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Dent. J., Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 47 articles

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Review
Laser-Assisted aPDT Protocols in Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Dentistry: A Systematic Review
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030107 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Background: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an effective alternative method for the adjunctive treatment of all classes of oral infections. The multifactorial nature of its mechanism of action correlates with various influencing factors, involving parameters concerning both the photosensitizer and [...] Read more.
Background: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an effective alternative method for the adjunctive treatment of all classes of oral infections. The multifactorial nature of its mechanism of action correlates with various influencing factors, involving parameters concerning both the photosensitizer and the light delivery system. This study aims to critically evaluate the recorded parameters of aPDT applications that use lasers as the light source in randomized clinical trials in dentistry. Methods: PubMed and Cochrane search engines were used to identify human clinical trials of aPDT therapy in dentistry. After applying specific keywords, additional filters, inclusion and exclusion criteria, the initial number of 7744 articles was reduced to 38. Results: Almost one-half of the articles presented incomplete parameters, whilst the others had different protocols, even with the same photosensitizer and for the same field of application. Conclusions: No safe recommendation for aPDT protocols can be extrapolated for clinical use. Further research investigations should be performed with clear protocols, so that standardization for their potential dental applications can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lasers in Dentistry: Hard and Soft Tissues)
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Review
Management of Peri-Implantitis Lesions without the Use of Systemic Antibiotics: A Systematic Review
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 106; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030106 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
Background: This systematic review aims to assess the current evidence on the efficacy of surgical and non-surgical debridement techniques in the treatment of peri-implantitis lesions without the use of any antimicrobials. Method: Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scopus, CINAHL and Cochrane) were used, [...] Read more.
Background: This systematic review aims to assess the current evidence on the efficacy of surgical and non-surgical debridement techniques in the treatment of peri-implantitis lesions without the use of any antimicrobials. Method: Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scopus, CINAHL and Cochrane) were used, alongside hand searches, to find relevant articles. Full-text articles that were randomised controlled trials, published in the English language from 2011 onwards without pre-operative, peri-operative and post-operative antibiotic usage were included. The study was conducted according to the latest Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)-P protocols, the latest Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and each investigated intervention was evaluated using the grading of recommendation, assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system. Results: The search yielded 2718 results. After initial screening, 38 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. From these, 11 studies satisfied all inclusion criteria. These 11 articles described six non-surgical and five surgical debridement therapies. Most articles were classified as having either a high risk of bias or presenting with some concerns. Small sample sizes, in combination with this risk of bias, meant that all interventions were adjudged to be of either low or very low quality of evidence. Conclusion: While all investigated modalities displayed some sort of efficacy, this review suggests that a surgical approach may be best suited to treating peri-implantitis lesions in the absence of antibiotic therapy. Despite this weak indication, further research is required in this field. Full article
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Article
Family Influences on Caries in Grenada
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 105; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030105 - 09 Sep 2020
Viewed by 934
Abstract
If high-conflict family environments are cariogenic across cultures, and can be studied in cultures where both these environments and cariogenic dental practices are particularly prevalent, this would afford the opportunity to examine how these two pathways of risk might interact, laying the stage [...] Read more.
If high-conflict family environments are cariogenic across cultures, and can be studied in cultures where both these environments and cariogenic dental practices are particularly prevalent, this would afford the opportunity to examine how these two pathways of risk might interact, laying the stage for culturally competent, integrated prevention efforts. The first investigation involved qualitative data about perceptions of oral health and family stressors in Grenadian families with school-aged children. The second study used a questionnaire and observational data to assess relations among oral health behaviors, relationship satisfaction, parenting, and child behavior; it also included a pilot study of Motivational Interviewing. Most of the themes discussed in focus groups suggested overlap between U.S. and Grenadian parents; possible culture-specific issues were high prevalence of single-parent homes, normativity of physical discipline, less preventive dental care, and more fatalistic view of oral health outcomes. Significant associations were found between parent and child oral health behaviors, between child externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and between family variables (e.g., relationship satisfaction, child behavior) and oral health behaviors (e.g., parent flossing, child brush time). The results strongly support the need for research on the relations between family functioning and oral health to be embedded within culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Education)
Article
Analysis of the Subgingival Microbiota in Implant-Supported Full-Arch Rehabilitations
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030104 - 05 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Background: The etiology of peri-implantitis is multifactorial, and it is not directly linked to the quantitative amount of plaque. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subgingival microbiota around implants supporting full-arch restorations on clinical indexes of peri-implant health. [...] Read more.
Background: The etiology of peri-implantitis is multifactorial, and it is not directly linked to the quantitative amount of plaque. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subgingival microbiota around implants supporting full-arch restorations on clinical indexes of peri-implant health. Method: 47 patients (54 full-arch fixed rehabilitations) were included. Based on the highest value of probing depth (PD), 47 implants (in the test arch), 40 natural teeth and 7 implants (in the antagonist arch) were selected for microbiological sampling (traditional PCR and real-time PCR). Periodontal indexes (plaque index, PlI; probing depth, PD; bleeding on probing, BOP; peri-implant suppuration, PS) and marginal bone loss were also recorded. Results: Despite abundant plaque accumulation, the peri-implant parameters were within normal limits. No statistical difference was found in the microbial population around the test implants and antagonist natural teeth. Treponema denticola was present in a significantly higher amount around implants with increased PlI. Implants with increased BOP showed a significant increase in Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia. A significantly higher presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia was identified around the implants affected by peri-implantitis and in smokers. Conclusions: Peri-implantitis is characterized by a complex and polymicrobial disease, that might be influenced by the qualitative profile of plaque. Smoking might also favor implant biological complications in full-arch fixed prosthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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Article
Information Retrieval and Awareness about Evidence-Based Dentistry among Dental Undergraduate Students—A Comparative Study between Students from Malaysia and Finland
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030103 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Background: A fundamental skill in education includes the ability to search for, evaluate, and synthesize information, and this cannot be underestimated in dental education. The aim of this study was to assess how dental students from Malaysia and Finland acquire scientific information and [...] Read more.
