Next Issue
Volume 9, October
Previous Issue
Volume 9, August

Processes, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2021) – 208 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): With the rapid development of solar energy, photovoltaic (PV) module fault detection plays an important role in knowing how to enhance the reliability of the solar system and the fault type when a system problem occurs. The proposed hybrid algorithm of the chaos synchronization detection method (CSDM) with a convolutional neural network (CNN) is used for developing an intelligent PV module fault detection system. The original signal is measured by the NI PXI-5105 high-speed data acquisition system and is calculated by CSDM to establish the chaos dynamic error map as the image feature for diagnosing the fault state of the PV modules by CNN. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Effect of Pulse Type and Substitution Level on Dough Rheology and Bread Quality of Whole Wheat-Based Composite Flours
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1687; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091687 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 557
Abstract
Pulse flours are commonly added to food products to improve the functional properties, nutritional profiles, product quality and health benefits. This study aimed at assessing the effects of the partial replacement (0–25%) of whole wheat flour with diversified whole pulse flours (yellow pea, [...] Read more.
Pulse flours are commonly added to food products to improve the functional properties, nutritional profiles, product quality and health benefits. This study aimed at assessing the effects of the partial replacement (0–25%) of whole wheat flour with diversified whole pulse flours (yellow pea, green pea, red lentil, and chickpea) on dough properties and bread quality. The pulse flours had higher protein contents and ash, but lower moisture content and larger average particle size, compared to whole wheat flour. Increasing the substitution level of pulse flours decreased dough viscosity, stability, development time and bread volume, and accelerated bread retrogradation. The incorporation of 5% yellow pea flour led to a similar bread quality as that with only whole wheat flour. Among all the tested pulse flours, the composite flour containing yellow pea flour or chickpea flour had overall better potential for bread making by providing good dough handling properties and product quality. This study will benefit the development of more nutritious food products by combining cereal and pulse ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Properties Analysis of Grain Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Numerical Procedure for Multivariate Calibration Using Heteroscedastic Principal Components Regression
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1686; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091686 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Many methods have been developed to allow for consideration of measurement errors during multivariate data analyses. The incorporation of the error structure into the analytical framework, usually described in terms of the covariance matrix of measurement errors, can provide better model estimation and [...] Read more.
Many methods have been developed to allow for consideration of measurement errors during multivariate data analyses. The incorporation of the error structure into the analytical framework, usually described in terms of the covariance matrix of measurement errors, can provide better model estimation and prediction. However, little effort has been made to evaluate the effects of heteroscedastic measurement uncertainties on multivariate analyses when the covariance matrix of measurement errors changes with the measurement conditions. For this reason, the present work describes a new numerical procedure for analyses of heteroscedastic systems (heteroscedastic principal component regression or H-PCR) that takes into consideration the variations of the covariance matrix of measurement fluctuations. In order to illustrate the proposed approach, near infrared (NIR) spectra of xylene and toluene mixtures were measured at different temperatures and stirring velocities and the obtained data were used to build calibration models with different multivariate techniques, including H-PCR. Modeling of available xylene–toluene NIR data revealed that H-PCR can be used successfully for calibration purposes and that the principal directions obtained with the proposed approach can be quite different from the ones calculated through standard PCR, when heteroscedasticity is disregarded explicitly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redesign Processes in the Age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Review on the Battery Model and SOC Estimation Method
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1685; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091685 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 637
Abstract
The accuracy of the power battery model and SOC estimation directly affects the vehicle energy management control strategy and the performance of the electric vehicle, which is of great significance to the efficient management of the battery and the improvement of the reliability [...] Read more.
The accuracy of the power battery model and SOC estimation directly affects the vehicle energy management control strategy and the performance of the electric vehicle, which is of great significance to the efficient management of the battery and the improvement of the reliability of the vehicle. Based on the research of domestic and foreign battery models and the previous results of SOC estimation, this paper classifies power battery models into electrochemical mechanism models, equivalent circuit models and data-driven models. This paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of various battery models and current research progress. According to the choice of battery model, the previous research results of the power battery SOC estimation method are divided into three categories: the direct measurement method not based on battery model, the estimation method using black box battery model, and the battery model SOC estimation method based on state space. This paper will summarize and analyze the principles, applicable scenarios and research progress of the three categories of estimation algorithms aiming to provide references for future in-depth research. Finally, in view of the shortcomings of the battery model and estimation algorithm of the existing method, the future improvement direction is proposed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Reactive Chromatography Applied to Ethyl Levulinate Synthesis: A Proof of Concept
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1684; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091684 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Levulinic acid (LA) has been highlighted as one of the most promising platform chemicals, providing a wide range of possible derivatizations to value-added chemicals as the ethyl levulinate obtained through an acid catalyzed esterification reaction with ethanol that has found application in the [...] Read more.
