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Article

A Simplified and High Accuracy Algorithm of RSSI-Based Localization Zoning for Children Tracking In-Out the School Buses Using Bluetooth Low Energy Beacon

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School of Engineering and Technology, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand
2
Center of Excellence on Wood and Biomaterials, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand
3
Center of Excellence for Sustainable Disaster Management, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand
4
National Institute of Public Administration (INTAN), Kuala Lumpur 50480, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andy T. C. Wong and Lee D. Han
Received: 18 August 2021 / Revised: 16 September 2021 / Accepted: 20 September 2021 / Published: 25 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Transportation)
To avoid problems related to a school bus service such as kidnapping, children being left in a bus for hours leading to fatality, etc., it is important to have a reliable transportation service to ensure students’ safety along journeys. This research presents a high accuracy child monitoring system for locating students if they are inside or outside a school bus using the Internet of Things (IoT) via Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) which is suitable for a signal strength indication (RSSI) algorithm. The in/out-bus child tracking system alerts a driver to determine if there is a child left on the bus or not. Distance between devices is analyzed for decision making to affiliate the zone of the current children’s position. A simplified and high accuracy machine learning of least mean square (LMS) algorithm is used in this research with model-based RSSI localization techniques. The distance is calculated with the grid size of 0.5 m × 0.5 m similar in size to an actual seat of a school bus using two zones (inside or outside a school bus). The averaged signal strength is proposed for this research, rather than using the raw value of the signal strength in typical works, providing a robust position-tracking system with high accuracy while maintaining the simplicity of the classical trilateration method leading to precise classification of each student from each zone. The test was performed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking strategy which precisely shows the positions of each student. The proposed method, therefore, can be applied for future autopilot school buses where students’ home locations can be securely stored in the system used for references to transport each student to their homes without a driver. View Full-Text
Keywords: bluetooth low energy; RSSI; distance; least mean square; positioning; localization zoning bluetooth low energy; RSSI; distance; least mean square; positioning; localization zoning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sakphrom, S.; Suwannarat, K.; Haiges, R.; Funsian, K. A Simplified and High Accuracy Algorithm of RSSI-Based Localization Zoning for Children Tracking In-Out the School Buses Using Bluetooth Low Energy Beacon. Informatics 2021, 8, 65. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics8040065

AMA Style

Sakphrom S, Suwannarat K, Haiges R, Funsian K. A Simplified and High Accuracy Algorithm of RSSI-Based Localization Zoning for Children Tracking In-Out the School Buses Using Bluetooth Low Energy Beacon. Informatics. 2021; 8(4):65. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics8040065

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sakphrom, Siraporn, Korakot Suwannarat, Rina Haiges, and Krit Funsian. 2021. "A Simplified and High Accuracy Algorithm of RSSI-Based Localization Zoning for Children Tracking In-Out the School Buses Using Bluetooth Low Energy Beacon" Informatics 8, no. 4: 65. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/informatics8040065

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