized the way network services are offered, leading Enterprise and Service Providers to increasingly adapt their portfolio of network products in order to reap the benefits of flexible network service deployment and cost reduction promises. With this method, [...] Read more.
Network Function Virtualization (NFV) has revolutionized the way network services are offered, leading Enterprise and Service Providers to increasingly adapt their portfolio of network products in order to reap the benefits of flexible network service deployment and cost reduction promises. With this method, network services are offered in the form of software images instead of dedicated hardware. However, NFV presents several challenges, including standard networking challenges (e.g., security, resilience, and availability), management and orchestration challenges, resource allocation challenges, and performance trade-off challenges of using standard x86 servers instead of dedicated and proprietary hardware. The first three challenges are typical challenges found in virtualization environments and have been extensively addressed in the literature. However, the performance trade-off challenge can be the most impactful when offering networking services, negatively affecting the throughput and delay performance achieved. Thus, in this paper, we investigate and propose several configurations on a virtualized system for increasing the performance in terms of throughput and delay while chaining multiple virtual network functions (VNFs) in case of an undersubscribed and oversubscribed system, where the resource demands exceeds the physical resource capacity. Specifically, we use the Single Root Input Output Virtualization (SR-IOV) as our Input/Output (I/O) technology, and analyze the attainable throughput and delay when running multiple chained VNFs in a standard x86 server under various resource footprints and network features configurations. We show that the system throughput and delay in a multi-chained environment, offering multiple features, and under oversubscription can affect the overall performance of VNFs. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Gutenberg Goes Neural: Comparing Features of Dutch Human Translations with Raw Neural Machine Translation Outputs in a Corpus of English Literary Classics
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030032 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Due to the growing success of neural machine translation (NMT), many have started to question its applicability within the field of literary translation. In order to grasp the possibilities of NMT, we studied the output of the neural machine system of Google Translate [...] Read more.
Due to the growing success of neural machine translation (NMT), many have started to question its applicability within the field of literary translation. In order to grasp the possibilities of NMT, we studied the output of the neural machine system of Google Translate (GNMT) and DeepL when applied to four classic novels translated from English into Dutch. The quality of the NMT systems is discussed by focusing on manual annotations, and we also employed various metrics in order to get an insight into lexical richness, local cohesion, syntactic, and stylistic difference. Firstly, we discovered that a large proportion of the translated sentences contained errors. We also observed a lower level of lexical richness and local cohesion in the NMTs compared to the human translations. In addition, NMTs are more likely to follow the syntactic structure of a source sentence, whereas human translations can differ. Lastly, the human translations deviate from the machine translations in style. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human-Computer Interaction)
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Open AccessArticle
Multimodal Hand Gesture Classification for the Human–Car Interaction
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030031 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
The recent spread of low-cost and high-quality RGB-D and infrared sensors has supported the development of Natural User Interfaces (NUIs) in which the interaction is carried without the use of physical devices such as keyboards and mouse. In this paper, we propose a [...] Read more.
The recent spread of low-cost and high-quality RGB-D and infrared sensors has supported the development of Natural User Interfaces (NUIs) in which the interaction is carried without the use of physical devices such as keyboards and mouse. In this paper, we propose a NUI based on dynamic hand gestures, acquired with RGB, depth and infrared sensors. The system is developed for the challenging automotive context, aiming at reducing the driver’s distraction during the driving activity. Specifically, the proposed framework is based on a multimodal combination of Convolutional Neural Networks whose input is represented by depth and infrared images, achieving a good level of light invariance, a key element in vision-based in-car systems. We test our system on a recent multimodal dataset collected in a realistic automotive setting, placing the sensors in an innovative point of view, i.e., in the tunnel console looking upwards. The dataset consists of a great amount of labelled frames containing 12 dynamic gestures performed by multiple subjects, making it suitable for deep learning-based approaches. In addition, we test the system on a different well-known public dataset, created for the interaction between the driver and the car. Experimental results on both datasets reveal the efficacy and the real-time performance of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human-Computer Interaction)
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Open AccessArticle
Conceptualization and Research Progress on Web-Based Product Co-Design
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030030 - 24 Aug 2020
Viewed by 988
Abstract
Web-based stakeholders’ participation in product co-design is an emerging business model for companies. However, research on user’s online involvement in product co-design is limited. In this paper, we investigated the three major interdisciplinary academic databases Web of Science, Scopus, and ScienceDirect (data collected [...] Read more.