Levulinic acid (LA) has been highlighted as one of the most promising platform chemicals, providing a wide range of possible derivatizations to value-added chemicals as the ethyl levulinate obtained through an acid catalyzed esterification reaction with ethanol that has found application in the bio-fuel market. Being a reversible reaction, the main drawback is the production of water that does not allow full conversion of levulinic acid. The aim of this work was to prove that the chromatographic reactor technology, in which the solid material of the packed bed acts both as stationary phase and catalyst, is surely a valid option to overcome such an issue by overcoming the thermodynamic equilibrium. The experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed chromatographic reactor, packed with Dowex 50WX-8 as ion exchange resin. Different operational conditions were varied (e.g., temperature and flow rate), pulsing levulinic acid to the ethanol stream, to investigate the main effects on the final conversion and separation efficiency of the system. The effects were described qualitatively, demonstrating that working at sufficiently low flow rates, LA was completely converted, while at moderate flow rates, only a partial conversion was achieved. The system worked properly even at room temperature (303 K), where LA was completely converted, an encouraging result as esterification reactions are normally performed at higher temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification in Chemical Reaction Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Numerical Study on Flow and Release Characteristics of Gas Extinguishing Agent under Different Filling Pressure and Amount Conditions
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1683; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091683 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 565
Abstract
The fire-extinguishing system is an indispensable fire-protection facility on the aircraft. In order to guide weight reduction of the aircraft’s fixed gas fire-extinguishing system by improving its release efficiency, so as to improve fuel economy and reduce carbon emissions, the influence of filling [...] Read more.
The fire-extinguishing system is an indispensable fire-protection facility on the aircraft. In order to guide weight reduction of the aircraft’s fixed gas fire-extinguishing system by improving its release efficiency, so as to improve fuel economy and reduce carbon emissions, the influence of filling pressures and filling amounts on the release efficiency of gas extinguishing agent along pipelines were studied based on numerical simulations. The release process of the fire-extinguishing system was analyzed. The effects of the filling pressure and filling amount of Halon 1301 agent on the release characteristics, such as release time, mass flow rate, and gasification ratio, were studied. Results show that the release process can be divided into three major phases, which are firstly the initial rapid filling of the pipeline, secondly the concentrated release of the liquid extinguishing agent, and thirdly the gas ejection along the pipeline. The second phase can also be subdivided into two stages: the outflow of the liquid extinguishing agent from the bottle, and the release of the residual liquid extinguishing agent along the pipeline. The release characteristics of the fire-extinguishing agent were obviously affected by the filling pressures and filling amounts. When the filling pressure was relatively low (2.832 MPa), increasing the filling pressure can significantly increase the mass flow rate, shorten the release time, and reduce the gasification ratio of the extinguishing agent during the release processes. Under the same filling pressure, with the increase of the filling amount of the extinguishing agent, the release times and the gasification ratio showed a linear increase trend, while the average mass flow rates showed a linear decrease trend. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Investigation on the Interactive Effects between Temperature and Chemical Composition of Organic Wastes on Anaerobic Co-Digestion Performance
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1682; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091682 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Synergistic effects among different chemical components under the anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) process played an important role in improving its performance, which might be affected by the digesting temperature. The results showed that the actual methane production (AMP) and gasification rate (GR) of 50% [...] Read more.
Synergistic effects among different chemical components under the anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) process played an important role in improving its performance, which might be affected by the digesting temperature. The results showed that the actual methane production (AMP) and gasification rate (GR) of 50% lipid content were the highest, and the carbohydrate and protein content should be adjusted according to the temperature. Under mesophilic conditions, the M1 reactor with high protein content (carbohydrate–lipid–protein ratio, CLP = 20:50:30) had the highest AMP of 552.02 mL/g VS and GR of 74.72%. However, as the temperature increased, the high protein content produced high levels of ammonia nitrogen (AN) and free ammonia (FA), which formed a certain degree of ammonia inhibition, resulting in lower AMP and GR. Under thermophilic conditions, the low protein T2 reactor (CLP = 40:50:10) had the highest AMP and GR at 485.45 mL/g VS and 67.18%. In addition, the M1 and T2 reactors had the highest microbial diversity, which promoted substrate degradation and methane production. In the M1 reactor, acetoclastic metabolism is the main methanogenic pathway, while in the T2 reactor changes to hydrogenotrophic metabolism. Therefore, understanding the synergistic effect between temperature and chemical compositions was an effective way to improve the AcoD effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Anaerobic Digestion Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Optimization of Cascade Cooling System Based on Lithium Bromide Refrigeration in the Polysilicon Industry
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1681; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091681 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Cascade cooling systems containing different cooling methods (e.g., air cooling, water cooling, refrigerating) are used to satisfy the cooling process of hot streams with large temperature spans. An effective cooling system can significantly save energy and costs. In a cascade cooling system, the [...] Read more.
Cascade cooling systems containing different cooling methods (e.g., air cooling, water cooling, refrigerating) are used to satisfy the cooling process of hot streams with large temperature spans. An effective cooling system can significantly save energy and costs. In a cascade cooling system, the heat load distribution between different cooling methods has great impacts on the capital cost and operation cost of the system, but the relative optimization method is not well established. In this work, a cascade cooling system containing waste heat recovery, air cooling, water cooling, absorption refrigeration, and compression refrigeration is proposed. The objective is to find the optimal heat load distribution between different cooling methods with the minimum total annual cost. Aspen Plus and MATLAB were combined to solve the established mathematical optimization model, and the genetic algorithm (GA) in MATLAB was adopted to solve the model. A case study in a polysilicon enterprise was used to illustrate the feasibility and economy of the cascade cooling system. Compared to the base case, which only includes air cooling, water cooling, and compression refrigeration, the cascade cooling system can reduce the total annual cost by USD 931,025·y−1 and save 7,800,820 kWh of electricity per year. It also can recover 3139 kW of low-grade waste heat, and generate and replace a cooling capacity of 2404 kW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Energy Systems towards Carbon Neutrality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Health Benefits and Pharmacological Properties of Hinokitiol
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1680; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091680 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 506
Abstract
Hinokitiol is a natural bioactive compound found in several aromatic and medicinal plants. It is a terpenoid synthetized and secreted by different species as secondary metabolites. This volatile compound was tested and explored for its different biological properties. In this review, we report [...] Read more.
