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Dent. J., Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A simple and versatile sol–gel method allows the synthesis of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) filler nanoparticles for dental applications. Produced at low temperatures and subsequently sintered, nano-YSZ could be a promising alternative to commercial ZrO2, possessing improved mechanical properties and stability. By altering the sintering temperature, it may also be possible to tailor nano-YSZ with appropriate size and crystallographic characteristics that meet the demands for nanofillers in dental cements with respect to composition, morphology, crystal structure, biocompatibility and related oxidative stress. View this paper
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Article
Etching Patterns of Self-Etching Primers in Relation to Shear Bond Strength on Unground Enamel Samples
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 138; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110138 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 223
Abstract
It was the intention of the study to evaluate the etching effects of several self-etching primers on unground enamel and their relevance for shear bond strength testing. Seven self-etching primers (Clearfil SE, Futurabond NR, M-Bond, One Coat, Optibond, Transbond SEP+, Xeno III) and [...] Read more.
It was the intention of the study to evaluate the etching effects of several self-etching primers on unground enamel and their relevance for shear bond strength testing. Seven self-etching primers (Clearfil SE, Futurabond NR, M-Bond, One Coat, Optibond, Transbond SEP+, Xeno III) and a conventional 35% phosphoric gel acid were applied to bovine incisors according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All specimens were analyzed by electron microscopy. A visual four-step grading was used for the characterization of the macroscopic (5000×) and microscopic (20,000×) etching patterns. In addition, shear bond strength for all the products was tested with an Instron 3344 after 1000 thermocycles between 5 °C and 55 °C. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal–Wallis with Dunn’s post-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Very strong etching patterns with well-defined prisms were found for the conventional etching, Transbond SEP+, and to a lesser degree, for Xeno III. Clearfil SE and Futurabond NR revealed moderate etching patterns, and M-Bond, One Coat, and Optibond revealed very weak etching patterns. The bond strength correlated well with the etching patterns. The highest shear strength was obtained with conventional etching and Transbond SEP+, followed by Clearfil SE. Moderate shear bond strengths were found for Xeno III, Futurabond NR, One Coat, and M-Bond, and the lowest were found with Optibond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Materials)
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Case Report
Oral Pemphigoid Recalcitrant Lesion Treated with PRGF Infiltration. Case Report
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110137 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a heterogeneous group of chronic autoimmune subepithelial blistering diseases. Oral involvement is present in almost all patients, may represent the onset of the disease, and causes different degrees of pain, dysphagia, soreness, and bleeding. Treatment is based on [...] Read more.
Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a heterogeneous group of chronic autoimmune subepithelial blistering diseases. Oral involvement is present in almost all patients, may represent the onset of the disease, and causes different degrees of pain, dysphagia, soreness, and bleeding. Treatment is based on systemic and/or oral corticoids, or other immunosuppressants. Occasionally, oral lesions can show a poor response to standard treatments. We present the case of a 61-year-old female patient with a painful extensive MMP oral ulcerative lesion recalcitrant to previous systemic azathioprine and local triamcinolone treatment, which was successfully treated in a novel way using PRGF infiltrations as adjuvant. After four weekly infiltrations, pain was reduced from 10 to 0 in a VAS and the lesion was completely healed. The patient continued with a low dose maintenance immunosuppressive treatment (prednisone 5 mg/day PO), and after 13 months of follow-up, there was no relapse of the lesion and no side effects. Although future research is necessary to confirm these observations, PRGF could be a useful adjuvant for the management of extensive mucous membrane pemphigoid oral lesions. Full article
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Article
An Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) for French Dental Students: Feedback after 2 Years
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110136 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 173
Abstract
The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a practical examination that provides a standardized assessment of clinical competence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the objectivity and the reliability of an OSCE in dentistry. To this end, a retrospective monocentric observational [...] Read more.