Web-based stakeholders’ participation in product co-design is an emerging business model for companies. However, research on user’s online involvement in product co-design is limited. In this paper, we investigated the three major interdisciplinary academic databases Web of Science, Scopus, and ScienceDirect (data collected in May 2020), with the aim of explaining the meaning, core concepts, historical roots, and research trends of co-design. A total of 39 of the deemed relevant studies were emphatically analyzed, systematically discusses the concept implication and development status of co-design, and the key points of web-based product co-design research, as well as the future research direction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Automated Configuration of NoSQL Performance and Scalability Tactics for Data-Intensive Applications
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030029 - 08 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1239
Abstract
This paper presents the architecture, implementation and evaluation of a middleware support layer for NoSQL storage systems. Our middleware automatically selects performance and scalability tactics in terms of application specific workloads. Enterprises are turning to NoSQL storage technologies for their data-intensive computing and [...] Read more.
This paper presents the architecture, implementation and evaluation of a middleware support layer for NoSQL storage systems. Our middleware automatically selects performance and scalability tactics in terms of application specific workloads. Enterprises are turning to NoSQL storage technologies for their data-intensive computing and analytics applications. Comprehensive benchmarks of different Big Data platforms can help drive decisions which solutions to adopt. However, selecting the best performing technology, configuring the deployment for scalability and tuning parameters at runtime for an optimal service delivery remain challenging tasks, especially when application workloads evolve over time. Our middleware solves this problem at runtime by monitoring the data growth, changes in the read-write-query mix at run-time, as well as other system metrics that are indicative of sub-optimal performance. Our middleware employs supervised machine learning on historic and current monitoring information and corresponding configurations to select the best combinations of high-level tactics and adapt NoSQL systems to evolving workloads. This work has been driven by two real world case studies with different QoS requirements. The evaluation demonstrates that our middleware can adapt to unseen workloads of data-intensive applications, and automate the configuration of different families of NoSQL systems at runtime to optimize the performance and scalability of such applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Big Data)
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling User Preference for Embodied Artificial Intelligence and Appearance in Realistic Humanoid Robots
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030028 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
Realistic humanoid robots (RHRs) with embodied artificial intelligence (EAI) have numerous applications in society as the human face is the most natural interface for communication and the human body the most effective form for traversing the manmade areas of the planet. Thus, developing [...] Read more.
Realistic humanoid robots (RHRs) with embodied artificial intelligence (EAI) have numerous applications in society as the human face is the most natural interface for communication and the human body the most effective form for traversing the manmade areas of the planet. Thus, developing RHRs with high degrees of human-likeness provides a life-like vessel for humans to physically and naturally interact with technology in a manner insurmountable to any other form of non-biological human emulation. This study outlines a human–robot interaction (HRI) experiment employing two automated RHRs with a contrasting appearance and personality. The selective sample group employed in this study is composed of 20 individuals, categorised by age and gender for a diverse statistical analysis. Galvanic skin response, facial expression analysis, and AI analytics permitted cross-analysis of biometric and AI data with participant testimonies to reify the results. This study concludes that younger test subjects preferred HRI with a younger-looking RHR and the more senior age group with an older looking RHR. Moreover, the female test group preferred HRI with an RHR with a younger appearance and male subjects with an older looking RHR. This research is useful for modelling the appearance and personality of RHRs with EAI for specific jobs such as care for the elderly and social companions for the young, isolated, and vulnerable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper in Informatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Building a Persuasive Virtual Dietitian
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030027 - 30 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1272
Abstract
This paper describes the Multimedia Application for Diet Management (MADiMan), a system that supports users in managing their diets while admitting diet transgressions. MADiMan consists of a numerical reasoner that takes into account users’ dietary constraints and automatically adapts the users’ diet, and [...] Read more.