Hinokitiol is a natural bioactive compound found in several aromatic and medicinal plants. It is a terpenoid synthetized and secreted by different species as secondary metabolites. This volatile compound was tested and explored for its different biological properties. In this review, we report the pharmacological properties of hinokitiol by focusing mainly on its anticancer mechanisms. Indeed, it can block cell transformation at different levels by its action on the cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy via inhibiting gene expression and dysregulating cellular signaling pathways. Moreover, hinokitiol also exhibits other pharmacological properties, including antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects. It showed multiple and several effects through its inhibition, interaction and/or activation of the main cellular targets inducing these pathologies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
IAEA-Assisted Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste at the Saakadze Site in Georgia
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1679; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091679 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 471
Abstract
50 m3 of legacy liquid radioactive waste at the Saakadze site in Georgia was treated using a modular type facility with apparatuses encased in three metallic 200 L drums using as purification method the sorption/ion exchange technology. The main contaminant of water [...] Read more.
50 m3 of legacy liquid radioactive waste at the Saakadze site in Georgia was treated using a modular type facility with apparatuses encased in three metallic 200 L drums using as purification method the sorption/ion exchange technology. The main contaminant of water in the underground tank was the long-lived radionuclide 226Ra. The casing of processing equipment enabled an effective conditioning of all secondary waste at the end of treatment campaign which resulted in the fully purified water stored on site for further reuse or discharge, and three 200 L metallic drums with cemented radioactive waste which are currently safely stored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Liquid Radioactive Wastes Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Imbalance Modelling for Defect Detection in Ceramic Substrate by Using Convolutional Neural Network
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1678; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091678 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 361
Abstract
The complexity of defect detection in a ceramic substrate causes interclass and intraclass imbalance problems. Identifying flaws in ceramic substrates has traditionally relied on aberrant material occurrences and characteristic quantities. However, defect substrates in ceramic are typically small and have a wide variety [...] Read more.
The complexity of defect detection in a ceramic substrate causes interclass and intraclass imbalance problems. Identifying flaws in ceramic substrates has traditionally relied on aberrant material occurrences and characteristic quantities. However, defect substrates in ceramic are typically small and have a wide variety of defect distributions, thereby making defect detection more challenging and difficult. Thus, we propose a method for defect detection based on unsupervised learning and deep learning. First, the proposed method conducts K-means clustering for grouping instances according to their inherent complex characteristics. Second, the distribution of rarely occurring instances is balanced by using augmentation filters. Finally, a convolutional neural network is trained by using the balanced dataset. The effectiveness of the proposed method was validated by comparing the results with those of other methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms other methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Artificial Intelligence in Industry and Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Comparative Study of Improvement of Phycoremediation Using a Consortium of Microalgae in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems as an Alternative Solution to Africa’s Sanitation Challenges
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1677; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091677 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 351
Abstract
The reuse of wastewater has been observed as a viable option to cope with increasing water stress in Africa. The present case studies evaluated the optimization of the process of phycoremediation as an alternative low-cost green treatment technology in two municipality wastewater treatment [...] Read more.
The reuse of wastewater has been observed as a viable option to cope with increasing water stress in Africa. The present case studies evaluated the optimization of the process of phycoremediation as an alternative low-cost green treatment technology in two municipality wastewater treatment pond systems that make up the largest number of domestic sewage treatment systems on the African continent. A consortium of specific microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella protothecoides) was used to improve the treatment capacity of domestic wastewater at two operational municipality wastewater pond systems under different environmental conditions in South Africa. Pre- and post-phycoremediation optimization through mass inoculation of a consortium of microalgae, over a period of one year under different environmental conditions, were compared. It was evident that the higher reduction of total phosphates (74.4%) in the effluent, after treatment with a consortium of microalgae at the Motetema pond system, was possibly related to (1) the dominance of the algal taxa C. protothecoides (52%), and to a lesser extent C. vulgaris (36%), (2) more cloudless days, (3) higher air temperature, and (4) a higher domestic wastewater strength. In the case of the Brandwag pond treatment system, the higher reduction of total nitrogen can possibly be related to the dominance of C. vulgaris, different weather conditions, and lower domestic wastewater strength. The nutrient reduction data from the current study clearly presented compelling evidence in terms of the feasibility for use of this technology in developing countries to reduce nutrient loads from domestic wastewater effluent. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Research on Feedback-Linearized Sliding Mode Control of Direct-Drive Volume Control Electro-Hydraulic Servo System
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1676; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091676 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 330
Abstract
In this paper, a control strategy combining the feedback linearization theory and sliding mode variable structure theory is proposed to solve various nonlinear factors, uncertainty of external disturbance and high-precision pressure control problems in the Direct-Drive Volume Control (DDVC) electro-hydraulic servo system. The [...] Read more.
In this paper, a control strategy combining the feedback linearization theory and sliding mode variable structure theory is proposed to solve various nonlinear factors, uncertainty of external disturbance and high-precision pressure control problems in the Direct-Drive Volume Control (DDVC) electro-hydraulic servo system. The nonlinear mathematical model of the DDVC electro-hydraulic servo system is established, and the nonlinear factors in the system are accurately linearized by the feedback linearization theory. The uncertainty of external disturbance in the system is compensated by the sliding mode control variable structure theory. The feedback-linearized sliding mode control algorithm proposed in this paper is verified using the DDVC electro-hydraulic servo system experimental platform. The experimental results show that, compared with the classical PID control, the proposed control algorithm can effectively improve the pressure output precision, as well as the dynamic response characteristics, of the DDVC system. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Extraction Processes Affect the Composition and Bioavailability of Flavones from Lamiaceae Plants: A Comprehensive Review
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1675; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091675 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Lamiaceae plants are a widespread family of herbaceous plants with around 245 plant genera and nearly 22,576 species distributed in the world. Some of the most representative and widely studied Lamiaceae plants belong to the Ocimum, Origanum, Salvia, and Thymus [...] Read more.