Background: A fundamental skill in education includes the ability to search for, evaluate, and synthesize information, and this cannot be underestimated in dental education. The aim of this study was to assess how dental students from Malaysia and Finland acquire scientific information and to compare their information retrieval skills. Methods: Fourth and fifth-year dental students from Malaysia and Finland were invited to participate. A self-administered structured questionnaire including items about the use of information sources, subjective assessment of literature retrieval skills and knowledge was used. Results: A total of 226 dental students participated in the survey: 131 from Malaysia and 95 from Finland. In both countries, the highest interest for data retrieval among students was found in the oral surgery specialty. The three most used sources of information among Malaysian students were personal lecture notes, dental textbooks, and colleagues; while Finnish students used colleagues, lecture notes, and current clinical guidelines. Students’ knowledge of evidence-based practice was inadequate in both student groups. Though the majority of participants reported that they had good or passable skills in literature retrieval, more students from Finland judged themselves to have at least good skills compared to those from Malaysia. Conclusion: Dental education in both countries includes information retrieval studies and mandatory research projects. However, students did not often use those sources that are considered essential in evidence-based dentistry. Universities should further develop educational and training interventions that guide students to use knowledge resources more effectively for critically appraising scientific evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Education)
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Article
Reliability of Screening Methods to Diagnose Oral Dryness and Evaluate Saliva Secretion
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030102 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1433
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the reliability and reproducibility of widely implemented salivary flow rate and oral dryness tests. In experiment 1, twenty young and healthy Japanese participants volunteered to participate. For each participant, the oral moisture (OM) level, unstimulated whole saliva volume [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated the reliability and reproducibility of widely implemented salivary flow rate and oral dryness tests. In experiment 1, twenty young and healthy Japanese participants volunteered to participate. For each participant, the oral moisture (OM) level, unstimulated whole saliva volume (U-WSV), and stimulated whole saliva volume (S-WSV) were measured at the same time on two separate days. In experiment 2, twenty-seven patients who were over 65 years of age volunteered to participate. The OM level and U-WSV were measured at the same time on two separate days. In Experiment 1, the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) corresponding to the S-WSV, U-WSV, and OM level were 0.23, 0.28, and 0.16, respectively, for the young participants. In Experiment 2, the ICCs corresponding to the U-WSV/spitting and OM level were 0.83 and 0.12, respectively, for the older participants. The results of Bland–Altman analysis confirmed the absence of systematic error, with the exception of the OM level results in Experiment 2, which indicated systematic bias. In conclusion, we believe that there is currently no consistent and reliable screening test for assessing salivary flow rate and oral dryness, although the spitting test was determined to be highly reliable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salivary Medicine and Regeneration of Salivary Glands)
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Article
Photobiomodulation Therapy in the Management of Burning Mouth Syndrome: Morphological Variations in the Capillary Bed
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030099 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an idiopathic condition that manifests itself primarily with the onset of a burning sensation. The aim of this research was to perform photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) using a diode laser on the oral mucosa of BMS patients, followed by [...] Read more.
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an idiopathic condition that manifests itself primarily with the onset of a burning sensation. The aim of this research was to perform photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) using a diode laser on the oral mucosa of BMS patients, followed by an objective evaluation of the morphological changes in the vascular bed underlying the mucosa using polarized light videocapillaroscopy. A group of 40 patients were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (using simple randomization) as follows: 20 patients were assigned to the laser group and 20 patients were assigned to the placebo group. Each patient of the laser group received eight irradiations (with 4 Watt of power, wavelength 800 nm, energy 1200 Joules, irradiation time of 300 s, energy density 50 J/cm2, 60 mW continuous wave laser, and irradiance 180 mW/cm2), twice a week, blinded to the type of irradiation administered, for four consecutive weeks. The patients in the placebo group underwent the same sessions as the other patients, the only difference was the non-emission of the laser. An initial check of the vascular bed was performed with a polarized light videocapillaroscope. This was followed by treatment with a therapeutic diode laser and a subsequent check with a videocapillaroscope. We observed that in the group of patients who underwent laser therapy, there was a lasting improvement in symptoms. The capillary oral bed of patients in the placebo group did not show any statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). In the laser group we observed the following: in the buccal mucosa the diameter of the capillary had a reduction of 3 μm; in the upper lip mucosa, there was a reduction of 3 μm; in the lower lip mucosa, there was a reduction of 3 μm; and in the dorsal lingual surface, there was a reduction of 2 μm. An increase in capillary length was also obtained in all irradiated regions in the laser group patients (p < 0.05). PBM induces microcirculatory changes that are still present over a long period of time, such as an improvement in the clinical picture. The improvement in the symptoms has been correlated to the reduction of the capillary diameter. The placebo effect only led to a temporary improvement in symptoms that were unrelated to changes in the microcirculatory pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photobiomodulation)
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Article
A Preliminary Study on the Ability of the Trypsin-Like Peptidase Activity Assay Kit to Detect Periodontitis
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030098 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
This study aimed to explore whether the Trypsin-Like Peptidase Activity Assay Kit (TLP-AA-Kit), which measures the activity of N-benzoyl-dl-arginine peptidase (trypsin-like peptidase), can be used as a reliable tool for periodontitis detection in population-based surveillance. In total, 105 individuals underwent a [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore whether the Trypsin-Like Peptidase Activity Assay Kit (TLP-AA-Kit), which measures the activity of N-benzoyl-dl-arginine peptidase (trypsin-like peptidase), can be used as a reliable tool for periodontitis detection in population-based surveillance. In total, 105 individuals underwent a full-mouth periodontal examination and provided tongue swabs as specimens for further analyses. The results of the TLP-AA-Kit were scored between 1 and 5; higher scores indicated higher trypsin concentrations. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to evaluate the predictive validity of the TLP-AA-Kit, where the periodontitis case definition provided by the Centers for Disease Control/American Academy of Periodontology served as the reference. Severe and moderate periodontitis were identified in 4.8% and 16.2% of the study population, respectively. The TLP-AA-Kit showed high diagnostic accuracy for severe periodontitis, with an area under the curve of 0.93 (95% confidence interval = 0.88–0.99). However, the diagnostic accuracy of the TLP-AA-Kit for moderate/severe periodontitis was not reliable. While further studies are necessary to validate our results, the results provided herein highlight the potential of the TLP-AA-Kit as a useful tool for the detection of periodontitis, particularly in severe cases, for population-based surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies in Dentistry)
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Article
Treatment Success and User-Friendliness of An Electric Toothbrush App: A Pilot Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 97; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030097 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 943
Abstract
Electronic and mobile health (eHealth/mHealth) are rapidly growing areas in medicine and digital technologies are gaining importance. In dentistry, digitalization is also an emerging topic, whereby more and more applications are being offered. As an example, using real-time feedback, digital application software (an [...] Read more.
