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Volume 8, March

Dermatopathology, Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Conjunctival melanoma is a rare ocular tumor associated with a high recurrence rate and a significant mortality 10 years. Recent investigations revealed that the genomic landscape of conjunctival melanoma is mostly characterized by a high mutation burden and UV light signature with NF1 mutations occurring in 33–50% of the cases. Investigations of the epigenetics events occurring in conjunctival melanoma have, however, been limited. We assessed the level of 5-methlycytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and Ten Eleven Translocation 2 (TET2) in benign and malignant conjunctival melanocytic proliferations. Similar to cutaneous melanoma, we identified a 5-hydroxymethylcytosine loss in conjunctiva melanoma. Furthermore, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine loss should be added to the parameters, helping in the sometimes difficult differential diagnosis between an atypical conjunctival nevus and a melanoma. [...] Read more.
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Case Report
A Previously Unrecognized Granulomatous Variant of Gamma-Delta T-Cell Lymphoma
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 221-228; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020027 - 17 Jun 2021
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Abstract
Primary cutaneous γδ T-cell lymphoma (PCGD-TCL) is an extremely rare and aggressive T-cell neoplasm with complex heterogeneity. We present a series of two patients who presented with firm, subcutaneous nodules and were diagnosed with PCGD-TCL. In both cases, biopsies demonstrated a both superficial [...] Read more.
Primary cutaneous γδ T-cell lymphoma (PCGD-TCL) is an extremely rare and aggressive T-cell neoplasm with complex heterogeneity. We present a series of two patients who presented with firm, subcutaneous nodules and were diagnosed with PCGD-TCL. In both cases, biopsies demonstrated a both superficial and deep adnexotropic infiltrate comprised of angiocentric, medium- to large-sized atypical lymphocytes. The infiltrate extended into the panniculus. Immuno–histochemical stains highlighted atypical lymphocytes that expressed CD3, CD8 and CD56 but were negative for EBV ISH. A brisk histiocytic response with focal aggregation into granulomas was highlighted with a PG-M1 stain. The atypical lymphocytes were positive for gene rearrangements on a TCR delta stain and negative for βF-1. CT and PET scan in one of the two patients demonstrated diffuse, subcutaneous, ground-glass foci; hypermetabolic soft tissue nodules; and lymphadenopathy in the lungs, as well as splenomegaly. A diagnosis of histiocyte-rich PCGD-TCL was rendered. A histiocyte-rich, granulomatous variant of γδ T-cell lymphoma is extremely rare. Its potentially misleading resemblance to inflammatory granulomatous conditions could pose a diagnostic pitfall in this already challenging condition. This variant may resemble granulomatous mycosis fungoides and granulomatous slack skin syndrome, but it has a distinct, aggressive clinical outcome. Full article
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Review
Histologic Patterns and Clues to Autoinflammatory Diseases in Children: What a Cutaneous Biopsy Can Tell Us
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 202-220; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020026 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Autoinflammation is defined by aberrant, antigen-independent activation of the innate immune signaling pathways. This leads to increased, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and subsequent inflammation. In contrast, autoimmune and allergic diseases are antigen-directed immune responses from activation of the adaptive immune system. The innate and [...] Read more.
Autoinflammation is defined by aberrant, antigen-independent activation of the innate immune signaling pathways. This leads to increased, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and subsequent inflammation. In contrast, autoimmune and allergic diseases are antigen-directed immune responses from activation of the adaptive immune system. The innate and adaptive immune signaling pathways are closely interconnected. The group of ‘complex multigenic diseases’ are a result of mutual dysregulation of both the autoinflammatory and autoimmune physiologic components. In contrast, monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes (MAIS) result from single mutations and are exclusively autoinflammatory in their pathogenesis. Studying the clinical and histopathological findings for the various MAIS explains the phenotypical correlates of their specific mutations. This review aims to group the histopathologic clues for autoinflammation into three recognizable patterns. The presence of these histologic patterns in a pediatric patient with recurrent fevers and systemic inflammation should raise suspicion of an autoinflammatory component in MAIS, or, more frequently, in a complex multigenic disease. The three major histopathological patterns seen in autoinflammation are as follows: (i) the ‘neutrophilic’ pattern, seen in urticarial neutrophilic dermatosis, pustular psoriasis, aseptic neutrophilic folliculitis, and Sweet’s syndrome; (ii) the ‘vasculitic’ pattern seen in small vessel-vasculitis (including hypersensitivity/leukocytoclastic vasculitis, thrombosing microangiopathy and lymphocytic vasculitis), and intermediate-sized vessel vasculitis, mimicking polyarteritis nodosa; and (iii) the ‘granulomatous’ pattern. Beyond these three patterns, there are additional histopathologic clues, which are detailed below. It is important for a dermatopathologist to recognize the patterns of autoinflammation, so that a diagnosis of MAIS or complex multigenic diseases may be obtained. Finally, careful histopathologic analyses could contribute to a better understanding of the various clinical manifestations of autoinflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Pediatric Dermatopathology)
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Article
Concurrent Adjacent Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia without Simultaneous Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Detection: A Case Series
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 190-201; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020025 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
Background: The association between Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic leukemia (CLL/SLL) is well established in the literature. A majority of MCCs are known to be associated with Merkel cell carcinoma polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is postulated to be a possible [...] Read more.
Background: The association between Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic leukemia (CLL/SLL) is well established in the literature. A majority of MCCs are known to be associated with Merkel cell carcinoma polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is postulated to be a possible causative agent linking these two entities. We aim to identify the presence of MCPyV in patients with concurrent adjacent MCC and CLL/SLL. Methods: Archived pathology materials of three cutaneous or surgical excisions with concurrent MCC and CLL/SLL were reviewed. Additional 12-µm sections from paraffin-embedded tissue of these resections were matched with original hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides and used to extract foci from each tumor separately. DNA was extracted from these tissues, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), utilizing a primer set within a highly conserved “small T” viral DNA region, was done to detect MCPyV. Results: Out of 140 cases of cutaneous or surgical excisions with MCC identified in our electronic medical records (EMR), three had coexisting neighboring CLL/SLL in the same resection specimen. In one case out of three, MCPyV was detected in MCC but not in CLL/SLL. The remaining two cases showed no detection of MCPyV in either MCC or CLL/SLL. Conclusion: MCPyV was not concurrently associated with adjacent MCC and CLL/SLL, indicating that it is not driving simultaneous tumorigenesis, at least in a subset of these cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Dermatopathology)
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Case Report
Insidious-Onset Indurated Plaques on the Shins
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 185-189; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020024 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 783
Abstract
A 64-year old male presented with a several-year history of an insidious-onset tender, itchy and xerotic rash on his lower legs. Past medical history was significant for Graves’ disease and Graves’ ophthalmopathy. The examination revealed peau d’orange-appearing plaques on his shins clinically consistent [...] Read more.
A 64-year old male presented with a several-year history of an insidious-onset tender, itchy and xerotic rash on his lower legs. Past medical history was significant for Graves’ disease and Graves’ ophthalmopathy. The examination revealed peau d’orange-appearing plaques on his shins clinically consistent with pretibial myxedema. A punch biopsy showed separation of collagen bundles with extensive dermal mucin deposition, confirming the diagnosis of pretibial myxedema. After initially failing treatment with a topical clobetasol 0.05% ointment, the patient switched to regular pentoxifylline and triamcinolone 0.1% ointment under occlusion. He remains under follow-up. Full article
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Article
5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Loss in Conjunctival Melanoma
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 176-184; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020023 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 773
Abstract
Aims: Conjunctival and cutaneous melanoma partially share similar clinical and molecular backgrounds. As 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) loss has been demonstrated in cutaneous melanoma, we decided to assess if similar changes were occurring in conjunctival melanoma. Methods: 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), 5-hmC and TET2 were respectively identified [...] Read more.
Aims: Conjunctival and cutaneous melanoma partially share similar clinical and molecular backgrounds. As 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) loss has been demonstrated in cutaneous melanoma, we decided to assess if similar changes were occurring in conjunctival melanoma. Methods: 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), 5-hmC and TET2 were respectively identified by immunohistochemistry and RNA ISH in 40 conjunctival nevi and 37 conjunctival melanomas. Clinicopathological correlations were established. Results: 5-mC, TET2 and 5-hmC were respectively identified in 67.5%, 95% and 100% of conjunctival nevi and in 81.1%, 35.1% and 54% of conjunctival melanomas. A significant 5-hmC and TET2 loss was identified in conjunctival melanoma comparing to nevus, as well as a significant correlation between TET2 and 5-hmC expression. In the melanomas, 5-hmC expression was only significantly associated with local lymphatic invasion, but not with other clinicopathological parameters. There was a correlation between TET2 expression and the localization of the tumors. 5-mC expression was not associated with any clinicopathological parameters. Conclusions: We identified a significant 5-hmC loss in conjunctival melanoma similar to cutaneous melanoma. This loss may possibly be attributed to TET2 loss or IDH1 mutations. 5-hmC loss in conjunctival melanoma may help in the differential diagnosis between atypical conjunctival nevus and conjunctival melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinico-Pathological Correlation in Dermatopathology)
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Review
How to Deal with Skin Biopsy in an Infant with Blisters?
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 159-175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020022 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 712
Abstract
The onset of blisters in a neonate or an infant is often a source of great concern for both parents and physicians. A blistering rash can reveal a wide range of diseases with various backgrounds (infectious, genetic, autoimmune, drug-related, traumatic, etc.), so the [...] Read more.
The onset of blisters in a neonate or an infant is often a source of great concern for both parents and physicians. A blistering rash can reveal a wide range of diseases with various backgrounds (infectious, genetic, autoimmune, drug-related, traumatic, etc.), so the challenge for the dermatologist and the pediatrician is to quickly determine the etiology, between benign causes and life-threatening disorders, for a better management of the patient. Clinical presentation can provide orientation for the diagnosis, but skin biopsy is often necessary in determining the cause of blister formations. In this article, we will provide information on the skin biopsy technique and discuss the clinical orientation in the case of a neonate or infant with a blistering eruption, with a focus on the histology for each etiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Pediatric Dermatopathology)
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Article
TP53 Abnormalities and MMR Preservation in 5 Cases of Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumours
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 147-158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020021 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Proliferating trichilemmal tumours (PTT) are defined by a benign squamous cell proliferation inside a trichilemmal cystic (TC) cavity. A possible explanation of this proliferative phenomenon within the cyst may be molecular alterations in genes associated to cell proliferation, which can be induced by [...] Read more.
Proliferating trichilemmal tumours (PTT) are defined by a benign squamous cell proliferation inside a trichilemmal cystic (TC) cavity. A possible explanation of this proliferative phenomenon within the cyst may be molecular alterations in genes associated to cell proliferation, which can be induced by ultraviolet radiation. Among other genes, alterations on TP53 and DNA mismatch repair proteins (MMR) may be involved in the cellular proliferation observed in PTT. Based on this assumption, but also taking into account the close relationship between the sebaceous ducts and the external root sheath where TC develop, a MMR, a p53 expression assessment and a TP53 study were performed in a series of 5 PTT cases, including a giant one. We failed to demonstrate a MMR disorder on studied PTT, but we agree with previous results suggesting increased p53 expression in these tumours, particularly in proliferative areas. TP53 alteration was confirmed with FISH technique, demonstrating TP53 deletion in most cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Dermatopathology)
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Review
Adnexotropic Variants of the Interface Dermatitides: A Review
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 135-146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020020 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 617
Abstract
The interface dermatitides encompass a vast array of cutaneous entities which, at times, may present with particular clinical variants with adnexal predilection. Similarly, hair follicle and eccrine gland involvement of some of these entities has been observed on histopathology. This review aims to [...] Read more.
The interface dermatitides encompass a vast array of cutaneous entities which, at times, may present with particular clinical variants with adnexal predilection. Similarly, hair follicle and eccrine gland involvement of some of these entities has been observed on histopathology. This review aims to describe the various adnexotropic presentations of the interface dermatitides. Recognizing that the adnexa can be a frequent site of involvement of these conditions may aid dermatopathologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid misinterpreting adnexotropism for other conditions such as the great imitator, mycosis fungoides. Full article
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Case Report
The Great Mime: Three Cases of Melanoma with Carcinoid-Like and Paraganglioma-Like Pattern with Emphasis on Differential Diagnosis
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 130-134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020019 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 609
Abstract
Melanoma is among the most aggressive tumors, with different histological patterns of presentation ranging from the usual and easily diagnosable pictures to complex patterns of difficult diagnostic interpretation. Here, we present three cases of a very rare melanoma variant described as “carcinoid-like” and [...] Read more.