Lamiaceae plants are a widespread family of herbaceous plants with around 245 plant genera and nearly 22,576 species distributed in the world. Some of the most representative and widely studied Lamiaceae plants belong to the Ocimum, Origanum, Salvia, and Thymus genera. These plants are a rich source of bioactive molecules such as terpenes, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. In this sense, there is a subgroup of flavonoids classified as flavones. Flavones have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic potential; thus, efficient extraction techniques from their original plant matrixes have been developed. Currently, conventional extraction methods involving organic solvents are no longer recommended due to their environmental consequences, and new environmentally friendly techniques have been developed. Moreover, once extracted, the bioactivity of flavones is highly linked to their bioavailability, which is often neglected. This review aims to comprehensively gather recent information (2011–2021) regarding extraction techniques and their important relationship with the bioavailability of flavones from Lamiaceae plants including Salvia, Ocimum, Thymus, and Origanum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in Section "Food Processes")
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Modelling and Control of Corticotropin Permeation from Hydrogels across a Natural Membrane in the Presence of Albumin
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1674; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091674 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
(1) Background: Skin is a difficult barrier to overcome, especially for molecules with masses greater than 500 Da. It has been suggested that albumin may contribute to more effective penetration of many therapeutic substances. In this study, an attempt was made to use [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Skin is a difficult barrier to overcome, especially for molecules with masses greater than 500 Da. It has been suggested that albumin may contribute to more effective penetration of many therapeutic substances. In this study, an attempt was made to use albumin in semi-solid formulations to increase the skin penetration of another peptide—corticotropin (ACTH). (2) Methods: Hydrogels were prepared at two concentrations: 15 mg/g and 20 mg/g corticotropin, then albumin was added to them in different stoichiometric ratios. The degree of ACTH release from hydrogels, both with and without albumin addition, was investigated. For selected hydrogels the process of corticotropin permeation through a model membrane, i.e., pig skin, was examined. (3) Results: The study of corticotropin release showed that the addition of albumin, depending on its amount, may delay or increase the release process. Similarly, a study of ACTH permeation through porcine skin showed that albumin can delay or increase and accelerate ACTH permeation. (4) Conclusions: Hydrogel, applicated on the skin surface, may prove to be a beneficial and convenient solution for patients. It is an innovative way of application ACTH that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract and may result in increased availability of the peptide and its efficacy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Impeller Rounding on Centrifugal Pump as Turbine
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1673; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091673 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Pump as turbine (PAT) is one of the micro-hydro system components. It can be used alone as a generator in remote areas without power supply, and in hydraulic networks instead of pressure-reducing valves. However, its hydraulic optimization still remains an open research problem. [...] Read more.
Pump as turbine (PAT) is one of the micro-hydro system components. It can be used alone as a generator in remote areas without power supply, and in hydraulic networks instead of pressure-reducing valves. However, its hydraulic optimization still remains an open research problem. One of the optimization techniques is the rounding of the sharp edges at the blade periphery. Existing studies are mostly based on prototype experiments to obtain the optimization effect. In order to more intuitively analyze the influence of this structural optimization on the internal flow of PAT, this paper uses the CFD method to study the influence of the leading edge of the centrifugal pump blade and the fillet of the impeller on the turbine performance. By simulating the PAT performance at different flow rates and speeds, the internal hydraulic performance changes caused by the inverted circular blade are analyzed. Simulation results show that, under various operating conditions, the impeller inverted circle improves the efficiency of PAT to different degrees. At the speed of 1500 rpm, the efficiency is most obviously improved, which can reach 8.09%. Internal flow results show that the efficiency increases along with the decrease in impeller inlet resistance and the flow separation region in the impeller. This paper provides an effective method for studying the PAT hydraulic optimization problem. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Quality of Horsemeat and Selected Methods of Improving the Properties of This Raw Material
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1672; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091672 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Horsemeat has a strictly defined group of consumers whose demand varies depending on the country or region. There is no tradition of consuming horsemeat in Poland. From a technological point of view, this raw material is as good as other types of meat. [...] Read more.
Horsemeat has a strictly defined group of consumers whose demand varies depending on the country or region. There is no tradition of consuming horsemeat in Poland. From a technological point of view, this raw material is as good as other types of meat. In the opinion of the consumer, compared to other species of animals, horsemeat is characterized by an intense red-brown colour and greater cohesiveness resulting from the type of muscle fibres. This meat has a sweetish taste due to the high carbohydrate content. The management of horsemeat often involves the use of modern freezing methods. Freezing horsemeat with the use of liquefied carbon dioxide is a method that increases its suitability for consumption as well as for export purposes in comparison with the traditional air-cooling method. To eliminate the unfavourable quality features of horsemeat, there are substances used to improve the functional and sensory properties of this meat. This paper discusses the research and development work carried out in the field of horsemeat quality and selected methods contributing to its improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in Section "Food Processes")
Article
Cytotoxicity, Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Activities of Heteromorpha arborescens (Spreng.) Cham Leaves
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1671; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091671 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 579
Abstract
This study investigated the cytotoxicity, anti-obesity and anti-diabetic potentials of blanched, aqueous and ethanol extracts of Heteromorpha arborescens (Spreng.) Cham leaves. The results revealed that both ethanol and aqueous extracts exhibited considerable inhibition against α-glucosidase (IC50 of 627.29 ± 4.62 µg/mL and [...] Read more.