The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a practical examination that provides a standardized assessment of clinical competence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the objectivity and the reliability of an OSCE in dentistry. To this end, a retrospective monocentric observational study was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry of Nancy by analyzing the exam results of 81 students. The study population consisted of the fifth-year students. The examination was broken down into six stations which were doubled, and different juries of examiners were constituted (installed in different rooms) according to the same composition. The p-value was set at 0.05. We found an equivalence of the results between the different rooms on the global mean score obtained at the six stations (p = 0.021). In terms of gender, women have statistically significantly higher overall scores than men (p = 0.001). The evaluation of a difference in the scores between full-time and part-time teachers does not find any statistically significant difference or equivalence in the station where it was possible to realize the comparison. However, the students’ waiting time before the exam seems to negatively influence the results. Compared with other international OSCE studies, the results presented seemed sufficiently objective and reliable, although some adjustments are still necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Education)
Article
Siloranes–Suitability of a Novel Adhesive for Orthodontic Bracket Bonding
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110135 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Recently, an epoxy-based resin-Filtek Silorane-has been proposed for restorative fillings. It was the aim of the investigation to evaluate the suitability of this novel resin for orthodontic bracket bonding on unground enamel. Shear bond strength was measured for two adhesives-Filtek Silorane, Transbond XT-in [...] Read more.
Recently, an epoxy-based resin-Filtek Silorane-has been proposed for restorative fillings. It was the aim of the investigation to evaluate the suitability of this novel resin for orthodontic bracket bonding on unground enamel. Shear bond strength was measured for two adhesives-Filtek Silorane, Transbond XT-in combination with steel, ceramic and polymer brackets. For Filtek Silorane etching was performed with the Silorane self-etching primer, as well as phosphoric acid. The Transbond XT samples were etched with phosphoric acid only and served as the control group. All samples were thermo-cycled (1000×, 5–55 °C). Shear testing was carried out with an Instron 3344. In addition, ARI scores were evaluated. The Shear bond strength showed a weak adhesion of Filtek Silorane to unprepared enamel, either with the self-etching primer or the conventional etching (0.87–4.28 MPa). The Shear bond strength of the control group was significantly higher (7.6–16.5 MPa). The ARI scores showed a clear failure at the enamel-adhesive interface for all Filtek Silorane samples. For the combination of Transbond XT and different brackets the failure was found at the adhesive–bracket interface. The novel epoxy-based resin Filtek Silorane is not appropriate for bracket bonding to unprepared enamel. Full article
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Case Report
The Importance of Using Physical Tridimensional Models for the Management and Planning of Extended Osseous Odontogenic Lesions
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110134 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
(1) Surgical intervention becomes crucial in situations in which lack of action would cause a decrease in quality of life for the patient. As healthcare professionals, our next objective is to reduce patient fear perception. This work’s aim is to illustrate how physical [...] Read more.
(1) Surgical intervention becomes crucial in situations in which lack of action would cause a decrease in quality of life for the patient. As healthcare professionals, our next objective is to reduce patient fear perception. This work’s aim is to illustrate how physical tridimensional models can serve not only as confidence boosters for the patient, but also as a valid tool to aid both the clinician and the fostering of a patient–doctor relationship. (2) An example case managed using a stereolithographic model in the pre-surgical planning stage is presented in which surgical planning was carried out by analysis of radiographic investigations combined with a tridimensional resin model derived from the patient’s x-ray exam. (3) Successful enucleation, surgical debridement, and stable follow-up shows the effectiveness of the applied surgical protocol, confirming that planification using a physical representation of the tridimensional exam aids in the correct surgical management of said lesions. (4) The effectiveness o101f the surgical act itself as well as the follow-up showing ossification of the bony lesion and absence of relapse of a highly recurrent lesion confirms the effectiveness of the tools used for this surgical intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Dentistry Journal in 2021)
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Article
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Dentists in Caribbean Countries during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 133; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110133 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 290