Electronic and mobile health (eHealth/mHealth) are rapidly growing areas in medicine and digital technologies are gaining importance. In dentistry, digitalization is also an emerging topic, whereby more and more applications are being offered. As an example, using real-time feedback, digital application software (an app) was designed to help users brush their teeth more accurately. However, there is no data on the effectiveness and haptic of such apps. Therefore, a single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial was designed: twenty volunteers received an electric toothbrush with an associated app to assess whether the app-assisted toothbrushing is better than without. After a short period of familiarization with the electric toothbrush, plaque index (O‘Leary et al. 1972) was recorded and subjects were assigned to the test (with app; n = 10) or the control group (no app; n = 10). At the end of the 2-week pilot study period, plaque was again assessed and participants in the test group completed a questionnaire about the app’s user-friendliness. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the test and control groups. The plaque index improved on average by 8.5% points in the test and 4.7% points in the control group. Fifty percent of the test group participants were of the opinion that they had achieved better cleaning results and would recommend the app to others, although the app contributed only marginally to increased plaque removal. However, such apps may nevertheless be helpful as motivational tools, especially when tracking and monitoring cleaning data. Therefore, more development and research on this topic is indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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Article
Mouthwash Effects on LGG-Integrated Experimental Oral Biofilms
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8030096 - 01 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1604
Abstract
In order to investigate the effects of mouthwashes on oral biofilms with probiotics, we compared in biofilms the susceptibility to mouthwashes of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Candida albicans. We also evaluated [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the effects of mouthwashes on oral biofilms with probiotics, we compared in biofilms the susceptibility to mouthwashes of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Candida albicans. We also evaluated these pathogens’ susceptibility to the mouthwashes and their recovery after mouthwash-rinsing in biofilms with/without LGG. First, 1-day-/3-day-old LGG-integrated multi-species biofilms were exposed for 1 min to mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine, essential oils, or amine fluoride/stannous fluoride. Cells were plate-counted and relative survival rates (RSRs) of LGG and pathogens calculated. Second, 1-day-/3-day-old multispecies biofilms with and without LGG were exposed for 1 min to mouthwashes; cells were plate-counted and the pathogens’ RSRs were calculated. Third, 1-day-old biofilms were treated for 1 min with mouthwashes. Cells were plate-counted immediately and after 2-day cultivation. Recovery rates of pathogens were calculated and compared between biofilms with/without LGG. Live/Dead® staining served for structural analyses. Our results showed that RSRs of LGG were insignificantly smaller than those of pathogens in both 1-day and 3-day biofilms. No significant differences appeared in pathogens’ RSRs and recovery rates after treatment between biofilms with/without LGG. To conclude, biofilm LGG was susceptible to the mouthwashes; but biofilm LGG altered neither the mouthwash effects on oral pathogens nor affected their recovery. Full article
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Article
3D Technology Development and Dental Education: What Topics Are Best Suited for 3D Learning Resources?
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 95; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030095 - 01 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
The aim of this study is to identify topics (knowledge and skills) from the dental curricula that would benefit from having a 3D learning resource using an exploratory sequential design method. The first phase targeted stakeholders from a Scottish dental school. Seven focus [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to identify topics (knowledge and skills) from the dental curricula that would benefit from having a 3D learning resource using an exploratory sequential design method. The first phase targeted stakeholders from a Scottish dental school. Seven focus groups and three interviews disclosed 97 suitable topics for 3D technology development. These results were used to construct a survey that was sent to final year dental students, newly dental graduates and academics from three Scottish universities. The survey asked participants to rank each item based on the perceived benefit that a 3D learning resource would have for dental education. Results revealed that detailed anatomy of the temporomandibular joint, dental anaesthesiology, dental clinical skills techniques, dental occlusion and mandibular functioning were top priorities. Gender differences only appeared in relation to ‘Extraction techniques: movements and force’ (p < 0.05), this topic was considered to be more beneficial by females than by males. No statistical difference was found when comparing results of graduates with undergraduates. These results serve as a starting point when developing a new 3D technology tool for dental education, considering users demands and perceived needs has the potential to benefit dental students and dental education directly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Education)
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Case Report
Management of an Unsuccessful Regenerative Endodontic Procedure after Tooth Fracture: A Case Report
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030094 - 01 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Dental trauma is a very frequent occurrence in children and adolescents, which creates a great impact on the esthetics, functions, and phonetics. Traumatic dental injuries can range from simple enamel fractures to permanent tooth loss. This case report presents an eight-year-old patient with [...] Read more.
