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Separations, Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Mitotane (DDD) is prescribed in adrenocortical renal carcinoma. Its principal metabolite, dichlorodiphenylethene (DDE), can accumulate in fat tissues and, from a toxicological point of view, is probably more interesting than the other metabolite, dichlorodiphenylacetate (DDA). Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of DDD plasma concentrations is required to combine therapeutic efficacy with acceptable toxicity. Therefore, we developed a simple and fast HPLC-UV method to monitor plasma concentrations after a liquid–liquid extraction of plasma samples, quality controls, and anonymous plasma samples with unknown DDD and DDE concentrations. The method was successfully validated according to the FDA guidelines and adopted for routine TDM. View this paper
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Article
New Concept for the Study of the Fluid Dynamics of Lithium Extraction Using Calix[4]arene Derivatives in T-Type Microreactor Systems
Separations 2021, 8(5), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050070 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 417
Abstract
Lithium extraction remains a challenge in the hydrometallurgy process due to its economic value and maldistribution sources. Employing calix[4]arene derivatives in solvent extraction techniques results in high selectivity and extraction capability, but a slow extraction rate. The slow kinetics of batch-wise extraction can [...] Read more.
Lithium extraction remains a challenge in the hydrometallurgy process due to its economic value and maldistribution sources. Employing calix[4]arene derivatives in solvent extraction techniques results in high selectivity and extraction capability, but a slow extraction rate. The slow kinetics of batch-wise extraction can be drastically accelerated by using a T-type microreactor system. Therefore, a combination of calix[4]arene and a microreactor system serves as an ideal platform for efficient lithium extraction. In this work, the fluid dynamics of lithium extraction using a monoacetic acid calix[4]arene derivative in a T-type microreactor system were studied. Increasing the O/A ratio increases the average length, surface area, and volume of the organic droplets, but decreases the specific surface area. In contrast, increasing the Reynolds number decreases the average length, surface area, and volume of the organic droplets, but increases the specific surface area. It was found that shorter diffusion distance, larger specific surface area, and faster vortex velocity were the factors that play the most pivotal roles in achieving great extraction rate enhancement in T-type microreactor systems compared to batch-wise systems. These findings represent an important new concept in the study of the fluid dynamics of lithium extraction using monoacetic acid calix[4]arene derivatives in T-type microreactor systems. Full article
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Article
Characterization and Separation of Platinum-Based Antineoplastic Drugs by Zwitterionic Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (HILIC)–Tandem Mass Spectrometry, and Its Application in Surface Wipe Sampling
Separations 2021, 8(5), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050069 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Platinum-based antineoplastic drugs (PtADs) are among the most important and used families of chemotherapy drugs, which, even showing severe side effects and being hindered by drug resistance, are not likely to be replaced clinically any time soon. The growing interest in the occupational [...] Read more.
Platinum-based antineoplastic drugs (PtADs) are among the most important and used families of chemotherapy drugs, which, even showing severe side effects and being hindered by drug resistance, are not likely to be replaced clinically any time soon. The growing interest in the occupational health community in antineoplastic drug (AD) surface contamination requires the development of increasingly fast and easy high-throughput monitoring methods, even considering the lack of harmonized legally binding regulation criteria. Thus, a wipe sampling method together with zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC-Z)–tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis was developed for the simultaneous evaluation of oxaliplatin, cisplatin, and carboplatin surface contaminations. A design of experiments approach was used to optimize the chromatographic conditions. Limits of quantification ranging from 2 to 5 ng/mL were obtained from interday and intraday repetitions for oxaliplatin and carboplatin, and between 170 and 240 ng/mL for cisplatin. The wipe desorption procedure is equivalent to other AD sampling methods, enabling a fast sample preparation, with an LC-MS/MS analysis time of less than 7 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation of Analysis Methods in Pharmaceutical Chemistry)
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Article
Eco-Friendly Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanofilter Preparation and Application for Iron Removal
Separations 2021, 8(5), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050068 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 519
Abstract
In this paper, the green synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) nanomaterials using Callistemon viminalis leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent is reported for the first time. The synthesized r-GO nanomaterials were characterized using UV–Vis, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, and energy dispersive [...] Read more.