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected dentists globally, both financially and mentally. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices of dentists in Caribbean countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A non-probability sample was obtained from dentists in more than ten [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected dentists globally, both financially and mentally. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices of dentists in Caribbean countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A non-probability sample was obtained from dentists in more than ten different Caribbean countries. They were invited to complete a self-reported questionnaire, which was conducted from December 2020 to March 2021. Ethics approval was sought and an exemption was received from the UWI ethics committee. Results: One hundred and fifty-two dentists responded. More than one-third (38.8%) were in the >35–45 age group, and 58.6% were females. Most (84.9%) were general dentists and 75% were stressed by the COVID-19 situation with 80.9% being affected financially. The majority, 94.7%, believed that the highest risk of transmission of COVID-19 was via aerosol-generating procedures and 87.5% were worried about contracting it clinically. The majority (69.1%) were willing to receive the vaccine, the main reason reported for vaccine hesitancy was due to the possible side effects (35.3%). Most (75%) consumed alcohol. When the locus of control was determined, 54.6% felt they were in control of protecting themselves while 52% felt that external factors controlled their lives. Conclusions: The findings suggest that most dentists in the Caribbean were knowledgeable about COVID-19 and followed current guidelines in their practice and were willing to receive the vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Dentistry Journal in 2021)
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Article
Knowledge of Dental Students from Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina about Dental Care of Oncology Patients
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 132; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110132 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
The central role of the dentist in the treatment of oncology patients is to care for the patient’s oral cavity before, during, and after radio/chemotherapy. The aim of this research was to determine the knowledge of dental students from five universities in three [...] Read more.
The central role of the dentist in the treatment of oncology patients is to care for the patient’s oral cavity before, during, and after radio/chemotherapy. The aim of this research was to determine the knowledge of dental students from five universities in three neighboring countries, Croatia (Split, Rijeka, and Zagreb), Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo), and Slovenia (Ljubljana), about oncology patients’ dental care. A total of 140 students in their fourth, fifth, and sixth year of dental medicine studies participated in this research. A questionnaire with 36 specific questions was designed for this research and included questions about dental care of oncologic patients before, during, and after the oncology therapy. Most students are familiar with the incidence and most common type of head and neck tumors, while knowledge about tumor treatment and the side-effects of radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy is weak. Students did not show satisfactory knowledge about osteoradionecrosis, which is the most serious side-effect of radiotherapy; therefore, the emphasis on additional education should be greatest in this area. Teaching staff should be aware of lack of student knowledge and try to offer more information and practice in providing dental care for oncology patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
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Article
Influence of the Use of a Collagen Membrane Placed on the Bone Window after Sinus Floor Augmentation—An Experimental Study in Rabbits
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 131; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110131 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Background: We studied the influence on healing of a resorbable membrane covering the osteotomy site after maxillary sinus grafting, evaluated in different regions of the augmented area. Methods: Maxillary sinus augmentation was performed in 24 New Zealand rabbits. Osteotomy, 4 × 6 mm, [...] Read more.
Background: We studied the influence on healing of a resorbable membrane covering the osteotomy site after maxillary sinus grafting, evaluated in different regions of the augmented area. Methods: Maxillary sinus augmentation was performed in 24 New Zealand rabbits. Osteotomy, 4 × 6 mm, were performed bilaterally. A collagenated cortico-cancellous porcine bone was used to fill the elevated region. A collagen membrane was randomly placed over the osteotomy site on one side (MG), and the other side was left uncovered (NMG). The animals were euthanized after 2, 4, and 8 weeks; and histomorphometric analysis was performed in eight different regions. Results: New bone percentages were similar in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences. In MG, the overall percentages were 15.6 ± 7.3%, 22.9 ± 6.1%, and 24.9 ± 12.0% after 2, 4, and 8 weeks, respectively. In NMG, the percentages were 11.2 ± 4.5%, 24.1 ± 5.7%, and 24.5 ± 15.7%, respectively. The proportions of new bone in the various regions after 8 weeks were 31 ± 8.9% and 29.9 ± 9.1% in the bone walls region, 25 ± 10.1% and 32.8 ± 9.1% in the submucosa region, 22.6 ± 21.6% and 10.9 ± 11.5 in the middle region, 17.3 ± 14% and 13.4 ± 9.8% in the close-to-window region, and 21.8 ± 11.6%, 19.1 ± 6.4% in the osteotomy region—for MG and NMG, respectively. Conclusions: In both groups the greatest amounts of bone formation occurred near to the pre-existing bone walls, followed by the sub-mucosa region. The smallest amounts were found in the close-to-window region, followed by the central region. The placement of a collagen membrane to cover the osteotomy site did not influence the amount of new bone formation after sinus grafting. Full article
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Review
Characterization and Pathogenic Speculation of Xerostomia Associated with COVID-19: A Narrative Review
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 130; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110130 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have become known to present with different oral symptoms. However, xerostomia remains poorly recognized compared with taste dysfunction. For better understanding of COVID-19 symptomatology, xerostomia associated withCOVID-19 was characterized and its possible pathogenesis was speculated by a [...] Read more.
Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have become known to present with different oral symptoms. However, xerostomia remains poorly recognized compared with taste dysfunction. For better understanding of COVID-19 symptomatology, xerostomia associated withCOVID-19 was characterized and its possible pathogenesis was speculated by a narrative literature review. Scientific articles were retrieved by searching PubMed, LitCovid, ProQuest, Google Scholar, medRxiv and bioRxiv from 1 April 2020 with a cutoff date of 30 September 2021. Results of the literature search indicated that xerostomia is one of prevalent and persistent oral symptoms associated with COVID-19. In contrast to taste dysfunction, the prevalence and persistence of xerostomia do not necessarily depend on ethnicity, age, gender and disease severity of patients. COVID-19 xerostomia is pathogenically related to viral cellular entry-relevant protein expression, renin-angiotensin system disturbance, salivary gland inflammation, zinc deficiency, cranial neuropathy, intercurrent taste dysfunction, comorbidities and medications. Despite a close association with COVID-19, xerostomia, dry mouth and hyposalivation tend to be overlooked unlike ageusia, dysgeusia and hypogeusia. Although mouth dryness per se is not life-threating, it has an impact on the oral health-related quality of life. More attention should be paid to xerostomia in COVID-19 patients and survivors. Full article
Review
Vitamin D and Its Role in Oral Diseases Development. Scoping Review
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110129 - 02 Nov 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid that plays a significant role in the whole body, including the maxillofacial region. The discovery of its receptors in many cells and organs made it possible to reveal the participation of vitamin D not only in the [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid that plays a significant role in the whole body, including the maxillofacial region. The discovery of its receptors in many cells and organs made it possible to reveal the participation of vitamin D not only in the regulation of calcium phosphate metabolism, but also in immune processes, in providing anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, slowing down cell proliferation and stimulating differentiation. In this literature review, we demonstrate the association between low vitamin D levels and the development of recurrent aphthous stomatitis, the course and response to treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, the severity of periodontal diseases, and the processes of osseointegration and bone remodeling during dental implantation and guided tissue regeneration. The aim of our article was to demonstate a possible connection between vitamin D level and the oral diseases that can be presented at an oral surgery appointment, which will help clinicians to reduce the risk of early dental implant failure, ensure favorable outcomes of augmentative operations, as well as decrease the destructive effects of severe periodontitis and other conditions throug knowledge and timely lab tests and endocrinologist prescriptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Management in Oral Surgery)
Article
Sol–Gel Synthesis and Characterization of YSZ Nanofillers for Dental Cements at Different Temperatures
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110128 - 29 Oct 2021
Viewed by 483
Abstract
Background: Yttria-stabilized zirconia nanoparticles can be applied as fillers to improve the mechanical and antibacterial properties of luting cement. The aim of this study was to synthesize yttria-stabilized zirconia nanoparticles by the sol–gel method and to investigate their composition, structure, morphology and biological [...] Read more.