Dental trauma is a very frequent occurrence in children and adolescents, which creates a great impact on the esthetics, functions, and phonetics. Traumatic dental injuries can range from simple enamel fractures to permanent tooth loss. This case report presents an eight-year-old patient with an uncomplicated crown fracture of tooth 21, and 30 days after trauma, it was diagnosed as necrotic pulp. The first treatment choice was a regenerative endodontic procedure (REP), however, the failure led to apexification with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). The chosen rehabilitation was a composite veneer. Concerning the available literature and fracture enamel dentin, the treatment approach proposed for the case provided good functional and esthetic outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Restorative Dentistry and Traumatology)
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Article
Formative and Pilot Study for an Effectiveness-Implementation Hybrid Cluster Randomized Trial to Incorporate Oral Health Activities into Pediatric Well-Child Visits
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030101 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
Background: Dental caries in pediatric patients are noted to have broad impacts on systemic health and well-being. Thus, utilizing an effectiveness-implementation hybrid I design, the Pediatric Providers Against Cavities in Children’s Teeth (PACT) trial is investigating multi-level interventions at the practice (incorporation [...] Read more.
Background: Dental caries in pediatric patients are noted to have broad impacts on systemic health and well-being. Thus, utilizing an effectiveness-implementation hybrid I design, the Pediatric Providers Against Cavities in Children’s Teeth (PACT) trial is investigating multi-level interventions at the practice (incorporation of oral health in electronic medical record [EMR]) and provider levels (theory-based didactic and skills training to communicate oral health facts to parent/caregiver, give a prescription to see a dentist and a list of area dentists) to increase dental utilization among 3 to 6 year old Medicaid-enrolled children attending well-child visits (WCV). The formative and pilot work for the larger main trial are presented. Methods: Formative work—Focus groups with 26 participants (Community leaders, providers, parent/caregivers); and key informant interviews with practice leadership (n = 4). Topics discussed were: core oral health (OH) information to communicate at WCVs and study logistics. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using Atlas.ti; Pilot study was refined using the formative findings and was conducted at two pediatric practices to test the implementation of: the provider didactic and skills training curriculum; EMR incorporation of four OH questions; logistics of incorporating OH activities at a WCV; and parent/caregiver recruitment. Results: Formative work showed that providers and parent/caregivers required knowledge of dental caries, and a list of area Medicaid-accepting dentists. Providers and practice leadership advised on the logistics of incorporating oral health into WCVs. All groups suggested asking parent/caregivers their preferred method of contact and emphasizing importance of OH to motivate participation. Utilizing these findings, the curriculum and protocol was revised. The pilot study in two practices successfully implemented the protocol as follows: all seven providers were trained in two 45 min didactic education and skills session; incorporation of OH questions into practices EMR; recruited 86 child-parent dyads (95% participation) at the WCV; providers delivered the OH intervention to parent/caregivers in <2 min and 90% completed EMR documentation of OH questions. These findings were instrumental in finalizing the main PACT trial in 18 practices. The RE-AIM framework is used in the main trial to collect effectiveness and implementation measures at baseline and follow-up visits. Conclusions: The formative and pilot findings were instrumental in refining the OH intervention and protocol which has resulted in successful implementation of the main trial. Trial Registration: Clinical trials.gov, Registered 9 November 2017, NCT03385629. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study of Relationship between Oral Health and Systemic Health)
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Article
Management of Peri-Implant Diseases: A Survey of Australian Periodontists
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030100 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
Background/Aim: This survey-based study aims to explore the clinical management protocols of followed by Australian periodontists in relation to peri-implant diseases. Materials and Methods: A five-part online questionnaire was developed and administered through email. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis, with the univariate [...] Read more.
Background/Aim: This survey-based study aims to explore the clinical management protocols of followed by Australian periodontists in relation to peri-implant diseases. Materials and Methods: A five-part online questionnaire was developed and administered through email. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis, with the univariate associations between a categorical outcome and the variables evaluated using Pearson’s Chi-squared test. Results: The survey yielded 99 responses, resulting in a response rate of 41.8%. Most participants were male and aged 35–44 years. More than a quarter of practitioners had been placing implants for 6–10 years and almost two-fifths of practitioners placed 1–10 implants per month. The estimated prevalence of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis in the general Australian population was 47% and 21%, respectively. Practitioners reported using systemic antibiotics to manage peri-implant mucositis (7%) and (72%) peri-implantitis lesions, with a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole. Most common treatment modalities were oral hygiene instructions, nonsurgical debridement and antimicrobial gel/rinse. Surgical debridement and systemic antibiotics were also often used for peri-implantitis treatment. Practitioners preferred a 3-month clinical follow-up and 6-month radiographic evaluation. Furthermore, three-quarters of practitioners rated their management as moderately effective, although upwards of nine-tenths expressed the need for further training and awareness. Conclusion: This study confirms a significant use of empirical treatment modalities due to lack of standard therapeutic protocol. However, some approaches followed by the specialists may provide a basis to formulate a therapeutic protocol for peri-implant disease management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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Review
Do Lasers Have an Adjunctive Role in Initial Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy? A Systematic Review
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030093 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
(1) Background: dental lasers have numerous applications for periodontal therapy which include surgical procedures of soft tissue and osseous structures, and non-surgical treatments such as pathogen reduction, removal of surface accretions, and photobiomodulation. The aim of this review was to evaluate the scientific [...] Read more.
(1) Background: dental lasers have numerous applications for periodontal therapy which include surgical procedures of soft tissue and osseous structures, and non-surgical treatments such as pathogen reduction, removal of surface accretions, and photobiomodulation. The aim of this review was to evaluate the scientific literature to ascertain whether lasers have a beneficial role when used adjunctively in initial non-surgical periodontal therapy. (2) Methods: A PubMed search was performed specifically for randomized clinical trials where a dental laser was used adjunctively for initial periodontal therapy on human patients published from January 2010–April 2020. The first search identified 1294 eligible studies. After additional criteria and filters were applied, 20 manuscripts were included in this review. (3) Results: The chosen manuscripts reported on investigations into initial therapy for patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. After periodontal charting, conventional instrumentation such as hand and ultrasonic scaling was performed on all patients in the studies, and then a test group or groups of patients were treated adjunctively with a laser. That adjunctive laser group’s periodontal findings showed various degrees of improved health compared to the group treated with only conventional methods. (4) Conclusion: This systematic review found that 70% of the included studies reported significantly better outcomes in certain clinical parameters, but no improvement in others. The remaining 30% of the manuscripts reported no significant difference in any of the measurements. With consideration to correct parametry, lasers have an adjunctive role in initial non-surgical periodontal therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lasers in Dentistry: Hard and Soft Tissues)
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Retraction
Retraction: Calvo-Guirado, J.L., et al. The Use of Tooth Particles as a Biomaterial in Post-Extraction Sockets. Experimental Study in Dogs. Dent. J. 2018, 6, 12
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030092 - 16 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1003
Abstract
We have been made aware that Figure 7d of paper [1] is similar to Figure 11a of a paper published
in Applied Sciences [2] [...] Full article
Article
Correlation between Oral Hygiene and IL-6 in Children
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030091 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between marginal gingivitis, oral hygiene parameters, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in gingival crevicular fluid of 40 children. The marginal periodontal pathology was evaluated by gingival index (GI). The status of oral hygiene was [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between marginal gingivitis, oral hygiene parameters, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in gingival crevicular fluid of 40 children. The marginal periodontal pathology was evaluated by gingival index (GI). The status of oral hygiene was estimated by using patient hygiene performance (PHP), brushing frequency (BF), and plaque index (PI). IL-6 levels in gingival crevicular fluid were measured to evaluate the inflammation in marginal gingiva. PHP score showed a significant correlation with GI, BF, and PI. The groups based on PHP ranges were significantly related to IL-6 concentration in crevicular fluid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Endodontic and Periodontic Lesions)
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Article
Tobacco Products, Periodontal Health and Education Level: Cohort Study from Sweden
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 90; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030090 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study is to investigate if using tobacco products (including snuff, smoking tobacco and dual-using) associates with periodontal health, education level and mortality in a Swedish cohort, hypothesizing that tobacco products affect periodontal health, associate with lower education and [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study is to investigate if using tobacco products (including snuff, smoking tobacco and dual-using) associates with periodontal health, education level and mortality in a Swedish cohort, hypothesizing that tobacco products affect periodontal health, associate with lower education and increase the risk of death. Method: Study cohort of 1080 subjects aged 31–40 years (528 men, 552 women) was clinically examined and interviewed in 1985 and followed for mortality until 2015. Subjects were classified into two groups: “tobacco users” and “non-users”. Associations between periodontal health parameters, tobacco products, education level and age of death were analysed. SPSS was used for analyses. Results: Tobacco products, as well as education level associated, with poor periodontal health. Tobacco users and lower education was linked to higher plaque-, calculus- and gingival-index scores than non-users (p < 0.001). They also had significantly higher prevalence of deep periodontal pockets (≥5 mm) (p < 0.001 and 0.010, respectively), missing teeth (p = 0.010 and 0.003, respectively) and lower education level (p < 0.001) compared with non-users. However, tobacco product users did not die significantly earlier than non-users. Conclusion: Tobacco products had a negative impact on periodontal health. Tobacco product users were less educated. However, using tobacco products may not cause premature death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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Commentary
Potential Advantages of Peroxoborates and Their Ester Adducts Over Hydrogen Peroxide as Therapeutic Agents in Oral Healthcare Products: Chemical/Biochemical Reactivity Considerations In Vitro, Ex Vivo And In Vivo
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030089 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Peroxides present in oral healthcare products generally exert favourable protective activities against the development and progression of tooth decay, plaque, gingivitis, and halitosis, etc. However, despite the high level of research focus on hydrogen and carbamide peroxides as therapeutically active (and tooth-whitening) agents, [...] Read more.
Peroxides present in oral healthcare products generally exert favourable protective activities against the development and progression of tooth decay, plaque, gingivitis, and halitosis, etc. However, despite the high level of research focus on hydrogen and carbamide peroxides as therapeutically active (and tooth-whitening) agents, to date the use of alternative chemical forms of peroxides such as peroxoborates for these purposes has received only scant attention. Intriguingly, peroxoborate and its esters with polyols, such as glycerol, have a very diverse chemistry/biochemistry in aqueous solution, for which there is an increasing amount of evidence that it remains distinctive from that of hydrogen peroxide; such properties include self-associative and hydrolytic equilibria, and their abilities to participate in electrophile- or nucleophile-scavenging, metal ion-complexing, redox and free radical reactions, for example. Therefore, the purpose of this detailed commentary is to evaluate both differences and similarities between the molecular/biomolecular reactivities of peroxoborate species and hydrogen peroxide in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo. It encompasses brief sectional accounts regarding the molecular heterogeneity of peroxoborates, the release of bioactive agents therefrom, and their oxidative attack on oral cavity biomolecules (the nucleophilic or electrophilic character of these oxidations are discussed). Further areas explored are the abilities of borates and peroxoborates to enhance the solubility of iron ions in aqueous solution, their involvements in free radical biochemistry (particularly the complexation of oxygen radical-promoting transition metal ions by, and antioxidant properties of, peroxoborate-polyol ester adducts), and the specific inhibition of protease enzymes. Further aspects focus on the tooth-whitening, oral malodor neutralizing, and potential mutagenic and genotoxic properties of peroxoborates, along with possible mechanisms for these processes. The abilities of peroxoborates, and peroxides in general, to modulate the activities of inflammatory mediators and vitamins, antioxidant or otherwise, are also explored. Full article
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Review
Laser-Assisted Depigmentation—An Introspection of the Science, Techniques, and Perceptions
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030088 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
Background: Gingival hyperpigmentation is a major concern for a significant number of patients, as a relevant aesthetic or cosmetic need. Oral melanin pigmentation is considered to be multifactorial and could be related to physiological or even pathological reasons and can be the consequence [...] Read more.