In this paper, the green synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) nanomaterials using Callistemon viminalis leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent is reported for the first time. The synthesized r-GO nanomaterials were characterized using UV–Vis, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses. The nanofilter membrane was prepared by varying the amounts of r-GO nanomaterials in a Polysulfone-N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution. The nanofilter membrane was characterized by the contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV–Vis, and FTIR. The results confirm the formation of r-GO nanomaterials. Higher amounts of r-GO nanomaterials in the membrane show a lower contact angle, thus confirming their hydrophilic nature. Iron water filtration was performed with different amounts of r-GO nanomaterials in the membrane filter, and the water flux was smooth over an increased time period. Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis showed a higher percentage of iron rejection (95.77%) when higher amounts (0.10 g) of r-GO nanomaterials were used in a mixed membrane (i.e., sample C). In conclusion, the findings illustrate that Callistemon viminalis mediates the synthesis of r-GO nanomaterials, which is useful in water filtration, and can be incorporated into membrane filters, since it removes iron. Full article
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Article
Rapid Production of PDMS Microdevices for Electrodriven Separations and Microfluidics by 3D-Printed Scaffold Removal
Separations 2021, 8(5), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050067 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 450
Abstract
In our work, we produced PDMS-based microfluidic devices by mechanical removal of 3D-printed scaffolds inserted in PDMS. Two setups leading to the fabrication of monolithic PDMS-based microdevices and bonded (or stamped) PDMS-based microdevices were designed. In the monolithic devices, the 3D-printed scaffolds were [...] Read more.
In our work, we produced PDMS-based microfluidic devices by mechanical removal of 3D-printed scaffolds inserted in PDMS. Two setups leading to the fabrication of monolithic PDMS-based microdevices and bonded (or stamped) PDMS-based microdevices were designed. In the monolithic devices, the 3D-printed scaffolds were fully inserted in the PDMS and then carefully removed. The bonded devices were produced by forming imprints of the 3D-printed scaffolds in PDMS, followed by bonding the PDMS parts to glass slides. All these microfluidic devices were then successfully employed in three proof-of-concept applications: capture of magnetic microparticles, formation of droplets, and isotachophoresis separation of model organic dyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Capillary and Microchip Electrophoresis for Bioanalysis)
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Article
Next-Generation Dried Blood Spot Samplers for Protein Analysis: Describing Trypsin-Modified Smart Sampling Paper
Separations 2021, 8(5), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050066 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 543
Abstract
This paper describes smart sampling paper to be used for bottom-up protein analysis. Four different manners to immobilize trypsin on cellulose were evaluated. Untreated paper, potassium-periodate-functionalized paper (with and without post-immobilization reduction) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone (VDM)-functionalized paper were all used to immobilize [...] Read more.
