Next Article in Journal
A Simplified and High Accuracy Algorithm of RSSI-Based Localization Zoning for Children Tracking In-Out the School Buses Using Bluetooth Low Energy Beacon
Previous Article in Journal
Towards AI-Enabled Multimodal Diagnostics and Management of COVID-19 and Comorbidities in Resource-Limited Settings
Article

Artificial Eyes with Emotion and Light Responsive Pupils for Realistic Humanoid Robots

School of Computing, Edinburgh Napier University, 9 Sighthill Ct, Edinburgh EH11 4BN, UK
Academic Editor: Antony Bryant
Received: 24 August 2021 / Revised: 13 September 2021 / Accepted: 20 September 2021 / Published: 23 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Human-Computer Interaction)
This study employs a novel 3D engineered robotic eye system with dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) pupils and a 3D sculpted and colourised gelatin iris membrane to replicate the appearance and materiality of the human eye. A camera system for facial expression analysis (FEA) was installed in the left eye, and a photo-resistor for measuring light frequencies in the right. Unlike previous prototypes, this configuration permits the robotic eyes to respond to both light and emotion proximal to a human eye. A series of experiments were undertaken using a pupil tracking headset to monitor test subjects when observing positive and negative video stimuli. A second test measured pupil dilation ranges to high and low light frequencies using a high-powered artificial light. This data was converted into a series of algorithms for servomotor triangulation to control the photosensitive and emotive pupil dilation sequences. The robotic eyes were evaluated against the pupillometric data and video feeds of the human eyes to determine operational accuracy. Finally, the dilating robotic eye system was installed in a realistic humanoid robot (RHR) and comparatively evaluated in a human-robot interaction (HRI) experiment. The results of this study show that the robotic eyes can emulate the average pupil reflex of the human eye under typical light conditions and to positive and negative emotive stimuli. However, the results of the HRI experiment indicate that replicating natural eye contact behaviour was more significant than emulating pupil dilation. View Full-Text
Keywords: pupil interfacing; human-robot interaction; dielectric elastomer actuation; soft robotics; uncanny valley pupil interfacing; human-robot interaction; dielectric elastomer actuation; soft robotics; uncanny valley
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Strathearn, C. Artificial Eyes with Emotion and Light Responsive Pupils for Realistic Humanoid Robots. Informatics 2021, 8, 64. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics8040064

AMA Style

Strathearn C. Artificial Eyes with Emotion and Light Responsive Pupils for Realistic Humanoid Robots. Informatics. 2021; 8(4):64. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics8040064

Chicago/Turabian Style

Strathearn, Carl. 2021. "Artificial Eyes with Emotion and Light Responsive Pupils for Realistic Humanoid Robots" Informatics 8, no. 4: 64. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics8040064

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop