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Dent. J., Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2021) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Malocclusion is one of the most common problems in dentistry, with a wide range of prevalence in different geographical regions. This study, by a review of the literature, has shown that prevalence of malocclusions varies widely between different populations, suggesting a role of genetics and environmental influences.View this paper
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Article
A Contemporary Evaluation on Posterior Direct Restoration Teaching among Undergraduates in Dental Schools in Malaysia
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100123 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 192
Abstract
There is a current trend to restore posterior teeth with composite resin due to increasing demands on natural tooth colour restoration and increased concern about the safety of amalgam restorations. The objective was to evaluate the current teaching of posterior direct restoration among [...] Read more.
There is a current trend to restore posterior teeth with composite resin due to increasing demands on natural tooth colour restoration and increased concern about the safety of amalgam restorations. The objective was to evaluate the current teaching of posterior direct restoration among restorative dental lecturers in Malaysia compared to available international literature. An online questionnaire, which sought information on the teaching of posterior restoration was developed and distributed to 13 dental schools in Malaysia. The response rate for the questionnaire was 53.8%. The most popular posterior restoration teaching methods among the respondents were lecture (95.7%), demonstration (87.0%) and problem-based learning (PBL) (73.9%), while continuous assessment and a practical competency test (82.6%) were the most popular assessment methods. Placing a hard setting calcium hydroxide and GIC base for deep cavity restored by composite restoration was taught in 79.2% of cases. The standard protocols for posterior composite restoration were incremental filling in deep cavity (87.5%), using circumferential metal bands with wooden wedge (91.7%), with a total etch system (95.8%), using a light emitting diode (LED) light curing unit (91.7%), finishing using water cooling (80%) and finishing with a disc (87.5%). Graduates from dental schools in Malaysia received similar theoretical, preclinical and clinical teaching on posterior restoration techniques, although there were variations in the delivery methods, techniques and assessments, pointing to a need for uniformity and consensus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
Article
A Reliable Surgical Procedure for Sinus Floor Augmentation with Antral Pseudocysts
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100122 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 243
Abstract
An antral pseudocyst (AP) is a common well-defined ‘dome-shaped’ faintly radiopaque lesion of the maxillary sinus, and usually does not require treatment in asymptomatic patients. However, when sinus floor augmentation is required to increase bone volume for implant installation, the elevation of the [...] Read more.
An antral pseudocyst (AP) is a common well-defined ‘dome-shaped’ faintly radiopaque lesion of the maxillary sinus, and usually does not require treatment in asymptomatic patients. However, when sinus floor augmentation is required to increase bone volume for implant installation, the elevation of the sinus mucosa might drive the AP against the ostium. This might cause its obstruction and, as possible consequence, sinusitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and tomographic conditions of APs to identify a predictable cyst removal that might allow a safety sinus floor augmentation. A total of 52 maxillary sinuses in 46 patients (mean age 55.1 years) presenting AP were examined by cone beam computed tomographies (CBCTs). A two-stage approach was applied. At the first surgery, the cystic lesions were further inspected by an endoscope through the antrostomy, and histopathological diagnosis of the removed tissues was carried out. After the confirmation of decrease of the swelling of sinus membrane by CBCT, the sinus floor augmentation was performed, at least four months after cyst removal. The color and transparency of the 86 cystic lesions were classified into 4 types. The whitish transparent cysts were 34 (39.5%), the yellowish transparent cysts were 18 (20.9%), the dark purple transparent cysts were 8 (9.3%) and the milky-white opaque cysts were 26 (30.2%). The contents of the 60 (69.8%) transparent cysts were serous fluid, but those of milky-white cysts were composed of viscous or elastic soft tissues, and the aspiration of the contents was unsuccessful. The analysis of the preoperative CBCT did not provide certainty on the contents of the cystic lesions. All cystic lesions were diagnosed as AP, and an infection was identified in one AP, presenting marked infiltration of the inflammatory cells. Considering the difficulties of performing a correct diagnosis of the AP content by a CBCT analysis, the risk of failure of the surgery that creates severe afflictions to the patients, and the necessity of a histological evaluation of the cyst, a two-stage surgery appeared to be the most reliable procedure. Full article
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Review
Nonrestorative Management of Dental Caries
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100121 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 283
Abstract
The World Dental Federation (FDI) policy statement in 2016 advocated evidence-based caries-control measures for managing dental caries. The caries management philosophy has shifted from the traditional surgical manners to minimal intervention dentistry. Minimal intervention dentistry aims to extend the longevity of natural teeth. [...] Read more.