This paper describes smart sampling paper to be used for bottom-up protein analysis. Four different manners to immobilize trypsin on cellulose were evaluated. Untreated paper, potassium-periodate-functionalized paper (with and without post-immobilization reduction) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone (VDM)-functionalized paper were all used to immobilize trypsin. For the evaluation, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining of proteins on paper and the BAEE trypsin activity assay needed to be modified. These methods allowed, together with data from mass spectrometric analysis of cytochrome C digestions, us to acquire fundamental insight into protein binding, and trypsin action and activity on paper. All functionalized discs bind more protein than the untreated discs. Protein binding to functionalized discs is based on both adsorption and covalent binding. Trypsin immobilized on potassium-periodate-functionalized discs exhibits the highest trypsin activity when using cytochrome C as substrate. It is proven that it is trypsin attached to paper (and not desorbed trypsin) which is responsible for the enzyme activity. The use of discs on complex biological samples shows that all functionalized discs are able to digest diluted serum; for the best-performing disc, HEMA-VDM functionalized, up to 200 high-confidence proteins are qualified, showing its potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Separations of Complex Mixtures)
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Review
Advanced Analytical Approaches for the Analysis of Polyphenols in Plants Matrices—A Review
Separations 2021, 8(5), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050065 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Phenolic compounds are plants’ bioactive metabolites that have been studied for their ability to confer extensive benefits to human health. As currently there is an increased interest in natural compounds identification and characterization, new analytical methods based on advanced technologies have been developed. [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds are plants’ bioactive metabolites that have been studied for their ability to confer extensive benefits to human health. As currently there is an increased interest in natural compounds identification and characterization, new analytical methods based on advanced technologies have been developed. This paper summarizes current advances in the state of the art for polyphenols identification and quantification. Analytical techniques ranging from high-pressure liquid chromatography to hyphenated spectrometric methods are discussed. The topic of high-resolution mass spectrometry, from targeted quantification to untargeted comprehensive chemical profiling, is particularly addressed. Structure elucidation is one of the important steps for natural products research. Mass spectral data handling approaches, including acquisition mode selection, accurate mass measurements, elemental composition, mass spectral library search algorithms and structure confirmation through mass fragmentation pathways, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Analysis of Plant Active Ingredients)
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Article
Modeling and Optimization of Membrane Process for Salinity Gradient Energy Production
Separations 2021, 8(5), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050064 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
When hydraulic pressure was added on the feed side of the membrane in the otherwise conventional pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) process, the production rate of the salinity gradient energy could be significantly increased by manipulating the hydraulic pressures on both sides of the [...] Read more.
When hydraulic pressure was added on the feed side of the membrane in the otherwise conventional pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) process, the production rate of the salinity gradient energy could be significantly increased by manipulating the hydraulic pressures on both sides of the membrane. With hydraulic pressure added on the feed side of the membrane, much higher water flux could be obtained than that under the osmotic pressure of the same value. The osmotic pressure of the draw solution, instead of drawing water through the membrane, was mainly reserved to increase the hydraulic pressure of the permeate. In this way, orders of magnitude higher power density than that in the conventional PRO can be obtained with the same salinity gradient. At the optimal conditions, it was demonstrated that the energy production rates that were much higher than the economical breakeven point could be obtained from the pair of seawater and freshwater with the currently available semipermeable membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Simulation, and Optimization of Membrane Processes)
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Article
Determination of Mitotane (DDD) and Principal Metabolite by a Simple HPLC-UV Method and Its Validation in Human Plasma Samples
Separations 2021, 8(5), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050063 - 09 May 2021
Viewed by 543
Abstract
Mitotane (DDD) is prescribed in adrenocortical renal carcinoma. Its principal metabolite, dichlorodiphenylethene (DDE), can accumulate in fat tissues and from a toxicological point of view, is probably more interesting than the other metabolite dichlorodiphenylacetate (DDA). Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of DDD plasma concentrations [...] Read more.
Mitotane (DDD) is prescribed in adrenocortical renal carcinoma. Its principal metabolite, dichlorodiphenylethene (DDE), can accumulate in fat tissues and from a toxicological point of view, is probably more interesting than the other metabolite dichlorodiphenylacetate (DDA). Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of DDD plasma concentrations is required to combine therapeutic efficacy with acceptable toxicity. Therefore, we developed a simple and fast HPLC-UV method to monitor plasma concentrations after a liquid–liquid extraction of plasma calibration samples, quality controls, and anonymous plasma samples with unknown DDD and DDE concentrations. Samples were injected into an HPLC instrument and peaks of mitotane (DDD), DDE and aldrin (internal standard, IS) were resolved by a stationary phase C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), maintained at 35 °C. Mobile phase, made by water/acetonitrile (10/90, v/v), was pumped at a flow of 1.0 mL/min, and absorbance was monitored at a wavelength of 226 nm. Average recovery was 95% for all analytes, and the method was linear for both DDD (r2 = 0.9988, range 1–50 mg/L) and DDE (r2 = 0.9964, range 1–40 mg/L). The values of limit of detection and quantitation were 0.102 and 0.310 mg/L for DDD and 0.036 and 0.108 mg/L for DDE, respectively. The retention time values of DDD, DDE and IS were 7.06, 9.42 and 12.60 min, respectively. The method was successfully validated according to FDA guidelines and finally adopted for routine TDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatographic Methods in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM))
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Article
LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS Profiling and Antioxidant Activity of Phenolics from Custard Apple Fruit and By-Products
Separations 2021, 8(5), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050062 - 09 May 2021
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Custard apple is an edible fruit grown in tropical and subtropical regions. Due to its abundant nutrient content and perceived health benefits, it is a popular food for consumption and is utilized as a medicinal aid. Although some published research had provided the [...] Read more.
Custard apple is an edible fruit grown in tropical and subtropical regions. Due to its abundant nutrient content and perceived health benefits, it is a popular food for consumption and is utilized as a medicinal aid. Although some published research had provided the phenolic compound of custard apple, the comprehensive phenolic profiling of Australian grown custard apple is limited. Hence, this research aimed to evaluate the phenolic content and antioxidant potential by various phenolic content and antioxidant assays, followed by characterization and quantification of the phenolic profile using LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and HPLC-PDA. African Pride peel had the highest value in TPC (61.69 ± 1.48 mg GAE/g), TFC (0.42 ± 0.01 mg QE/g) and TTC (43.25 ± 6.70 mg CE/g), followed by Pink’s Mammoth peel (19.37 ± 1.48 mg GAE/g for TPC, 0.27 ± 0.03 mg QE/g for TFC and 10.25 ± 1.13 mg CE/g for TTC). African Pride peel also exhibited the highest antioxidant potential for TAC (43.41 ± 1.66 mg AAE/g), FRAP (3.60 ± 0.14 mg AAE/g) and ABTS (127.67 ± 4.60 mg AAE/g), whereas Pink’s Mammoth peel had the highest DPPH (16.09 ± 0.34 mg AAE/g), RPA (5.32 ± 0.14 mg AAE/g), OH-RSA (1.23 ± 0.25 mg AAE/g) and FICA (3.17 ± 0.18 mg EDTA/g). LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS experiment successfully characterized 85 phenolic compounds in total, encompassing phenolic acids (20), flavonoids (42), stilbenes (4), lignans (6) and other polyphenols (13) in all three parts (pulp, peel and seeds) of custard apple. The phenolic compounds in different portions of custard apples were quantified by HPLC-PDA, and it was shown that African Pride peel had higher concentrations of the most abundant phenolics. This is the first study to provide the comprehensive phenolic profile of Australian grown custard apples, and the results highlight that each part of custard apple can be a rich source of phenolics for the utilization of custard apple fruit and waste in the food, animal feeding and nutraceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analytical Methods)
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Article
Application of Concentrated Growth Factors Membrane for Human Umbilical Cord Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation towards Keratinocytes
Separations 2021, 8(5), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050061 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Concentrated growth factors are extracted from platelet-rich plasma obtained from healthy adult veins by physical gradient centrifugation, and the activated platelets release various growth factors and cytokines, which can be further converted into concentrated growth factors liquid or gel preparations by different centrifuge [...] Read more.