Background: Gingival hyperpigmentation is a major concern for a significant number of patients, as a relevant aesthetic or cosmetic need. Oral melanin pigmentation is considered to be multifactorial and could be related to physiological or even pathological reasons and can be the consequence of a variety of local or systemic factors. This pigmentation varies individually across races or age groups and is without any gender predilection. Evidence gleaned from literature is presented from case–control studies and from the authors’ own research work in prospective, split-mouth, double-blinded, clinical trials comparing treatment modalities in effecting depigmentation. Methods: A systematic review of published articles, using suitable assay criteria, was carried out to formulate a consensus on laser-assisted modalities. A total of 295 published sources were subject to critical analysis and resulted in six papers that were subject to data scrutiny. Additionally, evidence is presented on clinical protocols and treatment outcomes. Results: Analysis of randomized clinical studies identified the use of two laser wavelength groups—near infrared diode and erbium group of mid-infrared lasers. Several areas of analysis were examined, and inconsistent degrees of significance were obtained to establish which laser group was optimal and if they were any better than scalpel depigmentation. Conclusion: A definitive conclusion is wanting as studies with scientific and standardized protocols of evaluation are yet to provide a take on comparative assessments between different techniques of depigmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lasers in Dentistry: Hard and Soft Tissues)
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Review
Photobiomodulation and Oral Mucositis: A Systematic Review
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030087 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
Oral mucositis (OM) is a debilitating complication of chemotherapy, and head and neck radiotherapy. In an effort to offer the best possible advice within the limitations of published research, a systematic review with an extended discussion and commentary on dosimetry and dose delivery [...] Read more.
Oral mucositis (OM) is a debilitating complication of chemotherapy, and head and neck radiotherapy. In an effort to offer the best possible advice within the limitations of published research, a systematic review with an extended discussion and commentary on dosimetry and dose delivery is presented. Using keywords as listed, Pubmed, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases were searched during a period extending from 1995 to 2019. A total of 782 abstracts were identified. A total of 50 papers were analysed, and of these, 29 satisfied criteria required for systematic review in accordance with an optimized PRISMA statement. Clinical outcome as reported was subject to analysis with respect to time of intervention, incidence and severity of oral mucositis, and pain amelioration, and a comprehensive combined univariate and multivariate statistical analysis of the methods employed was performed. Recommendations are made with respect to the timing of the intervention. Moreover, there is an extended discussion available on the treatment care rationale of photobiomodulation (PBM), and its adjunctive association with OM. In conclusion, early prophylactic application offers clear advantages in clinical management. The many studies and associated variables and covariables assessed here revealed a choice of delivery techniques, associated wavelengths and many further indices to consider with regard to the accomplishment of optical parameters. It is therefore our recommendation that clinicians use PBM as a therapy with a full and proper understanding and training in order to optimise the clinical effects achievable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lasers in Dentistry: Hard and Soft Tissues)
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Article
Effect of Flavonoid Supplementation on Alveolar Bone Healing—A Randomized Pilot Trial
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030086 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
We investigated the effects of two common dietary supplements on bone healing in dental extraction sockets in humans. In this randomized pilot trial, male subjects took Grape Seed Extract [GSE] or Grapefruit Extract [GFE] starting two weeks prior to dental extraction and maintained [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of two common dietary supplements on bone healing in dental extraction sockets in humans. In this randomized pilot trial, male subjects took Grape Seed Extract [GSE] or Grapefruit Extract [GFE] starting two weeks prior to dental extraction and maintained this regimen for sixty days after surgery. Extraction sockets were filled with a collagen plug. After 24 h, a socket sample was collected and processed for quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and an 84-gene wound healing assay. Sixty days after tooth extraction, a core of newly formed bone was obtained prior to dental implant placement and processed for histology. qRT-PCR revealed that GFE led to a significant decrease in platelet-derived growth factor and interleukin (IL)1-β compared to GSE, and a significant decrease in IL-6 and CXCL2 compared to control. GSE led to a significant increase in coagulation factor Von Willebrand and inflammatory marker IL1-β compared to GFE. WISP1 and CXCL5 were upregulated in both groups. Overall, GFE showed a downregulation of inflammation and GSE led to a decrease in collagen density and increased osteoclasts. This pilot trial highlights the need for further investigation on the mechanism of action of such supplements on bone healing and oral health. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Postoperative Bleeding between Application of Polyglycolic Acid Sheet and Primary Closure in Tongue Cancer Patients with Partial Glossectomy
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030085 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
The technique of covering a mucosal defect with fibrin glue and a polyglycolic acid sheet (MCFP) for the resection of mucosa is applied in oral cancers. The MCFP technique for partial glossectomy provides faster relief from postoperative pain and the prevention of scar [...] Read more.