The World Dental Federation (FDI) policy statement in 2016 advocated evidence-based caries-control measures for managing dental caries. The caries management philosophy has shifted from the traditional surgical manners to minimal intervention dentistry. Minimal intervention dentistry aims to extend the longevity of natural teeth. It places the nonrestorative approaches as a priority. The nonrestorative approaches for caries management aim to tackle the etiological factors of dental caries. Caries can be prevented or reversed by restricting the sugar intake and its frequency in the diet, improving oral hygiene practices, and using fluoride toothpaste. This article aims to present strategies for the nonrestorative management of dental caries, which are divided into four components to address the different etiological factors of dental caries. The first component is controlling dental plaque. Strategies for plaque control include oral hygiene instruction, motivational interviewing, mechanical plaque control, and chemical plaque control. The second component for nonrestorative management is reducing the risk of caries by identifying caries risk factors and protective factors, assessing personal caries risk, and customizing a treatment plan. Evidence-based measures for caries prevention include using fluoride, and dental sealants should be provided. The third component includes topical treatment to remineralise early carious lesions. The last component is long-term follow-up. Appropriate strategy adoption for the nonrestorative management of dental caries prolongs the life span of the teeth and sustains the good oral health of patients. Full article
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Article
Quality and Reliability of Halitosis Videos on YouTube as a Source of Information
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100120 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 157
Abstract
Halitosis is a common condition that adversely affects quality of life. Through YouTube, people access oral health information. This study aimed to analyze the quality and comprehensiveness of the content, and reliability of halitosis videos hosted on YouTube. In total, 300 videos were [...] Read more.
Halitosis is a common condition that adversely affects quality of life. Through YouTube, people access oral health information. This study aimed to analyze the quality and comprehensiveness of the content, and reliability of halitosis videos hosted on YouTube. In total, 300 videos were collected based on three search keywords, and the number of likes, dislikes, views, duration, interaction index, viewing rate, and source category. Subsequently, the video score, which represents the content quality and comprehensiveness was used to categorize videos as poor, good, and excellent. DISCERN score was used to assess video reliability. Of the 105 videos analyzed, 68 (64.8%) were uploaded by personal users. In general, videos were categorized as poor and have low reliability. Videos sourced from healthcare professionals showed the highest quality, comprehensiveness of the content, and reliability (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the number of viewers for video duration less than or more than 4 min (p > 0.05). YouTube users prefer low-quality videos over high-quality ones, indicating that viewers cannot differentiate between reliable and potentially biased content. It is critical to enable viewers to critically assimilate information hosted on YouTube to make effective oral healthcare decisions. Full article
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Article
Therapeutic Effect of Polidocanol Sclerotherapy on Oral Vascular Malformations
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 119; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100119 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 214
Abstract
Various treatments for oral vascular malformation (VM) have been reported. Polidocanol and absolute ethanol have also been reported for sclerotherapy. However, there are still few reports on the therapeutic effect and dosage of polidocanol sclerotherapy. Therefore, we examined its therapeutic effects on oral [...] Read more.
