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Article

Investigation of Patient-Specific Maxillofacial Implant Prototype Development by Metal Fused Filament Fabrication (MF3) of Ti-6Al-4V

1
Materials Innovation Guild, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40208, USA
2
Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, India
3
School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luigi Canullo and Vincenzo D’Antò
Received: 18 July 2021 / Revised: 7 September 2021 / Accepted: 17 September 2021 / Published: 23 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing in Dentistry)
Additive manufacturing (AM) and related digital technologies have enabled several advanced solutions in medicine and dentistry, in particular, the design and fabrication of patient-specific implants. In this study, the feasibility of metal fused filament fabrication (MF3) to manufacture patient-specific maxillofacial implants is investigated. Here, the design and fabrication of a maxillofacial implant prototype in Ti-6Al-4V using MF3 is reported for the first time. The cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image data of the patient’s oral anatomy was digitally processed to design a 3D CAD model of the hard tissue and fabricate a physical model by stereolithography (SLA). Using the digital and physical models, bone loss condition was analyzed, and a maxillofacial implant initial design was identified. Three-dimensional (3D) CAD models of the implant prototypes were designed that match the patient’s anatomy and dental implant requirement. In this preliminary stage, the CAD models of the prototypes were designed in a simplified form. MF3 printing of the prototypes was simulated to investigate potential deformation and residual stresses. The patient-specific implant prototypes were fabricated by MF3 printing followed by debinding and sintering using a support structure for the first time. MF3 printed green part dimensions fairly matched with simulation prediction. Sintered parts were characterized for surface integrity after cutting the support structures off. An overall 18 ± 2% shrinkage was observed in the sintered parts relative to the green parts. A relative density of 81 ± 4% indicated 19% total porosity including 11% open interconnected porosity in the sintered parts, which would favor bone healing and high osteointegration in the metallic implants. The surface roughness of Ra: 18 ± 5 µm and a Rockwell hardness of 6.5 ± 0.8 HRC were observed. The outcome of the work can be leveraged to further investigate the potential of MF3 to manufacture patient-specific custom implants out of Ti-6Al-4V. View Full-Text
Keywords: maxillofacial restoration; patient-specific implant; metal fused filament fabrication; additive manufacturing; biomedical; simulation; titanium Ti-6Al-4V maxillofacial restoration; patient-specific implant; metal fused filament fabrication; additive manufacturing; biomedical; simulation; titanium Ti-6Al-4V
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shaikh, M.Q.; Nath, S.D.; Akilan, A.A.; Khanjar, S.; Balla, V.K.; Grant, G.T.; Atre, S.V. Investigation of Patient-Specific Maxillofacial Implant Prototype Development by Metal Fused Filament Fabrication (MF3) of Ti-6Al-4V. Dent. J. 2021, 9, 109. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100109

AMA Style

Shaikh MQ, Nath SD, Akilan AA, Khanjar S, Balla VK, Grant GT, Atre SV. Investigation of Patient-Specific Maxillofacial Implant Prototype Development by Metal Fused Filament Fabrication (MF3) of Ti-6Al-4V. Dentistry Journal. 2021; 9(10):109. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100109

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shaikh, Mohammad Q., Subrata D. Nath, Arulselvan A. Akilan, Saleh Khanjar, Vamsi K. Balla, Gerald T. Grant, and Sundar V. Atre. 2021. "Investigation of Patient-Specific Maxillofacial Implant Prototype Development by Metal Fused Filament Fabrication (MF3) of Ti-6Al-4V" Dentistry Journal 9, no. 10: 109. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9100109

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