This study investigated the cytotoxicity, anti-obesity and anti-diabetic potentials of blanched, aqueous and ethanol extracts of Heteromorpha arborescens (Spreng.) Cham leaves. The results revealed that both ethanol and aqueous extracts exhibited considerable inhibition against α-glucosidase (IC50 of 627.29 ± 4.62 µg/mL and 576.46 ± 3.21 µg/mL respectively), while the blanched extract showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition (IC50; 855.38 ± 4.29 µg/mL) and the aqueous extract showed the best α-amylase inhibition (IC50; 583.74 ± 5.87 µg/mL). However, weak α-amylase inhibition was observed in the ethanol (IC50; 724.60 ± 4.33 µg/mL) and blanched extracts (IC50; 791.63 ± 3.76 µg/mL). The toxicity of the extracts is indicated by LC50 values as 154.75 µg/mL, 125 µg/mL and 90.58 µg/mL for ethanol, aqueous and blanched extracts respectively, indicating the blanched extract to be the most toxic. Moderate glucose utilization in both C3A and L6 cells was also observed for the aqueous and ethanol extracts which may be attributed to the relatively lower toxicity levels present. However, glucose utilization was very weak for the blanched extract, which may be due to higher level of cytotoxicity it possessed. Relatively weaker lipase inhibition was observed for the ethanol (IC50; 699.3 ± 1.33 µg/mL), aqueous (IC50; 811.52 ± 3.52 µg/mL) and blanched extracts (IC50; 1152.7 ± 4.61 µg/mL) compared to orlistat (IC50; 56.88 ± 0.11 µg/mL). However, there was no reasonable reduction in lipid accumulation observed in all the extract treated cells. These observations suggest that ethanol and aqueous extracts of H. arborescens leaf are promising as new agents for the treatment of diabetes and its acclaimed anti-obesity potentials are likely due to its lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. País) Juices Obtained by Steam Extraction
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1670; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091670 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Vitis vinifera L. cv. País is an ancestral Chilean grape undervalued due to its undesirable oenological characteristics. In this study, steam extraction for the production of grape juice, a new product, according to our knowledge, is proposed as an alternative for the valorization [...] Read more.
Vitis vinifera L. cv. País is an ancestral Chilean grape undervalued due to its undesirable oenological characteristics. In this study, steam extraction for the production of grape juice, a new product, according to our knowledge, is proposed as an alternative for the valorization of this fruit. The effect of the extraction time on the composition and antioxidant capacity of País grape juice obtained was evaluated, as well as the change in the phenolic profile during storage. The soluble solid values and total polyphenol and total anthocyanin content increased with the extraction time. However, a residence time of the juice in the extraction device higher than 10 min led to thermal degradation of anthocyanins and flavonols. The most abundant phenolic compound identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD in the País grape juice was cinnamic acid. The storage of juices had a greater effect on anthocyanin and flavonol losses than the residence time of the juice in the extraction device. The antioxidant capacity of juice measured by ABTS and ferric reducing power assays ranged from 3 to 5 mmol trolox/L and from 10 to 18 mM Fe2+/L, respectively. In summary, steam extraction is a viable method to produce País grape juice with antioxidant capacity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Metagenomic Analysis of Suansun, a Traditional Chinese Unsalted Fermented Food
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1669; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091669 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Suansun, made from fresh bamboo shoots fermented without salt, is a traditional food in China’s southern region and is popular for its nutritious and unique flavor. To comprehensively understand the microbial species and characteristics of suansun, Illumina HiSeq metagenomic sequencing technology was used [...] Read more.
Suansun, made from fresh bamboo shoots fermented without salt, is a traditional food in China’s southern region and is popular for its nutritious and unique flavor. To comprehensively understand the microbial species and characteristics of suansun, Illumina HiSeq metagenomic sequencing technology was used to sequence suansun’s fermentation broth obtained from six traditional producing areas in southern China, and the microbial community structure, diversity, and functional genes were analyzed. A total of 8 phyla, 16 classes, 30 orders, 63 families, 92 genera, and 156 species of microorganisms were identified in the suansun samples, with Lactiplantibacillus predominating, accounting for up to 81% of the species, among which 12 species, including Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, were the main species. A total of 12,751 unigenes were annotated to 385 metabolic pathway classes, of which 2927 unigenes were involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Lactiplantibacillus fermentum, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, and Lactiplantibacillus brucei were involved in the metabolism of most nutrients and flavor substances in suansun. Overall, these results provide insights into the suansun microbiota and shed light on the fermentation processes carried out by complex microbial communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Genomics in Bioengineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effect of Inclination on Natural Convective Heat Transfer from a Slender Cuboid
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1668; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091668 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 653
Abstract
A numerical study was undertaken of the naturally occurring laminar convective heat transfer from a slender cuboid with a relatively narrow cross-section (square) and an exposed top surface. The cuboid was perpendicularly placed on an adiabatic flat base plate and two types of [...] Read more.
