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Dent. J., Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 10 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare genetic disorder; affected patients may experience early exfoliation. A 14-month-old boy was referred with the chief complaint of early loss of primary anterior teeth. He was diagnosed with odonto-type HPP. The primary mandibular right first molar appeared to be submerged at the age of 8. The tooth was considered to be ankylosed end extracted at the age of 9. Histopathological analysis revealed disturbed cementum formation. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the disturbed cementum formation could lead to susceptibility to early exfoliation of anterior teeth, as well as the occurrence of ankylosis involving posterior teeth. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Evaluation of Chair-Side Saliva Tests According to Current Dental Status in Adult Patient
Dent. J. 2021, 9(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9010010 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Background: this cross-sectional study evaluated the correlation of commercial chair-side saliva tests with caries status in adults. Methods: teeth in 87 adults (20–40 years old) were clinically examined for carious lesions according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria. The Decayed-Missing-Filling-Tooth [...] Read more.
Background: this cross-sectional study evaluated the correlation of commercial chair-side saliva tests with caries status in adults. Methods: teeth in 87 adults (20–40 years old) were clinically examined for carious lesions according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria. The Decayed-Missing-Filling-Tooth (DMFT) and Decayed-Missing-Filling-Surface (DMFS) indexes at D1 (lesions 1–6 according to ICDAS criteria) and D3 (lesions 4–6 according to ICDAS criteria threshold and the number of active lesions, according to the Lesion Activity Assessment (LAA)) criteria were measured. The saliva parameters measured by chair-side tests were stimulated and non-stimulated saliva flow rate, saliva consistency, saliva pH, saliva buffer capacity, and lactic acid production. The statistical analyses performed were Student t-test and Mann–Whitney U test at a = 0.05 significant level. Results: the low resting saliva pH was related to a high value of DMFT (D1) index (p = 0.007). Conclusions: among the saliva parameters measured, the values of low resting pH are associated with increased DMFT at threshold D1. None of the chair-side available saliva tests evaluated can accurately underline the tooth carious status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Restorative Dentistry and Traumatology)
Open AccessArticle
Angiogenic Effects of Secreted Factors from Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells
Dent. J. 2021, 9(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9010009 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammation of tooth-supporting tissues, and the destruction of these tissues results in tooth loss. Regeneration of periodontal tissues is the ultimate goal of periodontal treatment. We previously reported that transplantation of conditioned medium (CM) of periodontal ligament stem [...] Read more.
Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammation of tooth-supporting tissues, and the destruction of these tissues results in tooth loss. Regeneration of periodontal tissues is the ultimate goal of periodontal treatment. We previously reported that transplantation of conditioned medium (CM) of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) demonstrated the enhancement of periodontal tissue regeneration, compared to CM from fibroblasts (Fibroblast-CM). We hypothesized that the angiogenic effects of PDLSC-CM might participate in the enhanced wound healing of periodontal tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PDLSC-CM on the functions of endothelial cells. PDLSCs were cultured from periodontal ligament tissues obtained from healthy volunteers. Human gingival epithelial cells, dermal fibroblasts, osteoblasts, and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were purchased from commercial sources. The functions of endothelial cells were examined using immunostaining of Ki67, observation of nuclear fragmentation and condensation (apoptosis), and network formation on Matrigel. Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) level was measured using an ELISA kit. HUVECs demonstrated higher cell viability in PDLSC-CM when compared with those in Fibroblast-CM. HUVECs demonstrated a higher number of Ki67-positive cells and lower apoptosis cells in PDLSC-CM, compared to Fibroblast-CM. Additionally, HUVECs formed more capillary-like structures in PDLSC-CM than Fibroblast-CM. PDLSC-CM contained higher levels of angiogenic growth factor, VEGF, than Fibroblast-CM. Our results showed that PDLSC-CM increased cell viability, proliferation, and capillary formation of HUVECs compared to Fibroblast-CM, suggesting the angiogenic effects of PDLSC-CM, and the effect is a potential regenerative mechanism of periodontal tissues by PDLSC-CM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Toothbrush Wear on the Surface Roughness and Gloss of Resin Composites with Various Types of Matrices
Dent. J. 2021, 9(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9010008 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate and compare the surface roughness and gloss of a DMA-free composite and Bis-GMA-free composite with a DMA-based composite before and after toothbrushing simulation. Materials and Methods: Fifteen dimensionally standardised composite specimens of three nano-hybrid resin composites (Tetric EvoCeram, Admira Fusion, [...] Read more.
