Light activated disinfection (LAD) is a strategy for optimizing root canal disinfection by using a highly-selective, targeted killing of bacteria using a combination of photosensitizers and light. Over the past decade, numerous in vitro and clinical studies have been performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this mode of root canal disinfection. While most studies offer an important understanding of the effectiveness of LAD on monospecies biofilms, few have offered credence to the fact that infections of the root canal system are mediated by polymicrobial biofilms. Hence, it is imperative to understand the effect of LAD on polymicrobial biofilms both in terms of microbial killing and the changes in the biofilm architecture. The aim of this review was to systematically review the literature to evaluate the effect of LAD on dual and multispecies biofilms and demonstrate the antibiofilm effect of LAD. Two databases (PubMed and Scopus) were searched to identify eligible studies using a combination of key words. These studies were reviewed to draw conclusions on the effect of LAD on dual and multi species biofilm and the antibiofilm effect of LAD. It was found that LAD alone may be unable to eradicate dual and multispecies biofilms, but it may enhance the effect of conventional canal debridement strategies. Novel formulations of photosensitizers with nanoparticles showed the potential to inhibit biofilm formation and/or disrupt the biofilm architecture.
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