Various treatments for oral vascular malformation (VM) have been reported. Polidocanol and absolute ethanol have also been reported for sclerotherapy. However, there are still few reports on the therapeutic effect and dosage of polidocanol sclerotherapy. Therefore, we examined its therapeutic effects on oral VM. There were 17 sites of VMs, with nine patients diagnosed with oral VM at the Department of Dental and Oral Surgery, Tsukuba University Hospital. The medical records were retrospectively investigated to determine the site, hemangioma volume, polidocanol injection volume, and therapeutic effect. The volume of hemangiomas was calculated using magnetic resonance images. Based on the site, oral VMs were observed in the tongue, buccal mucosa, lips, and oral floor in eight, three, five, and one patients, respectively. The average size of the site was 3071 mm3. The average injection dose of polidocanol at one site was 2.86 mL, the average number of administrations was 1.6, and the response rate was 88.2%. No adverse events were observed. The median numerical rating scale scores were 2/10 (0–6/10) and 0/10 (0–1/10) the day after surgery and 1 week after surgery, respectively. Univariate regression analysis of the total dose in successful cases provided the following formula: 1.3 + 0.00025 × volume (mm3) (mg). Polidocanol sclerotherapy is an effective treatment method for oral VM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment II)
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Article
Usefulness of an Endodontic Case Difficulty Assessment Form of Root Canal Treatments in Dental Education in Finland
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 118; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100118 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 235
Abstract
According to current care guidelines, it would be beneficial to evaluate the difficulty of a root canal treatment (RCT) after the decision of an indicated RCT. For this matter, several difficulty assessment forms have been developed. In this pilot study, fifth-year dental students [...] Read more.
According to current care guidelines, it would be beneficial to evaluate the difficulty of a root canal treatment (RCT) after the decision of an indicated RCT. For this matter, several difficulty assessment forms have been developed. In this pilot study, fifth-year dental students evaluated the usefulness of the Endodontic Case Difficulty Assessment Form (ECAF) presented in the Finnish Current Care Guidelines for Endodontic Treatment (2014). Another aim was to postoperatively investigate how well the evaluation by dental students using the ECAF associated with the outcome of RCT evaluated by a specialist in endodontics. The dental students’ (n = 33) and the supervisor’s assessments of the RCTs were compared postoperatively at the Dental Educational Unit, Oulu, Finland. After completing the ECAF, the students’ experiences of its use were explored with a structured form. In ECAF, patient-derived factors, such as gagging, deviant crown morphology, and complications in previous endodontic treatment, were all significantly associated with complications in RCTs by the dental students (p < 0.05). The assessments by students and the supervisor differed in 55% of cases, especially in moderately difficult cases. In the majority of these cases (71%), the students evaluated the case to be easier than the teacher. Students found the ECAF user-friendly, even if it did not demonstrate their competence in accomplishing RCTs. The ECAF appears useful for junior dentists, specifically in terms of distinguishing the least and most difficult cases. A simpler form could be useful for students and clinicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Dentistry Journal in 2021)
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Review
Prevalence of Dental Malocclusions in Different Geographical Areas: Scoping Review
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100117 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 306
Abstract
The World Health Organization (WHO) considers malocclusion one of the most important oral health problems, after caries and periodontal disease. Its prevalence is highly variable and is estimated to be between 39% and 93% in children and adolescents. Due to the importance of [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization (WHO) considers malocclusion one of the most important oral health problems, after caries and periodontal disease. Its prevalence is highly variable and is estimated to be between 39% and 93% in children and adolescents. Due to the importance of malocclusions in dentistry, the aim of our review is to assess the frequency of malocclusions among different geographical regions. A literature research was performed through the Pubmed, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, Open Grey and Cochrane Library databases. The “PRISMA” guidelines were used for the following review. Fourteen studies were analysed for this review. Class I was found most frequently, followed by class II and finally class III. Considering the other anomalies, crowding was one of the most frequent with a prevalence of up to 84%, followed by spacing, which reached a frequency of 60%. Prevalence of crossbite and openbite was quite variable, while the evaluation of deepbite revealed more uniform values. The prevalence varied widely for most of the types of malocclusion in relation to the different populations, which suggests a role of genetics and environmental influences, typical of each population in determining dental problems. Full article
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Article
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Dental Education: An Online Survey of Students’ Perceptions and Attitudes
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 116; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100116 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Purpose: Dental education institutions worldwide experienced disruptive changes amid the COVID-19 pandemic, with a rapid switch to the online learning format. Thus, this study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental education and evaluates the perceptions and attitudes of [...] Read more.