Objective: To evaluate and compare the surface roughness and gloss of a DMA-free composite and Bis-GMA-free composite with a DMA-based composite before and after toothbrushing simulation. Materials and Methods: Fifteen dimensionally standardised composite specimens of three nano-hybrid resin composites (Tetric EvoCeram, Admira Fusion, and Venus Diamond) were used. Five specimens from each composite were polished and then subjected to a toothbrushing simulator. Surface roughness (Ra) and gloss were measured before toothbrushing and after 5000, 10,000, 15,000, and 20,000 toothbrushing cycles. The data was analysed using 5 × 3 ANOVA to assess surface roughness and gloss values and pairwise comparisons in the form of Tukey post hoc tests were performed to interpret main effects. Results: For all tested materials, surface roughness increased, and gloss decreased after toothbrushing abrasion. Surface roughness (Ra) values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 μm at baseline and increased to between 0.41 and 0.49 μm after 20,000 toothbrushing cycles. Gloss values ranged between 31.9 and 50.6 GU at baseline and between 5.1 and 19.5 GU after 20,000 toothbrushing cycles. The lowest initial Ra value was detected in Venus Diamond and the highest initial gloss value was detected in Tetric EvoCeram. Conclusions: Simulated toothbrushing abrasion led to an increase in surface roughness and a decrease in gloss for all tested materials. Venus Diamond had the smoothest surface and Tetric EvoCeram had the glossiest surface after polishing and following 20,000 cycles of toothbrushing abrasion. Admira Fusion demonstrated the roughest surface and had the lowest gloss values before and after toothbrushing abrasion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Innate Inflammation in the Regulation of Tissue Remodeling during Tooth Eruption
Dent. J. 2021, 9(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9010007 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Tooth eruption is characterized by a coordinated complex cascade of cellular and molecular events that promote tooth movement through the eruptive pathway. During tooth eruption, the stratum intermedium structurally changes to the papillary layer with tooth organ development. We previously reported intercellular adhesion [...] Read more.
Tooth eruption is characterized by a coordinated complex cascade of cellular and molecular events that promote tooth movement through the eruptive pathway. During tooth eruption, the stratum intermedium structurally changes to the papillary layer with tooth organ development. We previously reported intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression on the papillary layer, which is the origin of the ICAM-1-positive junctional epithelium. ICAM-1 expression is induced by proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor. Inflammatory reactions induce tissue degradation. Therefore, this study aimed to examine whether inflammatory reactions are involved in tooth eruption. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed sequential expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1α, interleukin-1β, and chemotactic factors, including keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), during tooth eruption. Consistent with the RT-PCR results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed KC and MIP-2 expression in the papillary layer cells of the enamel organ from the ameloblast maturation stage. Moreover, there was massive macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the connective tissue between the tooth organ and oral epithelium during tooth eruption. These findings suggest that inflammatory reactions might be involved in the degradation of tissue overlying the tooth organ. Further, these reactions might be induced by hypoxia in the tissue overlying the tooth organ, which results from decreased capillaries in the tissue. Our findings indicate that bacterial infections are not associated with the eruption process. Therefore, tooth eruption might be regulated by innate inflammatory mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Complex Implant-Prosthetic Rehabilitation Following Sports Trauma with 14 Years of Follow-Up: Case Report
Dent. J. 2021, 9(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9010006 - 09 Jan 2021
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Tooth loss after traumatic dental injuries (TDI) often requires rehabilitation with a multidisciplinary treatment plan. In growing patients, the therapeutic approach may be different than in adults; the scientific literature offers alternative solutions even if they involve long, complex and uncomfortable treatments. Among [...] Read more.