Background: Yttria-stabilized zirconia nanoparticles can be applied as fillers to improve the mechanical and antibacterial properties of luting cement. The aim of this study was to synthesize yttria-stabilized zirconia nanoparticles by the sol–gel method and to investigate their composition, structure, morphology and biological properties. Methods: Nanopowders of ZrO2 7 wt% Y2O3 (nY-ZrO) were synthesized by the sol–gel method and were sintered at three different temperatures: 800, 1000 and 1200 °C, and their composition, size and morphology were investigated. The biocompatibility was investigated with human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs), while reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated through fluorescence analysis. Results: All synthesized materials were composed of tetragonal zirconia, while nanopowders sintered at 800 °C and 1000 °C additionally contained 5 and 20 wt% of the cubic phase. By increasing the calcination temperature, the crystalline size of the nanoparticles increased from 12.1 nm for nY-ZrO800 to 47.2 nm for nY-ZrO1200. Nano-sized particles with good dispersion and low agglomeration were received. Cell culture studies with human gingival fibroblasts verified the nanopowders’ biocompatibility and their ROS scavenging activity. Conclusions: the obtained sol–gel derived nanopowders showed suitable properties to be potentially used as nanofillers for dental luting cement. Full article
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Article
Novel Histomorphometrical Approach to Evaluate the Integration Pattern and Functionality of Barrier Membranes
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110127 - 25 Oct 2021
Viewed by 460
Abstract
GBR (guided bone regeneration) is a standard procedure for building up bony defects in the jaw. In this procedure, resorbable membranes made of bovine and porcine collagen are increasingly being used, which, in addition to many possible advantages, could have the potential disadvantage [...] Read more.
GBR (guided bone regeneration) is a standard procedure for building up bony defects in the jaw. In this procedure, resorbable membranes made of bovine and porcine collagen are increasingly being used, which, in addition to many possible advantages, could have the potential disadvantage of a shorter barrier functionality, especially when augmenting large-volume defects. Thus, it is of importance to evaluate the integration behavior and especially the standing time of barrier membranes using specialized methods to predict its respective biocompatibility. This study is intended to establish a new histomorphometrical analysis method to quantify the integration rate of collagen-based barrier membranes. Three commercially available barrier membranes, i.e., non-crosslinked membranes (BioGide® and Jason® membrane), a ribose-crosslinked membrane (Ossix® Plus), and a newly developed collagen–hyaluronic acid-based (Coll-HA) barrier membrane were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of 48 6–8-week-old Wistar rats. The explants, after three timepoints (10, 30, and 60 days), were processed and prepared into histological sections for histopathological (host tissue response) and histomorphometrical (cellular invasion) analyses. 10 days after implantation, fragmentation was not evident in any of the study groups. The sections of the Coll-HA, Jason® and BioGide® membranes showed a similar mild inflammatory reaction within the surrounding tissue and an initial superficial cell immigration. Only in the Ossix® Plus group very little inflammation and no cell invasion was detected. While the results of the three commercially available membranes remained intact in the further course of the study, only fragments of the Coll-HA membrane were found 30 and 60 days after implantation. Histomorphometrically, it can be described that although initially (at 10 days post-implantation) similar results were found in all study groups, after 30 days post-implantation the cellular penetration depth of the hyaluronic acid-collagen membrane was significantly increased with time (**** p < 0.0001). Similarly, the percentage of cellular invasion per membrane thickness was also significantly higher in the Coll-HA group at all timepoints, compared to the other membranes (**** p < 0.0001). Altogether, these results show that the histomorphometrical analysis of the cellular migration can act as an indicator of integration and duration of barrier functionality. Via this approach, it was possible to semi-quantify the different levels of cellular penetration of GBR membranes that were only qualitatively analyzed through histopathological approaches before. Additionally, the results of the histopathological and histomorphometrical analyses revealed that hyaluronic acid addition to collagen does not lead to a prolonged standing time, but an increased integration of a collagen-based biomaterial. Therefore, it can only partially be used in the dental field for indications that require fast resorbed membranes and a fast cell or tissue influx such as periodontal regeneration processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials and Their Clinical Applications)
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Article
36 Months’ Clinical Performance of Primary Incisors Restorations Depending on the Type of Restorative Technique Used: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110126 - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Background: Depending on the stage of the disease and the child’s age, different types of interventions can be used to treat early childhood caries. As a result, there is not enough clinical evidence to show that one kind of restoration is better than [...] Read more.
