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Article

Next-Generation Dried Blood Spot Samplers for Protein Analysis: Describing Trypsin-Modified Smart Sampling Paper

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway
2
Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Josef Cvačka
Received: 12 April 2021 / Revised: 30 April 2021 / Accepted: 8 May 2021 / Published: 13 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Separations of Complex Mixtures)
This paper describes smart sampling paper to be used for bottom-up protein analysis. Four different manners to immobilize trypsin on cellulose were evaluated. Untreated paper, potassium-periodate-functionalized paper (with and without post-immobilization reduction) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone (VDM)-functionalized paper were all used to immobilize trypsin. For the evaluation, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining of proteins on paper and the BAEE trypsin activity assay needed to be modified. These methods allowed, together with data from mass spectrometric analysis of cytochrome C digestions, us to acquire fundamental insight into protein binding, and trypsin action and activity on paper. All functionalized discs bind more protein than the untreated discs. Protein binding to functionalized discs is based on both adsorption and covalent binding. Trypsin immobilized on potassium-periodate-functionalized discs exhibits the highest trypsin activity when using cytochrome C as substrate. It is proven that it is trypsin attached to paper (and not desorbed trypsin) which is responsible for the enzyme activity. The use of discs on complex biological samples shows that all functionalized discs are able to digest diluted serum; for the best-performing disc, HEMA-VDM functionalized, up to 200 high-confidence proteins are qualified, showing its potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: immobilized trypsin; smart sampler; dried blood spot; protein determination; bottom-up analysis immobilized trypsin; smart sampler; dried blood spot; protein determination; bottom-up analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pizzi, E.; Halvorsen, T.G.; Koehler, C.J.; Reubsaet, L. Next-Generation Dried Blood Spot Samplers for Protein Analysis: Describing Trypsin-Modified Smart Sampling Paper. Separations 2021, 8, 66. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050066

AMA Style

Pizzi E, Halvorsen TG, Koehler CJ, Reubsaet L. Next-Generation Dried Blood Spot Samplers for Protein Analysis: Describing Trypsin-Modified Smart Sampling Paper. Separations. 2021; 8(5):66. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050066

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pizzi, Eleonora, Trine G. Halvorsen, Christian J. Koehler, and Léon Reubsaet. 2021. "Next-Generation Dried Blood Spot Samplers for Protein Analysis: Describing Trypsin-Modified Smart Sampling Paper" Separations 8, no. 5: 66. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/separations8050066

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