Purpose: Dental education institutions worldwide experienced disruptive changes amid the COVID-19 pandemic, with a rapid switch to the online learning format. Thus, this study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental education and evaluates the perceptions and attitudes of students towards the introduction of online learning in the School of Dental Medicine in Zagreb, Croatia. Methods: A survey was conducted on a population of undergraduate students. It was comprised of perceptions and attitudes of students on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their psychoemotional status, changes introduced in the educational system, and online learning in particular. Results: Of the 352 students that completed the survey, 66.2% of students reported being psychoemotionally affected by the lockdown. The most significant impact of the switch from in-person to online learning was observed in terms of missing contact with lecturers (60.3%) and peers (90.3%) and loss of practical courses, regarding which 65% of students agreed that they could not be compensated. While only 36.1% reported that online teaching fully met their expectations, the majority of the students (61.9%) agreed that online lectures were as valuable as in-person lectures and that the theoretical courses could be carried out online in the future as well (69.9%). Conclusions: Students reported relative satisfaction with changes in the learning format and a positive attitude towards online learning; however, several challenges and obstacles were identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
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Article
The Fracture Resistance of Additively Manufactured Monolithic Zirconia vs. Bi-Layered Alumina Toughened Zirconia Crowns When Cemented to Zirconia Abutments. Evaluating the Potential of 3D Printing of Ceramic Crowns: An In Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 115; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100115 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
(1) Background: This study compared the fracture resistance of additively manufactured monolithic zirconia and bi-layered alumina toughened zirconia crowns on implants. (2) Methods: Maxillary model with a dental implant replacing right second bicuspid was obtained. Custom abutments and full-contour crowns for additively manufactured [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study compared the fracture resistance of additively manufactured monolithic zirconia and bi-layered alumina toughened zirconia crowns on implants. (2) Methods: Maxillary model with a dental implant replacing right second bicuspid was obtained. Custom abutments and full-contour crowns for additively manufactured monolithic zirconia and bi-layered alumina reinforced zirconia crowns (n = 10) were fabricated. The crowns were cemented to implant-supported zirconia abutments and the assembly fixed onto resin blocks. Fracture resistance was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min. A Kruskal–Wallis test was used to analyze the data. (3) Results: Although additively manufactured monolithic zirconia crowns demonstrated a higher mean fracture resistance than bi-layered alumina toughened zirconia crowns, statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in fracture resistance between the two groups. All specimens fractured at the implant–abutment interface. (4) Conclusions: Additively manufactured bi-layered alumina toughened zirconia crowns demonstrated similar fracture resistance to additively manufactured monolithic zirconia crowns when cemented to implant-supported zirconia abutments. Full article
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Article
Impact of Bone Augmentation of Facial Bone Defect around Osseointegrated Implant: A Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100114 - 03 Oct 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
(1) Background: When dental implants are placed at the esthetic zone, facial bone fenestration might be expected. This study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical effect of bone augmentation around implants with facial bone fenestration defects using the finite element method. (2) Methods: An [...] Read more.
(1) Background: When dental implants are placed at the esthetic zone, facial bone fenestration might be expected. This study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical effect of bone augmentation around implants with facial bone fenestration defects using the finite element method. (2) Methods: An anterior maxillary region model with facial concavity was constructed with a threaded implant inserted following the root direction, resulting in apical threads exposure to represent the fenestration model. Several bone coverage levels were simulated by gradually shifting the deepest concavity point buccally, mimicking bone augmentation surgeries with different bone fill results. Oblique forces were applied, and analysis was performed. (3) Results: Peak compressive stress magnitude and distribution varied according to the level of exposure and facial concavity depth. The fenestration model demonstrated a slightly lower peak peri-implant bone stress, smaller implant displacement, and smaller bone volume with strain levels above 200 µ strain. A gradual increase in compressive stress, implant displacement, and bone volume exhibited strain level above 200 µ strain was observed with the increased bone fill level of the facial bone fenestration. (4) Conclusions: Exposure of implants apical threads at the maxillary anterior region does not significantly affect the peri-implant stress and strain results. However, increasing the buccolingual width and eliminating the buccal concavity might increase the peri-implant bone volume exhibited favorable loading levels. Full article
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Article
A Hands-On Exercise on Caries Diagnostics among Dental Students—A Qualitative Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 113; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100113 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
According to current care practices, the aim is to prevent the onset of caries lesions and to stop the progression of incipient lesions. A visual lesion assessment system, International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), has been developed to promote reliability and repeatability [...] Read more.