Tooth loss after traumatic dental injuries (TDI) often requires rehabilitation with a multidisciplinary treatment plan. In growing patients, the therapeutic approach may be different than in adults; the scientific literature offers alternative solutions even if they involve long, complex and uncomfortable treatments. Among the possible therapeutic options, implant-prosthetic treatment through the use of mini-implants is presented in this complex case report with a 14-year follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Open AccessArticle
An In Vitro Evaluation of Primary Stability Values for Two Differently Designed Implants to Suit Immediate Loading in Very Soft Bone
Dent. J. 2021, 9(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9010005 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 350
Abstract
The achievement of sufficient implant stability in poor quality bone seems to be a challenge. Most manufacturers develop special dental implants, which are claimed to show higher stability even in very soft bone. The aim of this experimental study was to compare two [...] Read more.
The achievement of sufficient implant stability in poor quality bone seems to be a challenge. Most manufacturers develop special dental implants, which are claimed to show higher stability even in very soft bone. The aim of this experimental study was to compare two recently introduced dental implants with differing thread designs. A total of 11 implants of each group were inserted in the part of the fresh bovine ribs, corresponding to very soft bone. The primary stability was measured with resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and Periotest; the average of two measurements for each method and for each implant was taken and statistical analysis was applied. The highest stability values were obtained with the ICX Active Master implants, followed by the Conelog® Progressive-Line implants placed with the very soft bone protocol. The primary stability values of the Conelog® Progressive-Line implants inserted by the very soft bone protocol and the ICX Active Master implants placed with the standard protocol showed sufficient stability for immediate loading in low-density bone. Within the limitations of this study, the thread design of the implants and underdimensioned implant bed preparation seem to be effective for better primary stability in cancellous bone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Management of Dental Avulsion Injuries: A Survey of Dental Support Staff in Cairns, Australia
Dent. J. 2021, 9(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9010004 - 30 Dec 2020
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of dental support staff in providing appropriate first-aid advice regarding dental avulsion emergencies. Methods: This study was reported according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines for [...] Read more.
Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of dental support staff in providing appropriate first-aid advice regarding dental avulsion emergencies. Methods: This study was reported according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines for cross-sectional studies. Dental support staff (includes dental assistants, administrative staff and other non-clinical staff) were contacted and data were collected from 50 private dental clinics across the Greater Cairns Area, Queensland, Australia. These data were collected through an online survey throughout 2020. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-squared test was used to analyze the data and any associations between categorical outcomes. Results: This survey yielded a response rate of 34.1% with a margin of error of 10.3%. More than four-tenths of participants (42%) reported that they had received some form of dental avulsion management training previously. All but five participants (92%) denoted that they would immediately replant an avulsed permanent tooth. More than half of all participants would choose to rinse a soiled avulsed tooth with fresh milk (55%) and transport that tooth in fresh milk (65%) should they not be able to replant the tooth at the site. Almost nine in every ten participants (85%) expressed willingness to further their training in this area. Knowledge in replanting avulsed permanent teeth was found to be significantly impacted by gender, age, years of experience and participation in formal avulsion training. Male participants were found to be significantly more likely (p = 0.025) to replant a permanent avulsed tooth than their female counterparts. Participants who were 40 years of age and above were found to be significantly more likely to choose fresh milk to transport avulsed teeth (p = 0.0478). Older participants (p = 0.0021), alongside those who had greater years of experience (p = 0.0112) and those who had undertaken formal avulsion training (p = 0.0106) were all significantly more likely to express greater confidence in their ability to manage dental avulsion injuries. Participants who had previously received some form of education regarding avulsion injury management were also most likely to warrant further education and training in this area (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that dental support staff in the Greater Cairns Area seem to have a fair grasp of first-aid knowledge regarding the management of dental avulsion injuries. This result indicates that this knowledge has been picked up through years of experience, rather than a formal education. Despite this, one would expect people who work in the dental industry to be able to provide accurate and appropriate assistance during dental emergencies, hence, further training is warranted to ensure optimum patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Care in Paediatric Dentistry)
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Open AccessCase Report
Ankylosed Primary Molar in a Japanese Child with Hypophosphatasia
Dent. J. 2021, 9(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9010003 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare genetic disorder; affected patients may experience early exfoliation of primary teeth, especially anterior teeth. However, there have been few reports regarding longitudinal follow-up for primary teeth, especially posterior teeth, until their replacement with permanent teeth. Here, we describe [...] Read more.