This paper describes the Multimedia Application for Diet Management (MADiMan), a system that supports users in managing their diets while admitting diet transgressions. MADiMan consists of a numerical reasoner that takes into account users’ dietary constraints and automatically adapts the users’ diet, and of a natural language generation (NLG) system that automatically creates textual messages for explaining the results provided by the reasoner with the aim of persuading users to stick to a healthy diet. In the first part of the paper, we introduce the MADiMan system and, in particular, the basic mechanisms related to reasoning, data interpretation and content selection for a numeric data-to-text NLG system. We also discuss a number of factors influencing the design of the textual messages produced. In particular, we describe in detail the design of the sentence-aggregation procedure, which determines the compactness of the final message by applying two aggregation strategies. In the second part of the paper, we present the app that we developed, CheckYourMeal!, and the results of two human-based quantitative evaluations of the NLG module conducted using CheckYourMeal! in a simulation. The first evaluation, conducted with twenty users, ascertained both the perceived usefulness of graphics/text and the appeal, easiness and persuasiveness of the textual messages. The second evaluation, conducted with thirty-nine users, ascertained their persuasive power. The evaluations were based on the analysis of questionnaires and of logged data of users’ behaviour. Both evaluations showed significant results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers: Health Informatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Crossing the Power Line: Using Virtual Simulation to Prepare the First Responders of Utility Linemen
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030026 - 29 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1284
Abstract
Virtual reality (VR) healthcare simulation has helped learners develop skills that are transferable to real-word conditions. Innovative strategies are needed to train workers to improve community safety. The purpose of this pilot project was to evaluate the use of a VR simulation applying [...] Read more.
Virtual reality (VR) healthcare simulation has helped learners develop skills that are transferable to real-word conditions. Innovative strategies are needed to train workers to improve community safety. The purpose of this pilot project was to evaluate the use of a VR simulation applying the International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning (INACSL) Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM Simulation Design with eight power line workers. Six power industry supervisors and educators assisted in facilitating three VR simulations with eight linemen participants. Kotter’s eight steps to leading change and the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM Simulation Design were utilized in working with energy leaders and VR developers to carry out this pilot project. Pre- and post-implementation surveys demonstrated a 28% improvement in participants’ learning outcomes. All three learning objectives were met. This project demonstrated the successful application of a translational framework and the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM in a VR context in the power industry. This process may be helpful to guide or inspire further adoption of VR in unconventional settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Virtual Simulation and Virtual Reality in Nursing)
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical Implementation of Predictive Models Embedded within Electronic Health Record Systems: A Systematic Review
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030025 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Predictive analytics using electronic health record (EHR) data have rapidly advanced over the last decade. While model performance metrics have improved considerably, best practices for implementing predictive models into clinical settings for point-of-care risk stratification are still evolving. Here, we conducted a systematic [...] Read more.
Predictive analytics using electronic health record (EHR) data have rapidly advanced over the last decade. While model performance metrics have improved considerably, best practices for implementing predictive models into clinical settings for point-of-care risk stratification are still evolving. Here, we conducted a systematic review of articles describing predictive models integrated into EHR systems and implemented in clinical practice. We conducted an exhaustive database search and extracted data encompassing multiple facets of implementation. We assessed study quality and level of evidence. We obtained an initial 3393 articles for screening, from which a final set of 44 articles was included for data extraction and analysis. The most common clinical domains of implemented predictive models were related to thrombotic disorders/anticoagulation (25%) and sepsis (16%). The majority of studies were conducted in inpatient academic settings. Implementation challenges included alert fatigue, lack of training, and increased work burden on the care team. Of 32 studies that reported effects on clinical outcomes, 22 (69%) demonstrated improvement after model implementation. Overall, EHR-based predictive models offer promising results for improving clinical outcomes, although several gaps in the literature remain, and most study designs were observational. Future studies using randomized controlled trials may help improve the generalizability of findings. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Modeling of Open Government Data for Public Sector Organizations Using the Potential Theories and Determinants—A Systematic Review
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030024 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Open government data (OGD) has huge potential to increase transparency, accountability, and participation while improving efficiency in operations, data-driven and evidence-based policymaking, and trust in government institutions. Despite its potential benefits, OGD has not been widely and successfully adopted in public sector organizations, [...] Read more.