According to current care practices, the aim is to prevent the onset of caries lesions and to stop the progression of incipient lesions. A visual lesion assessment system, International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), has been developed to promote reliability and repeatability of assessment of different stage caries lesions. The aims of this study were to evaluate the experiences of a hands-on exercise with authentic teeth as an adjunct to lecturing among third-year dental students and to evaluate the learning process during the hands-on exercise measured by qualitative (inductive content) analysis of the given feedback. In 2018, 51 third-year dental students at the University of Oulu, Finland, participated in a hands-on exercise on caries detection, where they assessed the depth and activity of lesions in extracted teeth using the ICDAS classification. After the lecture, students evaluated the exercise, giving feedback according to five given topics, three of which were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The exercise was considered useful and necessary but, overall, also challenging. The diverse activities and materials, as well as observational methods, promoted learning. The classification of lesions, the diagnostic methods, and the fact that there was not enough time to adopt things during the exercise were found to be challenging. For developing the exercise, the students suggested that more time should be scheduled for it and there should be more individual teaching. This qualitative study showed that, despite the challenge in caries diagnostics, dental students perceive the hands-on exercise as both a communal and individual learning experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
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Article
Assessment of Tooth Preparations Submitted to Dental Laboratories for Fabrication of Monolithic Zirconia Crowns
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100112 - 27 Sep 2021
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the quality of posterior teeth prepared for monolithic zirconia crowns. Materials and Methods: A total of 392 STL-files of posterior preparations for monolithic zirconia crowns were evaluated in this study. Three-dimensional (3D) images were [...] Read more.
Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the quality of posterior teeth prepared for monolithic zirconia crowns. Materials and Methods: A total of 392 STL-files of posterior preparations for monolithic zirconia crowns were evaluated in this study. Three-dimensional (3D) images were evaluated using a software (3D Viewer; 3Shape A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark) for finish line design, finish line width, occluso-cervical dimension, total occlusal convergence (TOC), intercuspal angulation, finish line quality, line angle form, and presence or absence of undercut at the axial wall and unsupported lip of enamel. The assessment was performed by two calibrated evaluators. Then, data were descriptively analyzed. Data for occluso-cervical dimension and TOC were descriptively analyzed according to their location. Results: Thirty-nine percent of premolars, 77% of first molars, and 91% of second molars had an average occluso-cervical dimension of less than 3 mm (premolars) and 4 mm (molars), with most of the preparations having a TOC of more than 20 degrees. More than 50% of preparations had undercut, unsupported enamel and/or unacceptable finish line quality. Conclusions: The quality of tooth preparation including finish line quality, absence of unsupported enamel and undercut at the axial wall should be evaluated when preparing monolithic zirconia crowns. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Different Methods of Education in the Adoption of Oral Health Care Knowledge
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 111; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100111 - 26 Sep 2021
Viewed by 380
Abstract
Aim: The scope of this study was to determine if there is a critical distinction in the usage of lectures, videos, and pamphlets as educational material utilized in the adoption of oral health care knowledge. Materials and methods: Three-hundred and thirty children from [...] Read more.
Aim: The scope of this study was to determine if there is a critical distinction in the usage of lectures, videos, and pamphlets as educational material utilized in the adoption of oral health care knowledge. Materials and methods: Three-hundred and thirty children from ages 11 to 13 from the city of Split, Croatia completed the questionnaire on oral health care knowledge. Consequently, they were educated by randomly using a method: lecture, pamphlet, or video. Finally, after education, their knowledge was tested again. Results: Different statistical tests were used for comparison of different sets of data. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed a statistically significant difference (p ˂ 0.001) compared to the results before and after education. The Kruskal–Wallis test comparing knowledge outcomes after three different types of education: video, lecture, and pamphlet, showed a statistically significant difference in the final knowledge between groups (p ˂ 0.05). A pairwise comparison between different types of education showed a significant statistical difference between education conducted by pamphlet and video material (p = 0.003) and pamphlet and lecture (p = 0.006). No difference was observed between the level of knowledge acquired through video material education and lectures (p = 0.928). Conclusion: Videos and lectures as means of education showed equal effectiveness in the adoption of oral health care knowledge, while the pamphlet was a method that proved to be less effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Care in Paediatric Dentistry)
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Case Report
Clinical Pilot Series of Non-Self-Contained Periodontal Infrabony Defects Treated with a Slowly Resorbable Bovine Pericardium Membrane in Combination with Low-Temperature-Treated Decellularized Bovine Bone Particles
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 110; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100110 - 26 Sep 2021
Viewed by 379
Abstract
The aim of this case series was to present the clinical outcomes of non-contained intrabony periodontal defects (IPDs) treated by means of papillary preservation flaps in association with a slowly resorbable bovine pericardium membrane (BPM) and a low-temperature-treated bovine bone graft (BBG). Eight [...] Read more.
The aim of this case series was to present the clinical outcomes of non-contained intrabony periodontal defects (IPDs) treated by means of papillary preservation flaps in association with a slowly resorbable bovine pericardium membrane (BPM) and a low-temperature-treated bovine bone graft (BBG). Eight healthy, non-smoking patients (two males and six females, mean age 48 ± 8 years) with stage 3 periodontitis and at least one site with residual probing depth (PD) ≥ 6 mm associated with a non-contained IPD ≥ 3 mm were treated. Two weeks after surgery, no adverse events were observed, and an early wound healing score (EHS) of 8.1 ± 1.0 was recorded. After 1 year, the mean probing depth (PD) reduction and mean clinical attachment level gain (CAL-gain) accounted for 4.8 ± 0.7 and 3.5 ± 0.7 mm, respectively, whereas the mean gingival recession (REC) was of 1.2 ± 0.3 mm. Radiographic bone fill was observed in all cases. In conclusion, the treatment of non-contained IPDs with a slowly resorbable BPM and a low-temperature-treated BBG could be considered safe and may result in significant clinical improvements 1 year after surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Dentistry Journal in 2021)
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Article
Investigation of Patient-Specific Maxillofacial Implant Prototype Development by Metal Fused Filament Fabrication (MF3) of Ti-6Al-4V
Dent. J. 2021, 9(10), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj9100109 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) and related digital technologies have enabled several advanced solutions in medicine and dentistry, in particular, the design and fabrication of patient-specific implants. In this study, the feasibility of metal fused filament fabrication (MF3) to manufacture patient-specific maxillofacial implants [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) and related digital technologies have enabled several advanced solutions in medicine and dentistry, in particular, the design and fabrication of patient-specific implants. In this study, the feasibility of metal fused filament fabrication (MF3) to manufacture patient-specific maxillofacial implants is investigated. Here, the design and fabrication of a maxillofacial implant prototype in Ti-6Al-4V using MF3 is reported for the first time. The cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image data of the patient’s oral anatomy was digitally processed to design a 3D CAD model of the hard tissue and fabricate a physical model by stereolithography (SLA). Using the digital and physical models, bone loss condition was analyzed, and a maxillofacial implant initial design was identified. Three-dimensional (3D) CAD models of the implant prototypes were designed that match the patient’s anatomy and dental implant requirement. In this preliminary stage, the CAD models of the prototypes were designed in a simplified form. MF3 printing of the prototypes was simulated to investigate potential deformation and residual stresses. The patient-specific implant prototypes were fabricated by MF3 printing followed by debinding and sintering using a support structure for the first time. MF3 printed green part dimensions fairly matched with simulation prediction. Sintered parts were characterized for surface integrity after cutting the support structures off. An overall 18 ± 2% shrinkage was observed in the sintered parts relative to the green parts. A relative density of 81 ± 4% indicated 19% total porosity including 11% open interconnected porosity in the sintered parts, which would favor bone healing and high osteointegration in the metallic implants. The surface roughness of Ra: 18 ± 5 µm and a Rockwell hardness of 6.5 ± 0.8 HRC were observed. The outcome of the work can be leveraged to further investigate the potential of MF3 to manufacture patient-specific custom implants out of Ti-6Al-4V. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing in Dentistry)
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