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Inorganics, Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 3 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The link between the biosynthesis and maturation of molybdoenzymes and the biosynthesis and distribution of Fe-S clusters is highlighted. Both molybdenum (moco) biosynthesis and Fe-S cluster assembly are highly conserved among all kingdoms of life. In all organisms, Fe-S cluster assembly starts with the abstraction of sulfur from L-cysteine and its transfer to a scaffold protein. After formation, Fe-S clusters are transferred to carrier proteins that insert them into recipient apo-proteins. Moco biosynthesis begins with a Fe-S cluster-dependent step, involving radical/S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) chemistry in the first step—the conversion of 5’-GTP to cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP). Moco is a tricyclic pterin compound with molybdenum coordinated through its unique dithiolene group. View this paper.
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Review
The Requirement of Inorganic Fe-S Clusters for the Biosynthesis of the Organometallic Molybdenum Cofactor
Inorganics 2020, 8(7), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8070043 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential protein cofactors. In enzymes, they are present either in the rhombic [2Fe-2S] or the cubic [4Fe-4S] form, where they are involved in catalysis and electron transfer and in the biosynthesis of metal-containing prosthetic groups like the molybdenum cofactor [...] Read more.
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential protein cofactors. In enzymes, they are present either in the rhombic [2Fe-2S] or the cubic [4Fe-4S] form, where they are involved in catalysis and electron transfer and in the biosynthesis of metal-containing prosthetic groups like the molybdenum cofactor (Moco). Here, we give an overview of the assembly of Fe-S clusters in bacteria and humans and present their connection to the Moco biosynthesis pathway. In all organisms, Fe-S cluster assembly starts with the abstraction of sulfur from l-cysteine and its transfer to a scaffold protein. After formation, Fe-S clusters are transferred to carrier proteins that insert them into recipient apo-proteins. In eukaryotes like humans and plants, Fe-S cluster assembly takes place both in mitochondria and in the cytosol. Both Moco biosynthesis and Fe-S cluster assembly are highly conserved among all kingdoms of life. Moco is a tricyclic pterin compound with molybdenum coordinated through its unique dithiolene group. Moco biosynthesis begins in the mitochondria in a Fe-S cluster dependent step involving radical/S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) chemistry. An intermediate is transferred to the cytosol where the dithiolene group is formed, to which molybdenum is finally added. Further connections between Fe-S cluster assembly and Moco biosynthesis are discussed in detail. Full article
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Article
In Vitro Evaluation of a Peptide-Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle Drug Release System against HIV-1
Inorganics 2020, 8(7), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8070042 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
It has been shown that the optimized VIR-576 derivative of the natural HIV-1 entry inhibitor targeting the viral gp41 fusion peptide is safe and effective in infected individuals. However, high doses of this peptide were required, and stability, as well as delivery, must [...] Read more.
It has been shown that the optimized VIR-576 derivative of the natural HIV-1 entry inhibitor targeting the viral gp41 fusion peptide is safe and effective in infected individuals. However, high doses of this peptide were required, and stability, as well as delivery, must be improved for clinical application. Here, we examined the loading and release of VIR-576 into/from mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) in vitro. We found that a moderately high peptide loading of 11.5 wt % could be achieved by adsorption from PBS buffer (pH 7.2), i.e., under mild, fully peptide-compatible conditions. The release rate of peptide into the same buffer was slow and the equilibrium concentration as indicated by the adsorption isotherm could not be reached even within 50 h at the particle concentrations studied. However, a faster release was observed at lower particle concentrations, indicating that partial particle dissolution had a positive influence on peptide release. To determine the antiviral activity of VIR-576-loaded MSNs, TZM-bl indicator cells were exposed to HIV-1 and the infection rates were followed as a function of time and VIR-576 concentration. The inhibitory activity observed for VIR-576 released from the MSNs was virtually identical to that of free VIR-576 at the 48 h time point, indicating that (a) VIR-576 was released in an active form from the MSNs, and (b) the release rate in the presence of serum proteins was clearly higher than that observed under protein-free conditions. These observations are discussed based on competitive peptide/protein adsorption, as well as potential influences of serum proteins on the dissolution-reprecipitation of silica under conditions where the total silica concentration is above the saturation level for dissolved silica. Our results highlight the need for studying drug release kinetics in the presence of serum proteins, in order to allow for a better extrapolation of in vitro data to in vivo conditions. Furthermore, due to the high peptide loadings that can be achieved using MSNs as carriers, such a formulation appears promising for local release applications. For systemic administration, however, peptides with a higher potency would be needed, due to their high molar masses limiting the drug loading in terms of moles per gram carrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Porous Materials)
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Review
Structure: Function Studies of the Cytosolic, Mo- and NAD+-Dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Cupriavidus necator
Inorganics 2020, 8(7), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8070041 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Here, we report recent progress our laboratories have made in understanding the maturation and reaction mechanism of the cytosolic and NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase from Cupriavidus necator. Our recent work has established that the enzyme is fully capable of catalyzing the reverse [...] Read more.
Here, we report recent progress our laboratories have made in understanding the maturation and reaction mechanism of the cytosolic and NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase from Cupriavidus necator. Our recent work has established that the enzyme is fully capable of catalyzing the reverse of the physiological reaction, namely, the reduction of CO2 to formate using NADH as a source of reducing equivalents. The steady-state kinetic parameters in the forward and reverse directions are consistent with the expected Haldane relationship. The addition of an NADH-regenerating system consisting of glucose and glucose dehydrogenase increases the yield of formate approximately 10-fold. This work points to possible ways of optimizing the reverse of the enzyme’s physiological reaction with commercial potential as an effective means of CO2 remediation. New insight into the maturation of the enzyme comes from the recently reported structure of the FdhD sulfurase. In E. coli, FdhD transfers a catalytically essential sulfur to the maturing molybdenum cofactor prior to insertion into the apoenzyme of formate dehydrogenase FdhF, which has high sequence similarity to the molybdenum-containing domain of the C. necator FdsA. The FdhD structure suggests that the molybdenum cofactor may first be transferred from the sulfurase to the C-terminal cap domain of apo formate dehydrogenase, rather than being transferred directly to the body of the apoenzyme. Closing of the cap domain over the body of the enzymes delivers the Mo-cofactor into the active site, completing the maturation of formate dehydrogenase. The structural and kinetic characterization of the NADH reduction of the FdsBG subcomplex of the enzyme provides further insights in reversing of the formate dehydrogenase reaction. Most notably, we observe the transient formation of a neutral semiquinone FMNH·, a species that has not been observed previously with holoenzyme. After initial reduction of the FMN of FdsB by NADH to the hydroquinone (with a kred of 680 s−1 and Kd of 190 µM), one electron is rapidly transferred to the Fe2S2 cluster of FdsG, leaving FMNH·. The Fe4S4 cluster of FdsB does not become reduced in the process. These results provide insight into the function not only of the C. necator formate dehydrogenase but also of other members of the NADH dehydrogenase superfamily of enzymes to which it belongs. Full article
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