The technique of covering a mucosal defect with fibrin glue and a polyglycolic acid sheet (MCFP) for the resection of mucosa is applied in oral cancers. The MCFP technique for partial glossectomy provides faster relief from postoperative pain and the prevention of scar contracture, unlike primary closure. However, it has a major complication of postoperative bleeding. This study sought to compare postoperative bleeding between the MCFP technique and primary closure. We designed a retrospective study with a cohort of 57 patients who underwent partial glossectomy with the MCFP technique or primary closure. Our primary predictor variable was the wound closure procedure (primary closure or the MCFP technique). The primary outcome variable was postoperative bleeding, and the other variables were patient characteristics, excision area and depth, tooth contact for the wound, and antithrombotic therapy. Statistical evaluation was performed with Pearson’s chi-squared test, Welch’s t-test, and multiple logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The MCFP technique was selected for cases with a large excision area (1433 vs. 963 mm2, P = 0.029). Total postoperative bleeding occurred in 10 of 57 patients (MCFP technique: 7 of 37 cases; primary closure: 3 of 20 cases). There was no significant difference in bleeding between the two groups (P = 0.71). Postoperative bleeding was significant in patients with antithrombotic therapy (MCFP: 40% vs. primary closure: 2%, P = 0.0024). Postoperative bleeding timing was significantly different in the MCFP technique (6.4 days) from that of primary closure (1 day; P = 0.0076). Postoperative bleeding was not associated with the MCFP technique or primary closure. However, postoperative bleeding with the MCFP technique occurred later than that with primary closure. The MCFP technique is not recommended for patients on antithrombotic therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment)
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Article
The Association between D-Dimer and Prognosis in the Patients with Oral Cancer
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030084 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
D-dimer levels are reported to relate with tumor stage, prognosis, and lymph node involvement, as well as overall survival (OS) in patients with solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate association between the value of D-dimer and the prognosis of [...] Read more.
D-dimer levels are reported to relate with tumor stage, prognosis, and lymph node involvement, as well as overall survival (OS) in patients with solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate association between the value of D-dimer and the prognosis of oral cancer (OC). We designed a retrospective cohort study and enrolled a sample of patients who were diagnosed with OC and treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy. The predictor was the D-dimer and outcome variable was OS. Other variables included age, neutrocyte count, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and management. Differences in OS rate were analyzed by log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to adjust for the effects of potential confounders. Differences with a P value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. In 88 patients with OC, D-dimer median value for the predicting OS was 0.7 µg/mL. There was a significant difference in OS when patients were stratified according to D-dimer, with an OS rate of 77.8% for patients with low D-dimer (<0.7), and 57.3% with high D-dimer (≥0.7) (p = 0.035). Univariate analyses revealed close correlations between OS and age, neutrocyte count, NLR, CRP, and D-dimer (<0.7 and ≥0.7). Cox multivariate analysis identified management (mainly surgery vs. radiotherapy) (HR 3.274, 95% CI 1.397–7.676; p = 0.006) as independent predictive factors for OS. There was a significant difference in OS when patients were stratified according to D-dimer with low (<0.7) and high D-dimer (≥0.7) (p = 0.035). Though, as a predictive factor, management was associated with OS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment)
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Article
Potential Co-Factors of an Intraoral Contact Allergy—A Cross-Sectional Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030083 - 03 Aug 2020
Viewed by 832
Abstract
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the frequency of dental allergens and potential co-factors, especially hypothyroidism, for patients with an intraoral contact allergy. From 2015 to 2016, patients with confirmed symptoms of an intraoral contact allergy (study group SG n [...] Read more.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the frequency of dental allergens and potential co-factors, especially hypothyroidism, for patients with an intraoral contact allergy. From 2015 to 2016, patients with confirmed symptoms of an intraoral contact allergy (study group SG n = 50) were recruited in the dental clinic of the University of Leipzig. The participants of the control group (CG n = 103) were patients without oral diseases or intraoral symptoms of a contact allergy. For the data collection, a new “Allergy questionnaire” was developed. Information on allergies and general diseases were collected. The statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS 23.0. Sensitizations/allergies to metals and composites were higher in SG compared to CG. Of all study participants (n = 148), 14.2% (n = 21) had a nickel allergy. In 18% (n = 8) of the SG a cobalt allergy based on all metal allergens could be seen. In addition, an association between a nickel and cobalt allergy was found. Hypothyroidism occurred significantly more frequently (p = 0.049) in SG than in CG. Sensitizations and allergies can occur to metals in dental alloys. Hypothyroidism increased the risk of having an allergy threefold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviour of dental Material in Oral Environment)
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Article
Developing Person-Centred Dental Care: The Perspectives of People Living in Poverty
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030082 - 03 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1703
Abstract
Dentistry has seen a slow trend toward person-centred care (PCC), with most approaches developed by scholars who have tried to progress away from disease-centred care. Unfortunately, the perspectives and experiences of underprivileged people have not been considered in the development of these approaches. [...] Read more.
Dentistry has seen a slow trend toward person-centred care (PCC), with most approaches developed by scholars who have tried to progress away from disease-centred care. Unfortunately, the perspectives and experiences of underprivileged people have not been considered in the development of these approaches. Our objective was thus to understand underprivileged people’s experiences and expectations about dental care and contribute to the development of person-centred dentistry. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study with a sample of 13 people living in poverty. We used a maximum variation sampling strategy and selected them among the users of a free dental clinic in Montreal, Canada. We conducted semi-structured interviews that we audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed. Our main finding is that participants wanted to feel human and respected by dentists. More specifically, they wanted to be more involved in the dental care process through quality time and empathetic conversations with the dentist. They also wished for an exchange of information free of technical terms and built on mutual trust. In conclusion, person-centred dental care models should emphasize empathy, trust, and quality care beyond technical skills. Clinicians should provide comprehensive information in dental encounters and treat their patients as whole persons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Person-Centred Dentistry)
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Article
Imaging Software Programs for Reliable Mathematical Measurements in Orthodontics
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030081 - 03 Aug 2020
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Aim: To evaluate the reliability of linear and angular measurements taken using different software programs in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: A sample of four software programs from different manufacturers, namely MicroDicom viewer, Photoshop® CS3, AutoCAD®, and Image-Pro®, were [...] Read more.