A numerical study was undertaken of the naturally occurring laminar convective heat transfer from a slender cuboid with a relatively narrow cross-section (square) and an exposed top surface. The cuboid was perpendicularly placed on an adiabatic flat base plate and two types of surface boundary conditions were considered. The slender cuboid was inclined relative to the vertical axis at angles ranging from 0 to 180 degrees. The flow was considered symmetrical along the vertical axis of the slender cuboid. The equations governing the system were numerically solved in terms of dimensionless variables using FLUENT software. From the results obtained, mean Nusselt numbers over the slender cuboid were calculated using parameters such as: the Rayleigh number for heat flux, Ra*; the Rayleigh number, Ra; the slender cuboid dimensionless width, i.e., the ratio of the width to the height of the heated slender cuboid, W = w/h; and the position of the slender cuboid relative to the vertical, φ. Simulation results were produced for the boundary conditions of constant temperature, constant heat flux, and for Pr = 0.7. The effects of these parameters on the mean Nusselt number for the combined and for the individual surfaces of the slender cuboid are presented and the mean Nusselt numbers are correlated. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Biomolecular Modifications Linked to Oxidative Stress in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Determining Promising Biomarkers Related to Oxidative Stress
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1667; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091667 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Reduction–oxidation reactions are essential to cellular homeostasis. Oxidative stress transcends physiological antioxidative system damage to biomolecules, including nucleic acids and proteins, and modifies their structures. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease. The cells present in the central [...] Read more.
Reduction–oxidation reactions are essential to cellular homeostasis. Oxidative stress transcends physiological antioxidative system damage to biomolecules, including nucleic acids and proteins, and modifies their structures. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease. The cells present in the central nervous system, including motor neurons, are vulnerable to oxidative stress. Neurodegeneration has been demonstrated to be caused by oxidative biomolecular modifications. Oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. Recent progress in research on the underlying mechanisms of oxidative stress in ALS has led to the development of disease-modifying therapies, including edaravone. However, the clinical effects of edaravone remain limited, and ALS is a heretofore incurable disease. The reason for the lack of reliable biomarkers and the precise underlying mechanisms between oxidative stress and ALS remain unclear. As extracellular proteins and RNAs present in body fluids and represent intracellular pathological neurodegenerative processes, extracellular proteins and/or RNAs are predicted to promise diagnosis, prediction of disease course, and therapeutic biomarkers for ALS. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms between oxidative stress and ALS, and promising biomarkers indicating the mechanism to determine whether therapy targeting oxidative stress can be fundamental for ALS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Redox Status in Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Application of Green Surfactants in the Remediation of Soils Contaminated by Hydrocarbons
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1666; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091666 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 721
Abstract
Among the innovative technologies utilized for the treatment of contaminated soils, the use of green surfactants appears to be a biocompatible, efficient, and attractive alternative, since the cleaning processes that normally use synthetic surfactants as additives cause other problems due to toxicity and [...] Read more.
Among the innovative technologies utilized for the treatment of contaminated soils, the use of green surfactants appears to be a biocompatible, efficient, and attractive alternative, since the cleaning processes that normally use synthetic surfactants as additives cause other problems due to toxicity and the accumulation of by-products. Three green surfactants, i.e., two biobased (biobased 1 and biobased 2) surfactants produced by chemical synthesis and a microbial surfactant produced from the yeast Starmerella bombicola ATCC 22214, were used as soil remediation agents and compared to a synthetic surfactant (Tween 80). The three surfactants were tested for their ability to emulsify, disperse, and remove different hydrophobic contaminants. The biosurfactant, which was able to reduce the water surface tension to 32.30 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration of 0.65 g/L, was then used to prepare a commercial formulation that showed lower toxicity to the tested environmental bioindicators and lower dispersion capacity than the biobased surfactants. All the green surfactants showed great emulsification capacity, especially against motor oil and petroleum. Therefore, their potential to remove motor oil adsorbed on different types of soils (sandy, silty, and clay soil and beach sand) was investigated either in kinetic (flasks) or static (packed columns) experiments. The commercial biosurfactant formulation showed excellent effectiveness in removing motor oil, especially from contaminated sandy soil (80.0 ± 0.46%) and beach sand (65.0 ± 0.14%) under static conditions, while, in the kinetic experiments, the commercial biosurfactant and the biobased 2 surfactant were able to remove motor oil from all the contaminated soils tested more effectively than the biobased 1 surfactant. Finally, the S. bombicola commercial biosurfactant was evaluated as a soil bioremediation agent. In degradation experiments carried out on motor oil-contaminated soils enriched with sugarcane molasses, oil degradation yield in the sandy soil reached almost 90% after 60 days in the presence of the commercial biosurfactant, while it did not exceed 20% in the presence of only S. bombicola cells. These results promise to contribute to the development of green technologies for the treatment of hydrophobic pollutants with economic gains for the oil industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Microorganisms in Remediating Contaminated Soils)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
In Situ Fenton Triggered PDA Coating Copper Mesh with Underwater Superoleophobic Property for Oily Wastewater Pretreatment
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1665; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091665 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 578
Abstract
The issue of oily wastewater treatment has become a worldwide challenge due to increasing industrial oily wastewater and frequent oil spill accidents. As an integral part of practical sewage treatment, pretreatment is conducted to remove inorganic particles, floating oil, and some emulsified oil, [...] Read more.