Melanoma is among the most aggressive tumors, with different histological patterns of presentation ranging from the usual and easily diagnosable pictures to complex patterns of difficult diagnostic interpretation. Here, we present three cases of a very rare melanoma variant described as “carcinoid-like” and “paraganglioma-like” in the literature, and a brief review of the current literature of the very few cases described to date. Full article
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Case Report
Three Cases of Lymphocytic Infiltration of the Eyelid
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 124-129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020018 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Lymphocytic infiltration of the skin (LIS), first reported by Jessner and Kanof in 1953, is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by erythematous papules and plaques on the head, neck, and upper back and histopathological findings of a normal epidermis with underlying lymphocytic [...] Read more.
Lymphocytic infiltration of the skin (LIS), first reported by Jessner and Kanof in 1953, is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by erythematous papules and plaques on the head, neck, and upper back and histopathological findings of a normal epidermis with underlying lymphocytic infiltration of the reticular dermis without mucin deposition. A 69-year-old man and a 21-year-old woman presented with edematous indurative erythema of the left upper eyelid. Lymphocytic infiltration of the dermis with CD4+ T cell predominance was noted on biopsy. A 68-year-old man presented with a four-year history of recurrent edematous indurative erythema of the right upper eyelid that extended up to the right cheek. Predominantly dermal infiltration of CD8+ T lymphocytes was found on biopsy. We treated all three patients with 8–16 mg of methylprednisolone daily, and the erythema and induration improved. CD4+ T cells were predominant in the acute phase (patients 1 and 2), whereas CD8+ T cells were predominant in the chronic phase (patient 3). CD8+ T cells may be involved in LIS recurrence. Lymphocytic infiltration of the eyelid may be associated with isolated circumscribed, edematous, indurative, colorless lesions that are responsive to daily low-to-middle doses of oral methylprednisolone. Full article
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Review
Ichthyoses—A Clinical and Pathological Spectrum from Heterogeneous Cornification Disorders to Inflammation
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 107-123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020017 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 744
Abstract
Ichthyoses are inborn keratinization disorders affecting the skin only (non-syndromic) or are associated with diseases of internal organs (syndromic). In newborns, they can be life-threatening. The identification of the gene defects resulted in reclassification and a better understanding of the pathophysiology. Histopathologic patterns [...] Read more.
Ichthyoses are inborn keratinization disorders affecting the skin only (non-syndromic) or are associated with diseases of internal organs (syndromic). In newborns, they can be life-threatening. The identification of the gene defects resulted in reclassification and a better understanding of the pathophysiology. Histopathologic patterns include orthohyperkeratosis with a reduced or well-developed stratum granulosum, hyperkeratosis with ortho- and parakeratosis with preserved or prominent stratum granulosum, and epidermolytic ichthyosis. Another pattern features “perinuclear vacuoles and binucleated keratinocytes”, which is associated with keratin mutations. Some ichthyoses are histologically defined by psoriasis-like features, and distinct subtypes show follicular hyperkeratosis. In addition to histological and immunohistochemical methods, these patterns allow a better histopathologic diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Pediatric Dermatopathology)
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Case Report
Bilateral Nipple Enlargement as a Secondary Effect of Anabolic Drugs: A Histopathological Mimicker of Smooth Muscle Hamartoma
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 103-106; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020016 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Smooth muscle hamartoma are usually solitary and congenital, may affect the genital area and nipples. Histopathologically, they are characterized by the presence of mature smooth muscle bundles. We present a 40 year-old male with bilateral nipple enlargement excised with clinical suspicion of bilateral [...] Read more.
Smooth muscle hamartoma are usually solitary and congenital, may affect the genital area and nipples. Histopathologically, they are characterized by the presence of mature smooth muscle bundles. We present a 40 year-old male with bilateral nipple enlargement excised with clinical suspicion of bilateral leiomyoma. Skin biopsy shows mature, irregularly arranged smooth muscle bundles and lactiferous ducts between them. Immunohistochemistry is positive for smooth muscle actin, desmin and fumarase, but negative for estrogen and progestogen receptors. The presence of lactiferous ducts excludes bilateral leiomyomas. Even when, histopathologically, this can be interpreted as the nipple-type of muscular hamartoma of the breast, clinical history favors an anabolic drug-induced lesion. Bodybuilders present gynecomastia and nipple enlargement as frequent problems, but we have not found any histopathological description of these nipple lesions. We consider that dermatologists should be aware of the presence of them and dermatopathologists should know their histopathological features to avoid misdiagnosis as neoplasms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinico-Pathological Correlation in Dermatopathology)
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Review
Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumor (PHAT): Review of the Literature with Case Presentation
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 97-102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020015 - 04 Apr 2021
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) is a very rare entity of soft tissue considered a “neoplasm of uncertain behaviour of connective or other soft tissue” by the World Health Organization (2020). It develops in subcutaneous tissue of the lower extremities, more frequently in [...] Read more.
Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) is a very rare entity of soft tissue considered a “neoplasm of uncertain behaviour of connective or other soft tissue” by the World Health Organization (2020). It develops in subcutaneous tissue of the lower extremities, more frequently in the region of the ankle and foot, and rarely as a deep-seated soft tissue mass in locations such as the perineum, buttock, arms, head and neck, and viscera. Although inconsistent cytogenetic data have been reported on PHAT so far, there are potential morphological and genetic overlaps with hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT) and myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS). Here we report a case of PHAT at the level of the upper third of the right thigh in a 48-year-old patient and we also focus on the differential diagnoses of these entities and conduct a literature review of reported cases. Full article
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Article
Role of CD123 (+) Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Etiologically Different Variants of Erythema Multiforme: A Monocentric Retrospective Study
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 89-96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020014 - 03 Apr 2021
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) constitute a subset of dendritic cells known to be the “professional” interferon type I (IFN-I) producers. pDCs play an important role in antiviral immunity, as well as linking innate and adaptive immunity. Under normal conditions pDCs are not present [...] Read more.
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) constitute a subset of dendritic cells known to be the “professional” interferon type I (IFN-I) producers. pDCs play an important role in antiviral immunity, as well as linking innate and adaptive immunity. Under normal conditions pDCs are not present in skin. They are shown to be a part of the inflammatory infiltrate in different skin conditions including erythema multiforme (EM). This condition is considered to be a cell-mediated immune reaction to a wide variety of agents, most commonly herpes simplex virus. Nevertheless, the pathophysiology of EM still remains unclear. In this study, we grouped 32 biopsies from 30 patients diagnosed with EM, based on their etiology and analyzed the density and distribution of CD123 positive pDCs. In all cases we observed a greatly increased number of pDCs in the dermal inflammatory infiltrate. Virally-induced EM (by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other viruses) was more likely to have a significantly higher number of pDCs compared to non-virally associated EM. Hence, we think that pDCs play a key role in the pathogenesis of EM independent of etiology and may play an increased role in virally-associated cases. Further studies on pDCs would clarify their importance in EM and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. Full article
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Article
Inter-Observer and Intra-Observer Variations in the Assessment of Epithelial Dysplasia in Oral Lichenoid Diseases
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 84-88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020013 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) can both present with histological dysplasia. Despite the presence of WHO-defined criteria for the evaluation of epithelial dysplasia, its assessment is frequently subjective (inter-observer variability). The lack of reproducibility in the evaluation of dysplasia [...] Read more.
Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) can both present with histological dysplasia. Despite the presence of WHO-defined criteria for the evaluation of epithelial dysplasia, its assessment is frequently subjective (inter-observer variability). The lack of reproducibility in the evaluation of dysplasia is even more complex in the presence of a lichenoid inflammation. We evaluated dysplasia in 112 oral biopsies with lichenoid inflammation in order to study the inter-observer and the intra-observer variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinico-Pathological Correlation in Dermatopathology)
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Article
Modulation of Gene Expression in a Sterile Atopic Dermatitis Model and Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Adhesion by Fucoidan
Dermatopathology 2021, 8(2), 69-83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology8020012 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial pathology that includes perturbations of gene expression and increased adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus. Fucoidans are seaweed-derived sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides that are known to be anti-inflammatory and may inhibit adhesion of pathogens. Fucoidan was assessed for effects on gene [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial pathology that includes perturbations of gene expression and increased adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus. Fucoidans are seaweed-derived sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides that are known to be anti-inflammatory and may inhibit adhesion of pathogens. Fucoidan was assessed for effects on gene expression of an in vitro 3D model of atopic dermatitis. It was also assessed for inhibitory effects on the adhesion of bacteria onto 3D reconstructed skin. Fucoidan significantly altered gene expression in the atopic dermatitis model, and there was a trend to reduce periostin levels. Fucoidan significantly inhibited the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Cutibacterium acnes but did not affect the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Fucoidan may be a useful topical agent to assist in the management of atopic dermatitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Dermatopathology)
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