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare genetic disorder; affected patients may experience early exfoliation of primary teeth, especially anterior teeth. However, there have been few reports regarding longitudinal follow-up for primary teeth, especially posterior teeth, until their replacement with permanent teeth. Here, we describe a patient with HPP who underwent follow-up from 1 to 9 years of age. A 14-month-old boy was referred to our hospital with the chief complaint of early loss of primary anterior teeth. He was diagnosed with odonto-type HPP by his pediatrician, due to low serum alkaline phosphatase concentration and early exfoliation of primary teeth with bone hypomineralization. The patient experienced exfoliation of three additional primary anterior teeth by 4 years and 1 month of age. Partial dentures were applied for space maintenance; there were no problems regarding subsequent replacement with permanent teeth in the anterior region. However, the primary mandibular right first molar appeared to be submerged when the patient was 8 years and 3 months of age; the severity of submergence was greater when the patient was 9 years of age. The affected primary molar was considered to be ankylosed; it was extracted when the patient was 9 years and 4 months of age. Histopathological analysis of the tooth revealed disturbed cementum formation, which is a typical characteristic of teeth in patients with HPP. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesize that the disturbed cementum formation could lead to susceptibility to early exfoliation of anterior teeth, as well as occurrence of ankylosis involving posterior teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Care Dentistry)
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Open AccessReview
Professionally Delivered Local Antimicrobials in the Treatment of Patients with Periodontitis—A Narrative Review
Dent. J. 2021, 9(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9010002 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 615
Abstract
This review sheds light on the recent published scientific evidence relating to the use of professionally delivered local antimicrobial agents (LA’s). The review also analyses drug delivery systems available to date and provides an update on the latest scientific evidence about the benefits, [...] Read more.
This review sheds light on the recent published scientific evidence relating to the use of professionally delivered local antimicrobial agents (LA’s). The review also analyses drug delivery systems available to date and provides an update on the latest scientific evidence about the benefits, limitations, and clinical results obtained by use of local drugs in the treatment of periodontal disease. The search strategy revealed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the efficacy of adjunctive LA’s to mechanical therapy alone. Based on the available evidence gathered from this review, we can infer that the use of local antimicrobial agents in conjunction to scaling and root debridement (SRD) delivers significant benefits in periodontal therapy and it is a useful aid, avoiding many of the side effects that systemic antibiotic therapy may involve. Local drug delivery (LDD) is an efficient and effective means of delivering drugs based on the evidence presented in the review. The authors of this review would suggest the use of local antimicrobials in cases of localized periodontitis or individual areas that do not respond to the usual mechanical therapy alone. This review summarizes the current use of local drug delivery in periodontal management ensuring that the general practitioners are able to choose an appropriate local antimicrobial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Possible Association of Periodontal Disease and Macular Degeneration: A Case-Control Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Oral pathogens have been identified in bioptic specimens from Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) patients, and alveolar bone loss has been related to ARMD. Therefore, the possible association between ARMD and periodontal disease was investigated in the present case-control study, evaluating clinical and radiographic [...] Read more.
Oral pathogens have been identified in bioptic specimens from Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) patients, and alveolar bone loss has been related to ARMD. Therefore, the possible association between ARMD and periodontal disease was investigated in the present case-control study, evaluating clinical and radiographic periodontal parameters, primarily, in cases vs. controls and, secondarily, in relation to ARMD risk factors, in cases, to highlight a possible pathogenic link between the disorders. Forty ARMD cases and 40 non-ARMD controls, matched for age (±3 years) and gender and homogeneous for ARMD risk factors, therefore comparable, underwent full-mouth periodontal charting, panoramic radiograph, and medical data, including ARMD risk factors, collection. Statistical analysis was conducted using the language R. Comparisons between groups were made using both traditional t-tests and Yuen’s test with bootstrap calibration. Enrolled subjects were ≥55 years old, and 50 females and 30 males were equally distributed among the two groups. No statistically significant difference was found in clinical and radiographic periodontal parameters in cases vs. controls. In the case group, no differences were found when relating the periodontal parameters to ARMD risk factors, except for Clinical Attachment Level values that were statistically significantly higher in hypertensive ARMD subjects. A possible association between periodontal disease and ARMD may be hypothesized in hypertensive ARMD subjects, with hypertension as a possible pathogenic link between the disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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