Concentrated growth factors are extracted from platelet-rich plasma obtained from healthy adult veins by physical gradient centrifugation, and the activated platelets release various growth factors and cytokines, which can be further converted into concentrated growth factors liquid or gel preparations by different centrifuge tubes. These preparations are widely used in clinical treatments in various fields, such as dentistry, dermatology and surgery. In this article, concentrated growth factors gel and platelet-poor plasma gel obtained from six healthy adults were pressed into a concentrated growth factors membrane and platelet-poor plasma membrane. We examined whether the 3D fibrin mesh and the various concentrated growth factors within the concentrated growth factors membrane could be used as a bioscaffold for the human Wharton’s jelly umbilical cord stem cell line or the HaCaT cell line to attach, proliferate and form epidermal-like tissue. We also aimed to implant umbilical cord stem cells on the concentrated growth factors membrane or platelet-poor plasma membrane, and further compare the characteristics of similar tissues after 4 weeks in in vitro culture. The results showed that human Wharton’s jelly umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, implanted on the upper surface of the concentrated growth factors membrane, showed subsequent cell attachment and proliferation. After 4 weeks of ex vivo tissue culture, a multi-layer epidermal-like tissue formed on the upper surface of the membrane containing concentrated growth factors. This tissue had a minimum thickness of 89.91 µm to a maximum of 204.19 µm, mean ± SD = 144.36 µm ± 43.14 µm. Sections of these multi-layer epidermal-like tissues were used for immunohistochemical staining. We found that 79.8% ± 7.2% of the cells expressed the pancytokeratin marker, 29.5% ± 9.4% of the cells expressed the P63 marker, and 71.7% ± 3.9% of the cells expressed the vimentin marker. After the same 4 weeks in the in vitro culture, the HaCaT cells could attach to the concentrated growth factors membrane and proliferate to form a multi-layer tissue, The tissue had a minimum thickness of 63.17 µm to a maximum of 100.26 µm, mean ± SD = 74.05 µm ± 13.44 µm. We found that 88.1% ± 4.9% of the cells expressed the pancytokeratin marker, 63.6% ± 11.4% of the cells expressed the P63 marker, and 79% ± 9.9% of the cells expressed the vimentin marker. Also, after 4 weeks in the in vitro culture, it showed that umbilical cord stem cells could attach to the platelet-poor plasma membrane, proliferate and distribute in the whole-tissue sections. We found that 9.7% ± 2.4% of the cells expressed the pancytokeratin marker, 7.45% ± 1.9% of the cells expressed the P63 maker, and 95.9% ± 3.7% of the cells expressed the vimentin marker. In terms of the percentage of umbilical cord stem cells expressing pancytokeratin, P63, or vimentin cell markers, there was a significant difference between cultivating in the concentrated growth factors membrane scaffold and the platelet-poor plasma membrane scaffolds. In terms of the percentage of umbilical cord stem cells or HaCaT cells (cultivating in the concentrated growth factors membrane) expressing pancytokeratin, P63, or vimentin cell markers, there was no significant difference. These results suggested that umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells can use the concentrated growth factors membrane (composed of 3D fibrin mesh, and various growth factors and cytokines) as an effective and self-contained bioscaffold to differentiate towards keratinocytes-like cells. In the future, donors’ own concentrated growth factors membrane can be applied as an auxiliary tool for autologous tissue regeneration. Full article
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Review
Metal-Organic Frameworks in Bioanalysis: Extraction of Small Organic Molecules
Separations 2021, 8(5), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050060 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 552
Abstract
The quantitative determination of xenobiotic compounds, as well as biotics in biological matrices, is generally described with the term bioanalysis. Due to the complexity of biofluids, in combination with the low concentration of the small molecules, their determination in biological matrices is a [...] Read more.
The quantitative determination of xenobiotic compounds, as well as biotics in biological matrices, is generally described with the term bioanalysis. Due to the complexity of biofluids, in combination with the low concentration of the small molecules, their determination in biological matrices is a challenging procedure. Apart from the conventional solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, protein precipitation, and direct injection approaches, nowadays, a plethora of microextraction and miniaturized extraction techniques have been reported. Furthermore, the development and evaluation of novel extraction adsorbents for sample preparation has become a popular research field. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are novel materials composed of metal ions or clusters in coordination with organic linkers. Unequivocally, MOFs are gaining more and more attention in analytical chemistry due to their superior properties, including high surface area and tunability of pore size and functionality. This review discusses the utilization of MOFs in the sample preparation of biological samples for the green extraction of small organic molecules. Their common preparation and characterization strategies are discussed, while emphasis is given to their applications for green sample preparation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Green Analytical Chemistry)
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Review
Static vs. Dynamic Electrostatic Repulsion Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography: Solutions for Pharmaceutical and Biopharmaceutical Basic Compounds
Separations 2021, 8(5), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050059 - 02 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 450
Abstract
Many efforts have been made to separate basic compounds, which are challenging to resolve in reversed phase liquid chromatography. In this process, they are strongly retained and the peak shape undergoes significant distortion. The principal origin of this has been identified with the [...] Read more.
Many efforts have been made to separate basic compounds, which are challenging to resolve in reversed phase liquid chromatography. In this process, they are strongly retained and the peak shape undergoes significant distortion. The principal origin of this has been identified with the non-negligible interaction with residual deprotonated silanols. Consequently, all solutions that efficiently shield silanols are being sought. This review is an upgrade on the use of the electrostatic repulsion reversed phase (ERRP) approach: retention of bases, in protonated form, can be achieved by modulating the charge repulsion caused by the presence of positive charges in the chromatographic system. This study successfully (i) introduced fixed positive charges in the structure of stationary phases, (ii) used cationic and hydrophobic additives in the mobile phase, and (iii) used the ERRP-like approach employed at the preparative level for peptide purification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analysis of Natural Products and Pharmaceuticals)
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Article
Andean Blueberry of the Genus Disterigma: A High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Approach for the Comprehensive Characterization of Phenolic Compounds
Separations 2021, 8(5), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050058 - 02 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 533
Abstract
Wild neotropical blueberries, endemic of Central and South American areas, are promising yet still undisclosed sources of bioactive compounds. Most research studies have addressed wild and cultivated blueberries from Europe and North America, despite the extremely wide variety of wild neotropical species. In [...] Read more.
Wild neotropical blueberries, endemic of Central and South American areas, are promising yet still undisclosed sources of bioactive compounds. Most research studies have addressed wild and cultivated blueberries from Europe and North America, despite the extremely wide variety of wild neotropical species. In the present paper, for the first time, the phenolic composition of Disterigma alaternoides was investigated through ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass-spectrometric analysis followed by accurate data analysis and compound validation with a dedicated structure-based workflow. D. alaternoides, which belongs to a closely related genus to that of the common blueberry, grows exclusively in the Andean regions over 2000 above sea level. Thanks to the dedicated analytical platform, 249 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, including several anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and proanthocyanidins. Thenature and heterogeneity of identified phenolic compounds demonstrate once more the need for a more profound knowledge of such still uncharted matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatographic Analysis of Biological Samples)
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Article
In-Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Volatile Compounds and Minerals in Five Different Onion Varieties
Separations 2021, 8(5), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050057 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 490
Abstract
Onions contain high antioxidants compounds that fight inflammation against many diseases. The purpose was to investigate some selected bioactive activities of onion varieties (Yellow, Red, Green, Leek, and Baby). Antioxidant assays and anti-inflammatory activities such as NO production with the addition of some [...] Read more.
Onions contain high antioxidants compounds that fight inflammation against many diseases. The purpose was to investigate some selected bioactive activities of onion varieties (Yellow, Red, Green, Leek, and Baby). Antioxidant assays and anti-inflammatory activities such as NO production with the addition of some bioactive components were determined and analyzed by using a spectrophotometer. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used for the volatile compounds, while an Atomic absorption spectrometer was used for mineral determinations. Red variety achieved the highest antioxidant activities. The total flavonoids were between (12.56 and 353.53 mg Quercetin/gin dry weight) (dw) and the total phenol was (8.75–25.73 mg/g dw). Leek, Yellow and Green extracts achieved highly anti-inflammatory values (3.71–4.01 μg/mL) followed by Red and Baby extracts, respectively. The highest contents of sodium, potassium, zinc, and calcium were established for Red onions. Furfuraldehyde, 5-Methyl-2-furfuraldehyde, 2-Methyl-2-pentenal, and 1-Propanethiol were the most predominant, followed by a minor abundance of the other compounds such as Dimethyl sulfide, Methyl allyl disulfide, Methyl-trans-propenyl-disulfide, and Methyl propyl disulfide. The results recommend that these varieties could act as sources of essential antioxidants and anti-inflammatories to decrease inflammation and oxidative stresses, especially red onions that recorded high activities. Full article
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Article
Sintered Glass Monoliths as Supports for Affinity Columns
Separations 2021, 8(5), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050056 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
A novel stationary phase for affinity separations is presented. This material is based on sintered borosilicate glass readily available as semi-finished filter plates with defined porosity and surface area. The material shows fast binding kinetics and excellent long-term stability under real application conditions [...] Read more.
A novel stationary phase for affinity separations is presented. This material is based on sintered borosilicate glass readily available as semi-finished filter plates with defined porosity and surface area. The material shows fast binding kinetics and excellent long-term stability under real application conditions due to lacking macropores and high mechanical rigidity. The glass surface can be easily modified with standard organosilane chemistry to immobilize selective binders or other molecules used for biointeraction. In this paper, the manufacturing of the columns and their respective column holders by 3D printing is shown in detail. The model system protein A/IgG was chosen as an example to examine the properties of such monolithic columns under realistic application conditions. Several specifications, such as (dynamic) IgG capacity, pressure stability, long-term performance, productivity, non-specific binding, and peak shape, are presented. It could be shown that due to the very high separation speed, 250 mg antibody per hour and column can be collected, which surpasses the productivity of most standard columns of the same size. The total IgG capacity of the shown columns is around 4 mg (5.5 mg/mL), which is sufficient for most tasks in research laboratories. The cycle time of an IgG separation can be less than 1 min. Due to the glass material’s excellent pressure resistance, these columns are compatible with standard HPLC systems. This is usually not the case with standard affinity columns, limited to manual use or application in low-pressure systems. The use of a standard HPLC system also improves the ability for automation, which enables the purification of hundreds of cell supernatants in one day. The sharp peak shape of the elution leads to an enrichment effect, which might increase the concentration of IgG by a factor of 3. The final concentration of IgG can be around 7.5 mg/mL without the need for an additional nanofiltration step. The purity of the IgG was > 95% in one step and nearly 99% with a second polishing run. Full article
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Article
Fortified Cold-Pressed Oils: The Effect on Sensory Quality and Functional Properties
Separations 2021, 8(5), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050055 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
The aim of this study was to monitor sensory quality, stability, selected nutritionally interesting properties and their changes in cold-pressed oil blends after fortification with chia and sesame seeds and seed oils during repeated thermal treatments. Rapeseed (cv. Sidney) and sunflower (cv. Velox) [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to monitor sensory quality, stability, selected nutritionally interesting properties and their changes in cold-pressed oil blends after fortification with chia and sesame seeds and seed oils during repeated thermal treatments. Rapeseed (cv. Sidney) and sunflower (cv. Velox) seeds from the Czech Republic were used to produce cold-pressed oils, which were fortified with chia and sesame seeds and seed oils in the concentrations of 1% and 5%. In all oil blends, sensory evaluation (quantitative descriptive analysis and hedonic analysis) and chemical analyses (oxidation degree, hydrolytic stability, chlorophyll and carotenoid content) were carried out in order to perform separation of samples degraded by thermal treatment. Assessors representing consumers were able to differentiate between individual thermal treatments from the viewpoint of pleasantness. Interestingly, the overall pleasantness of all fortified oil samples was still acceptable until the second thermal treatment. On the other hand, the results of the study emphasized the problematic oxidation degree of cold-pressed oil blends. The fortification of cold-pressed oils with chia and sesame seeds and oils did not unambiguously lead to better stability during thermal treatment. The application of elevated temperatures during the culinary use of these types of products should be limited to only one thermal treatment since sensory and chemical changes occur after repeated heating. Full article
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