The issue of oily wastewater treatment has become a worldwide challenge due to increasing industrial oily wastewater and frequent oil spill accidents. As an integral part of practical sewage treatment, pretreatment is conducted to remove inorganic particles, floating oil, and some emulsified oil, and to pave the way for post-treatment. Here, we report a facile fabricated, hydrostable, and rapid underwater-formed superoleophobic copper mesh with polydopamine (PDA) coating for efficient oily wastewater pre-treatment. Unlike with traditional technologies, using the interface phenomenon to solve the problem of oil/water mixture separation provided a new approach for the low energy input pretreatment process. The PDA coating formed by the in situ Fenton method not only rapidly constructs a protection layer for the etched hierarchical micro-size particles on mesh and results in enhanced hydrophilicity, but also exhibits high uniformity and enhanced stability in acid/alkali medium. Benefiting from the above processes, a very high flux of 25 L m−2 s−1 and high separation efficiency of 99.0% toward various oil/water mixtures were achieved, revealing excellent prospects for practical usage. Therefore, this new approach offered insight into the development of a cost-effective and functional method for efficient pretreatment of oily wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanofibrous Membrane for Environmental Remediation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Bidirectional Resonant Converter for DC Microgrid Applications
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1664; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091664 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 450
Abstract
A bidirectional resonant converter is presented and verified in this paper for an electric vehicle battery charger/discharger system. The presented circuit can achieve forward and backward power operation, low switching losses on active devices, and wide output voltage operation. The circuit structure of [...] Read more.
A bidirectional resonant converter is presented and verified in this paper for an electric vehicle battery charger/discharger system. The presented circuit can achieve forward and backward power operation, low switching losses on active devices, and wide output voltage operation. The circuit structure of the presented converter includes two resonant circuits on the primary and secondary sides of an isolated transformer. The frequency modulation approach is adopted to control the studied circuit. Owing to the resonant circuit characteristic, active devices for both forward (battery charge) and backward (battery discharge) power operation can be turned on at zero voltage switching. In order to implement a universal battery charger for different kinds of electric vehicle applications, the DC converter is demanded to have a wide output voltage range capability. The topology morphing between a full bridge resonant circuit and half bridge resonant circuit is selected to obtain high- and low-output voltage range operations so that the 200–500 V output voltage range is realized in the presented resonant converter. Compared to the conventional bidirectional converters, the proposed can be operated under a wide voltage range operation. In the end, a 1 kW laboratory prototype circuit is built, and experiments are provided to demonstrate the validity and performance of the presented bidirectional resonant converter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Kinetics of Cometabolic Transformation of 4-chlorophenol and Phenol Degradation by Pseudomonas putida Cells in Batch and Biofilm Reactors
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1663; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091663 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
The biodegradation kinetics of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and phenol and microbial growth of Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) cells were estimated in batch and biofilm reactors. The kinetic parameters of cells on phenol were determined using the Haldane formula. The maximum specific growth [...] Read more.
The biodegradation kinetics of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and phenol and microbial growth of Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) cells were estimated in batch and biofilm reactors. The kinetic parameters of cells on phenol were determined using the Haldane formula. The maximum specific growth rate of P. putida on phenol, the half-saturation constant of phenol and the self-inhibition constant of phenol were 0.512 h−1, 78.38 mg/L and 228.5 mg/L, respectively. The yield growth of cells on phenol (YP) was 0.618 mg phenol/mg cell. The batch experimental results for the specific transformation rate of 4-CP by resting P. putida cells were fitted with Haldane kinetics to evaluate the maximum specific utilization rate of 4-CP, half-saturation constant of 4-CP, and self-inhibition constant of 4-CP, which were 0.246 h−1, 1.048 mg/L and 53.40 mg/L, respectively. The negative specific growth rates of cells on 4-CP obtained were fitted using a kinetic equation to investigate the true transformation capacity and first-order endogenous decay coefficient, which were 4.34 mg 4-CP/mg cell and 5.99 × 10−3 h−1, respectively. The competitive inhibition coefficients of phenol to 4-CP transformation and 4-CP to phenol degradation were 6.75 and 9.27 mg/L, respectively; therefore, phenol had a higher competitive inhibition of 4-CP transformation than the converse. The predicted model examining cometabolic transformation of 4-CP and phenol degradation showed good agreement with the experimental observations. The removal efficiencies for phenol and 4-CP were 94.56–98.45% and 96.09–98.85%, respectively, for steady-state performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinetic Model Systems for Biofilm Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Roles of Drying, Size Reduction, and Blanching in Sustainable Extraction of Phenolics from Olive Leaves
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1662; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091662 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 782
Abstract
It is now known that olive leaves contain a sizable portion of polyphenols and there is much research highlighting that these natural ingredients favorably exhibit bio-functional activities. In this regard, many studies have focused on the exploration of optimum conditions involved directly in [...] Read more.
It is now known that olive leaves contain a sizable portion of polyphenols and there is much research highlighting that these natural ingredients favorably exhibit bio-functional activities. In this regard, many studies have focused on the exploration of optimum conditions involved directly in the extraction process. These investigations, while being highly valuable, may somewhat cast a shadow over other contributing factors such as those involved in the preprocessing of leaves, including size reduction, drying, and blanching. The use of these unit operations under appropriate conditions, together with other benefits, potentially exert improved surface area, homogeneity, and diffusion/mass transfer which may help develop the liberation of target bio-compounds. The research work in this area, particularly size reduction, is relatively limited. Although in various experiments they are incorporated, not many studies have focused on them as the main predictor variables. The performance of further research may help ascertain the magnitude of their effects. Consideration of the operational parameters in preprocessing step is equally important as those in the processing/extraction step that may comparably influence on the extraction efficiency. This review provides an overview of the potential roles of drying, size reduction, and blanching in the extraction efficiency of phenolics from olive leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Waste towards Green Growth)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Optimal Selection of Backside Roughing Parameters of High-Value Components Using Abrasive Jet Processing
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1661; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091661 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 602
Abstract
This paper mainly presents a set of new Sapphire Backside Roughing technology. Presently, the associated Sapphire Backside Roughing technology is still concentrated on chemical etching, as its yield rate and efficiency are often limited by lattice structures, and the derived chemical waste fluid [...] Read more.
