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Article

Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to the Fumigation of Two Essential Satureja Oils: Optimization and Modeling

1
Moghan College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil 56199-36514, Iran
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
3
Aromatic Plant Research Center, 230 N 1200 E, Suite 100, Lehi, UT 84043, USA
4
Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Fernández-Calviño
Received: 18 June 2021 / Revised: 10 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 July 2021 / Published: 19 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Postharvest Process Systems)
Due to the numerous side effects of synthetic pesticides, including environmental pollution, threats to human health, harmful effects on non-target organisms and pest resistance, the use of alternative healthy, available and efficient agents in pest management strategies is necessary. In this paper, the susceptibility of the cosmopolitan, polyphagous, stored-product pest Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) to the fumigation of the essential oils of two important medicinal and food additive plants, Satureja hortensis and S. intermedia, was investigated. The insecticidal properties of the essential oils were modeled and optimized using response surface methodology. It was found that a maximum significant mortality of 94.72% and 92.97% could be achieved within 72 h with the applications of 55.15 µL/L of S. hortensis (with the linear model) and 58.82 µL/L of S. intermedia (with the quadratic model), respectively. There were insecticidal terpenes and phenylpropanoids in both essential oils, including thymol (50.8%), carvacrol (11.2%) and p-cymene (13.4%), in the S. intermedia and estragole (68.0%) and methyl eugenol (5.6%) in the S. hortensis. It was suggested that the essential oils of S. hortensis and S. intermedia could be offered as promising pesticidal agents against T. castaneum for further studies in the management of such pests instead of detrimental synthetic pesticides. View Full-Text
Keywords: biorational pesticides; chemical profile; fumigant toxicity; modeling; optimization; S. hortensis; S. intermedia biorational pesticides; chemical profile; fumigant toxicity; modeling; optimization; S. hortensis; S. intermedia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ebadollahi, A.; Taghinezhad, E.; Setzer, W.N.; Chen, G. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to the Fumigation of Two Essential Satureja Oils: Optimization and Modeling. Processes 2021, 9, 1243. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9071243

AMA Style

Ebadollahi A, Taghinezhad E, Setzer WN, Chen G. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to the Fumigation of Two Essential Satureja Oils: Optimization and Modeling. Processes. 2021; 9(7):1243. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9071243

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ebadollahi, Asgar, Ebrahim Taghinezhad, William N. Setzer, and Guangnan Chen. 2021. "Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to the Fumigation of Two Essential Satureja Oils: Optimization and Modeling" Processes 9, no. 7: 1243. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9071243

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