Background: Depending on the stage of the disease and the child’s age, different types of interventions can be used to treat early childhood caries. As a result, there is not enough clinical evidence to show that one kind of restoration is better than another. The objective of this longitudinal study was to compare the results of 36 months of clinical performance of primary incisors restorations using an incremental layering technique with the ceram.x® SphereTECTM nanoceramic composite (Dentsply) or a full coverage technique with transparent strip crowns (Frasaco GmbH) with the same composite in children with or without biological caries risk factors. Methods: 80 patients (females 42/52.5%) were included in the study. A total of 160 restorations were performed. Restorations were evaluated at baseline and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, according to modified Ryge criteria. Conclusion: Restorations with both techniques were clinically highly successful and showed similar clinical performance at postoperatively regardless of the presence of biological factors of caries risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Care in Paediatric Dentistry)
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Communication
Use of Computer Simulation in Dental Training with Special Reference to Simodont
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110125 - 21 Oct 2021
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Simulation-based dental education has been increasingly implemented in dental training. Virtual reality simulators are being explored as an adjunct to dental education. Simulation-based dental education could serve as a powerful aid to preclinical instruction. This article provides an overview of how dental simulators [...] Read more.
Simulation-based dental education has been increasingly implemented in dental training. Virtual reality simulators are being explored as an adjunct to dental education. Simulation-based dental education could serve as a powerful aid to preclinical instruction. This article provides an overview of how dental simulators can be used in dental instruction and manual dexterity training, utilizing the Simodont dental trainer as a reference. The Simodont dental trainer provides a platform for students to hone their manual dexterity skills and practice repeatedly prior to conventional clinical simulations. Additionally, it can reduce resource wastage. However, the financial cost of setting up and maintaining the system can be high. The high cost would ultimately limit the number of devices each individual school could afford, as a potential drawback to meeting the training needs of many dental students at one time. The machine’s force-feedback mechanism provides trainees with the tactile experience of drilling into various tissues. Students are empowered via self-learning and assessment, with guidance provided for diagnosis and treatment. From training students on basic operative skills to providing basic aptitude tests for entrance examinations, the Simodont dental trainer’s functions and potential for further development may make it a valuable tool in the field of simulation-based dental education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
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Article
Contact Angle and Cell Adhesion of Micro/Nano-Structured Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Membranes for Dental Regenerative Therapy
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110124 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Biodegradable membranes are used in regenerative dentistry for guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR). In this study, patterned poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) membranes with groove, pillar, and hole structures were successfully fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting. Their surfaces were evaluated [...] Read more.
Biodegradable membranes are used in regenerative dentistry for guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR). In this study, patterned poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) membranes with groove, pillar, and hole structures were successfully fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting. Their surfaces were evaluated for topography by scanning electron microscopy and laser microscopy, for hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity by contact angle analysis, and for MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion. The sizes of the patterns on the surfaces of the membranes were 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μm, respectively, with the height/depth being 1.0 μm. The pillared and holed PLGA membranes were significantly more hydrophobic than the non-patterned PLGA membranes (p < 0.05). However, the 0.5 μm- and 1.0 μm-grooved PLGA membranes were significantly more hydrophilic than the non-patterned PLGA membranes (p < 0.05). The 0.5 μm-grooved, pillared, and holed membranes exhibited significantly superior adhesion to the MC3T3-E1 cells than the non-patterned PLGA (p < 0.05). These results suggest that patterned PLGA membranes can be clinically used for GTR and GBR in the dental regeneration field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue Engineering Approaches for Regenerative Dentistry)
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