This paper mainly presents a set of new Sapphire Backside Roughing technology. Presently, the associated Sapphire Backside Roughing technology is still concentrated on chemical etching, as its yield rate and efficiency are often limited by lattice structures, and the derived chemical waste fluid after etching is most likely to cause ecological contamination. In this research, refined abrasive jet processing technology is adopted, and in the meantime, the Taguchi experiment design method is taken for detailed experimental planning. Through processing parameter conditions and abrasive selection and development, proper surface roughing and processing uniformity are obtained so as to improve the various weak points of the abovementioned traditional etching effectively. It is discovered that abrasive blasting processing technology is, respectively, combined with wax-coated #1000 SiC particles and wax-coated #800 Zirconium particles to process the sapphire substrate with initial surface roughness 0.8–0.9 μmRa from the experiment. A 1.1–1.2 μmRa surface roughness effect can be achieved about two minutes later. The experimental results show that the actual degree of sapphire substrate surface roughing obtained in the AJM process depends on the gas pressure, impact angle, wax-coated abrasives, and additives. The new Sapphire Backside Roughing technology has high flexibility, which not only meets the requirements for sapphire surface roughing specification but can also effectively reduce the sapphire substrate roughing time and related cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Magnetic Polishing and Electrochemical Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Production of Extrudate Food with Mango By-Products (Mangifera indica): Analysis of Physical, Chemical, and Sensorial Properties
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1660; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091660 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 493
Abstract
The novelty of this work is the use of two mango by-products, mango peel and kernel, to obtain an extruded food. As well as the development of this food through a design of mixtures, we conducted sensorial analysis of the food through a [...] Read more.
The novelty of this work is the use of two mango by-products, mango peel and kernel, to obtain an extruded food. As well as the development of this food through a design of mixtures, we conducted sensorial analysis of the food through a hedonic test, in order not only to develop an extruded food with mango by-products, but also to develop a food that will be accepted by the consumer. A simple lattice mixture design was carried out with 14 mixtures, where the components were white corn flour (WCF), mango peel flour (MPF) and mango kernel flour (MKF), both from the Tommy Atkins mango variety. Physical and chemical properties such as the expansion index (EI), hardness, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), total phenols, DPPH and ABTS were evaluated. An optimization region was found that included 3 design points. Mixtures 1, 6 and 12 were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale to determine the acceptability of the product. Appearance, taste, and texture of the extrudates was evaluated. The extrudate with the best overall acceptability and the optimum physical and chemical properties contained 58.33% white corn flour, 33.33% mango peel flour and 8.33% mango kernel flour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Intelligent Process Fault Diagnosis System Based on Neural Networks and Andrews Plot
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1659; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091659 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 495
Abstract
This paper proposes a neural network-based process fault diagnosis system with Andrews plot for information pre-processing to enhance the performance of online process fault diagnosis. By using features extracted from Andrews plot as the inputs to a neural network, as a classifier, the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a neural network-based process fault diagnosis system with Andrews plot for information pre-processing to enhance the performance of online process fault diagnosis. By using features extracted from Andrews plot as the inputs to a neural network, as a classifier, the diagnosis speed and reliability are improved. A method for determining the important features in the Andrews function is proposed. The proposed fault diagnosis system is applied to a simulated continuous stirred tank reactor process and is compared with two conventional neural network-based fault diagnosis systems: scheme B where the monitored measurements are directly fed to a neural network after scaling and scheme C where the monitored measurements are converted to qualitative trend data before feeding to a neural network. Of all the considered faults, the proposed fault diagnosis system diagnosed the abrupt faults on average 5.45 s and 2.66 s earlier than schemes B and C, respectively and diagnosed the incipient faults on average 13.82 s and 5.09 s earlier than schemes B and C, respectively. The results reveal that Andrews plot method utilized in online process monitoring has a great potential in industrial process monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redesign Processes in the Age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Reduction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Emissions from Laundry Dry-Cleaning by an Integrated Treatment Process of Condensation and Adsorption
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1658; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091658 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are intermittently emitted at high concentrations (tens of thousands of ppmv) from small-scale laundry shops in urban areas, affecting the urban atmospheric environment. In this study, we suggested integrating VOC treatment processes incorporating condensation and adsorption in series to [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are intermittently emitted at high concentrations (tens of thousands of ppmv) from small-scale laundry shops in urban areas, affecting the urban atmospheric environment. In this study, we suggested integrating VOC treatment processes incorporating condensation and adsorption in series to remove VOCs released from small-scale laundry dryers (laundry weighing less than 30 kg). We designed two different processes depending on regeneration modes for adsorber beds; an open-circuit flow process and a closed-loop flow process in regeneration mode. Our VOC treatment processes enable sustainable operation via the regeneration of adsorbers on a regular basis. Before applying the VOC treatment processes, average concentration of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was 4099 ppmv (12,000 ppmv of the peak concentration) during the drying operation. After applying our closed-loop flow process, TVOC concentration decreased to 58 ppmv, leading to 98.5% removal efficiency. We also verified the robustness of our process performance in a continuous operation (30 cycles) by using a process simulation program. Lastly, we observed that our integrated treatment process can contribute to reductions in ozone and secondary organic aerosol generation by 90.4% and 95.9%, respectively. We concluded that our integrated VOC treatment processes are applicable to small-scale laundry shops releasing high-concentration VOCs intermittently, and are beneficial to the atmospheric environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental and Green Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop