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Inorganics, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2020) – 5 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Ammine metal borohydrides exhibit a large compositional and structural diversity and have been proposed as candidates for solid-state ammonia and hydrogen storage. Recently, these materials have received new attention as a novel class of solid-state electrolytes. Here, we report on the synthesis, crystal structures, and thermal properties of two new ammine barium borohydrides. Ammonia is absorbed at room temperature and is reversible released from compounds below 150 °C, reforming barium borohydride. This work discusses trends in the gas release and decomposition temperatures for the entire range of ammine alkaline earth metal borohydrides, which can be correlated to the charge density of the metal cation. View this paper.
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Article
Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Thermal Properties of Ammine Barium Borohydrides
Inorganics 2020, 8(10), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8100057 - 10 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Ammine metal borohydrides show large compositional and structural diversity, and have been proposed as candidates for solid-state ammonia and hydrogen storage as well as fast cationic conductors. Here, we report the synthesis method of ammine barium borohydrides, Ba(BH4)2·x [...] Read more.
Ammine metal borohydrides show large compositional and structural diversity, and have been proposed as candidates for solid-state ammonia and hydrogen storage as well as fast cationic conductors. Here, we report the synthesis method of ammine barium borohydrides, Ba(BH4)2·xNH3 (x = 1, 2). The two new compounds were investigated with time-resolved temperature-varied in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and photographic analysis. The compound Ba(BH4)2·2NH3 crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell with space group symmetry Pnc2, and is isostructural to Sr(BH4)2·2NH3, forming octahedral [Ba(NH3)2(BH4)4] complexes, which are connected into a two-dimensional layered structure, where the layers are interconnected by dihydrogen bonds, N–Hδ+−δH–B. A new structure type is observed for Ba(BH4)2·NH3, which crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell with space group symmetry P212121, forming a three-dimensional framework structure of [Ba(NH3)(BH4)6] complexes. The structure is built from distorted hexagonal chains, where NH3 groups form dihydrogen bonds to the nearby BH4-groups within the chain. Ba(BH4)2·2NH3 is unstable at room temperature and releases NH3 in two subsequent endothermic reactions with maxima at 49 and 117 °C, eventually reforming Ba(BH4)2. We demonstrate that the thermal stability and composition of the gas release for the ammine alkaline earth metal borohydrides can be correlated to the charge density of the metal cation, but are also influenced by other effects. Full article
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Editorial
Smart Tools for Smart Applications: New Insights into Inorganic Magnetic Systems and Materials
Inorganics 2020, 8(10), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8100056 - 10 Oct 2020
Viewed by 893
Abstract
This Special Issue, consisting of four reviews and three research articles, presents some of the recent advances and future perspectives in the field of magnetic materials and systems, which are designed to meet some of our current challenges. Full article
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Review
Mechanism of Iron–Sulfur Cluster Assembly: In the Intimacy of Iron and Sulfur Encounter
Inorganics 2020, 8(10), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8100055 - 03 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1589
Abstract
Iron–sulfur (Fe–S) clusters are protein cofactors of a multitude of enzymes performing essential biological functions. Specialized multi-protein machineries present in all types of organisms support their biosynthesis. These machineries encompass a scaffold protein on which Fe–S clusters are assembled and a cysteine desulfurase [...] Read more.
Iron–sulfur (Fe–S) clusters are protein cofactors of a multitude of enzymes performing essential biological functions. Specialized multi-protein machineries present in all types of organisms support their biosynthesis. These machineries encompass a scaffold protein on which Fe–S clusters are assembled and a cysteine desulfurase that provides sulfur in the form of a persulfide. The sulfide ions are produced by reductive cleavage of the persulfide, which involves specific reductase systems. Several other components are required for Fe–S biosynthesis, including frataxin, a key protein of controversial function and accessory components for insertion of Fe–S clusters in client proteins. Fe–S cluster biosynthesis is thought to rely on concerted and carefully orchestrated processes. However, the elucidation of the mechanisms of their assembly has remained a challenging task due to the biochemical versatility of iron and sulfur and the relative instability of Fe–S clusters. Nonetheless, significant progresses have been achieved in the past years, using biochemical, spectroscopic and structural approaches with reconstituted system in vitro. In this paper, we review the most recent advances on the mechanism of assembly for the founding member of the Fe–S cluster family, the [2Fe2S] cluster that is the building block of all other Fe–S clusters. The aim is to provide a survey of the mechanisms of iron and sulfur insertion in the scaffold proteins by examining how these processes are coordinated, how sulfide is produced and how the dinuclear [2Fe2S] cluster is formed, keeping in mind the question of the physiological relevance of the reconstituted systems. We also cover the latest outcomes on the functional role of the controversial frataxin protein in Fe–S cluster biosynthesis. Full article
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Article
Behavior of Compacted Magnesium-Based Powders for Energy-Storage Applications
Inorganics 2020, 8(10), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8100054 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 977
Abstract
Energy storage is one of the main challenges to address in the near future—in particular due to the intermittent energy produced by extensive renewable energy production plants. The use of hydrides for this type of energy storage has many positive aspects. Hydride-based systems [...] Read more.
Energy storage is one of the main challenges to address in the near future—in particular due to the intermittent energy produced by extensive renewable energy production plants. The use of hydrides for this type of energy storage has many positive aspects. Hydride-based systems consist of absorption and desorption reactions that are strongly exothermic and endothermic, respectively. Heat management in the design of hydrogen storage tanks is an important issue, in order to ensure high-level performance in terms of the kinetics for hydrogen release/uptake and reasonable storage capacity. When loose powder is used, material in the form of pellets should be considered in order to avoid detrimental effects including decreased cycling performance. Moreover, sustainable materials in large-scale hydrogen reactors could be recovered and reused to improve any life cycle analysis of such systems. For these reasons, magnesium hydride was used in this study, as it is particularly suitable for hydrogen storage due to its high H2 storage capacity, reversibility and the low costs. Magnesium hydride was ball-milled in presence of 5 wt % Fe as a catalyst, then compacted with an uniaxial press after the addition of expanded natural graphite (ENG). The materials underwent 45 cycles in a Sievert’s type apparatus at 310 °C and eight bar, in order to study the kinetics and cycling stability. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate microstructural properties and failure phenomena. Together with Rietveld analysis, X-ray diffraction was performed for phase identification and structural information. The pellets demonstrated suitable cycling stability in terms of total hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics. Full article
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Review
Prototype Material for New Strategy of Photon Energy Storage
Inorganics 2020, 8(10), 53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8100053 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
The smart utilization of photons is paid global attention from the viewpoint of renewable energy and information technology. However, it is still impossible to store photons as batteries and condensers do for electrons. All the present technologies utilize (the energy of) photons in [...] Read more.
The smart utilization of photons is paid global attention from the viewpoint of renewable energy and information technology. However, it is still impossible to store photons as batteries and condensers do for electrons. All the present technologies utilize (the energy of) photons in situ, such as solar panels, or in spontaneous relaxation processes, such as photoluminescence. If we can store the energy of photons over an arbitrary period and utilize them on demand, not only we will make an innovative progress in energy management, but we will also be able to replace a part of electrons by photons in the information technology for more efficient performance. In this article, we review a prototype of such a material including the current status of related research as well as where we are heading for. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox-Active Ligand Complexes)
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