Aim: To evaluate the reliability of linear and angular measurements taken using different software programs in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: A sample of four software programs from different manufacturers, namely MicroDicom viewer, Photoshop® CS3, AutoCAD®, and Image-Pro®, were used for measuring the geometric features of four types of miniscrews from different manufacturers. Each miniscrew type presented a group: Group I, Tomas® (Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany); Group II, HUBIT® (HUBIT, Gyeonggi-do, Korea); Group III, AbsoAnchor® (Dentos, Daegu, Korea); and Group IV, Creative (Creative, Zhejiang, China). Measurements of apical face angle, thread angle, lead angle, flank, pitch depth, and width were taken on 45 × magnification scanning electron microscope images of the shafts of the miniscrews. One assessor measured the seven geometric features for the four types of miniscrews using the four software programs twice in two sessions separated by a three week interval. Results: Pairwise comparisons, for each of the four miniscrew groups, showed that the only common result observed was the significant difference (p < 0.001) between measurements of flank taken by the four software programs. When measurements of the four types of miniscrews were pooled into one group, a high degree of intra-rater reliability (ICC range from 0.9 to 1.0) for all the seven geometric features was found with all the four software programs. The paired t-test showed insignificant difference (at p ≤ 0.05) between the first and second measurements, except for a few measurements including pitch width measured by Image-Pro® (p = 0.012), MicroDicom (p = 0.023), and Photoshop® (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Results did not give absolute superiority to one software program over the others and suggested an assessor effect. Assessor estimates could have been affected, among other factors, by the design of the miniscrews and the technical features of the software programs. Full article
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Article
Prevalence of Peri-Implantitis: A Multi-Centered Cross-Sectional Study on 248 Patients
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030080 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of peri-implantitis and to assess its association with several patient- and implant-related factors. Patients with at least one implant, who came for a recall visit to one of the four centers [...] Read more.
The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of peri-implantitis and to assess its association with several patient- and implant-related factors. Patients with at least one implant, who came for a recall visit to one of the four centers over a period of five months, were enrolled. Presence of peri-implantitis (defined as bleeding on probing, exudate/suppuration, bone loss > 0.2 mm/year and increased pocket depth) and several other variables (e.g., smoking habits, history of periodontitis, diabetes) were recorded. Out of 248 enrolled patients (1162 implants), 10 patients had at least one implant with peri-implantitis (4.03%); a total of 14 implants were affected (1.20%). A statistically significant association between peri-implantitis and diabetes was found (OR 8.65; CI: 1.94–38.57). Smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day (OR: 0.53; CI 0.03–9.45) and history of periodontitis (OR: 2.42; CI: 0.49–11.89) were not found to be statistically associated with peri-implantitis. Even if implant therapy is a consolidated treatment, biological complications do happen. Strict supportive therapy recalls could lead to lower rates of peri-implantitis and earlier diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Peri-Implantitis)
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Article
Comparative Evaluation of Digitization of Diagnostic Dental Cast (Plaster) Models Using Different Scanning Technologies
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030079 - 02 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1405
Abstract
Rapidly developing digital dental technologies have substantially simplified the documentation of plaster dental models. The large variety of available scanners with varying degrees of accuracy and cost, however, makes the purchase decision difficult. This study assessed the digitization accuracy of a cone-beam computed [...] Read more.
Rapidly developing digital dental technologies have substantially simplified the documentation of plaster dental models. The large variety of available scanners with varying degrees of accuracy and cost, however, makes the purchase decision difficult. This study assessed the digitization accuracy of a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and an intraoral scanner (IOS), as compared to a desktop optical scanner (OS). Ten plaster dental models were digitized three times (n = 30) with each scanner. The generated STL files were cross-compared, and the RMS values were calculated. Conclusions were drawn about the accuracy with respect to precision and trueness levels. The precision of the CBCT scanner was similar to the desktop OS reference, which both had a median deviation of 0.04 mm. The IOS had statistically significantly higher deviation compared to the reference OS, with a median deviation of 0.18 mm. The trueness values of the CBCT was also better than that of IOS—median differences of 0.14 and 0.17 mm, respectively. We conclude that the tested CBCT scanner is a highly accurate and user-friendly scanner for model digitization, and therefore a valuable alternative to the OS. The tested IOS was generally of lower accuracy, but it can still be used for plaster dental model digitization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Digital Technologies)
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Case Report
Nonsurgical Treatment of Peri-Implantitis: Case Series
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030078 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
Peri-implantitis is one of the most important biological complication of dental implants. It has inflammatory nature, proved association with plaque accumulation in peri-implant tissues, and can be progressive on background of several factors, like comorbidity factors and bad habits. The prophylaxis and different [...] Read more.
Peri-implantitis is one of the most important biological complication of dental implants. It has inflammatory nature, proved association with plaque accumulation in peri-implant tissues, and can be progressive on background of several factors, like comorbidity factors and bad habits. The prophylaxis and different methods of treatment were discussed during last 30 years, and surgical and nonsurgical techniques have their foes, benefits, and disadvantages. In this article, we describe the case series of various nonsurgical treatments of peri-implantitis with the use of protocols based on the application of local antibiotics (doxycycline, lincomycin, and erythromycin), mechanical and chemical debridement of dental implant surface, and mini-invasive regenerative technique with injections of bovine collagen. All these three cases demonstrated good results with the maintenance of bone level and absence of clinical signs of inflammation for at least a year according to the X-ray imaging (bone defect volume) and clinic assessments (probing depth, bleeding or suppuration, mucosa color, and pain presence). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Peri-Implantitis)
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