Open government data (OGD) has huge potential to increase transparency, accountability, and participation while improving efficiency in operations, data-driven and evidence-based policymaking, and trust in government institutions. Despite its potential benefits, OGD has not been widely and successfully adopted in public sector organizations, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the theories/frameworks and potential determinants that influence the OGD adoption in public sector organizations. To ascertain the various determinants of OGD adoption in public sector organizations, this study involved a systematic review of already established theories and determinants addressed in the public sector open data domain. The review revealed that the TOE (technology, organization, environment) framework was dominantly employed over theories in the earlier studies to understand organizational adoption to OGD followed by institutional theory. The results, concerning potential determinants, revealed that some of the most frequently addressed determinants are an organization’s digitization/digitalization capacity, compliance pressure, financial resources, legislation, policy, regulations, organizational culture, political leadership commitment, top-management support, and data quality. The findings will enrich researchers to empirically investigate the exposed determinants and improve the understanding of decision-makers to leverage OGD adoption by taking relevant measures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Smart Cities Safety Using Sound Events Detection Based on Deep Neural Network Algorithms
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030023 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
In recent years, security in urban areas has gradually assumed a central position, focusing increasing attention on citizens, institutions and political forces. Security problems have a different nature—to name a few, we can think of the problems deriving from citizens’ mobility, then move [...] Read more.
In recent years, security in urban areas has gradually assumed a central position, focusing increasing attention on citizens, institutions and political forces. Security problems have a different nature—to name a few, we can think of the problems deriving from citizens’ mobility, then move on to microcrime, and end up with the ever-present risk of terrorism. Equipping a smart city with an infrastructure of sensors capable of alerting security managers about a possible risk becomes crucial for the safety of citizens. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to manage citizens’ needs is now widespread, to highlight the possible risks to public safety. These risks were then increased using these devices to carry out terrorist attacks in various places around the world. Detecting the presence of drones is not a simple procedure given the small size and the presence of only rotating parts. This study presents the results of studies carried out on the detection of the presence of UAVs in outdoor/indoor urban sound environments. For the detection of UAVs, sensors capable of measuring the sound emitted by UAVs and algorithms based on deep neural networks capable of identifying their spectral signature that were used. The results obtained suggest the adoption of this methodology for improving the safety of smart cities. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Investigation of Women’s Health on Wikipedia—A Temporal Analysis of Women’s Health Topic
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030022 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
New health-related concepts, terms, and topics emerge, and the meanings of existing terms and topics keep changing. This study investigated and explored the evolutions of the women’s health topic on Wikipedia. The creation time, page views data, page edits data, and text of [...] Read more.
New health-related concepts, terms, and topics emerge, and the meanings of existing terms and topics keep changing. This study investigated and explored the evolutions of the women’s health topic on Wikipedia. The creation time, page views data, page edits data, and text of historical versions of 207 women-health-related entries from 2010 to 2017 on Wikipedia were collected. Coding, subject analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, and Self-Organizing Map and n-gram approaches were employed to explore the characteristics and evolutions of the entries for the women’s health topic. The results show that the number of the women-health-related entries kept increasing from 2010 to 2017, and nearly half of them were related to the supports and protection of women’s health. The total number of page views of the investigated items increased from 2011 to 2013, but it decreased from 2013 to 2017, while the total number of page edits stayed stable from 2010 to 2017. Growing subjects were found during the investigated period, such as abuse and violence, and family planning and reproduction. However, the entries related to the economy and politics were diminishing. There was no association between the internal characteristic evolution and the external popularity evolution of the women’s health topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers: Health Informatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Expert Refined Topic Models to Edit Topic Clusters in Image Analysis Applied to Welding Engineering
Informatics 2020, 7(3), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics7030021 - 29 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1359
Abstract
This paper proposes a new method to generate edited topics or clusters to analyze images for prioritizing quality issues. The approach is associated with a new way for subject matter experts to edit the cluster definitions by “zapping” or “boosting” pixels. We refer [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new method to generate edited topics or clusters to analyze images for prioritizing quality issues. The approach is associated with a new way for subject matter experts to edit the cluster definitions by “zapping” or “boosting” pixels. We refer to the information entered by users or experts as “high-level” data and we are apparently the first to allow in our model for the possibility of errors coming from the experts. The collapsed Gibbs sampler is proposed that permits efficient processing for datasets involving tens of thousands of records. Numerical examples illustrate the benefits of the high-level data related to improving accuracy measured by Kullback–Leibler (KL) distance. The numerical examples include a Tungsten inert gas example from the literature. In addition, a novel laser aluminum alloy image application illustrates the assignment of welds to groups that correspond to part conformance standards. Full article
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