Pregnancy is a unique moment in a woman’s life, accompanied with several physiologic changes that have an impact on oral health. Aim of the study:
The purpose of the present study was to conduct a critical review of published literature regarding pregnancy and dentistry, the most frequent oral diseases that are encountered during pregnancy, their correlation to adverse pregnancy events, and safe dental treatments that can be performed during pregnancy. Methods:
A Medline/COCHRANE search was carried using specific keywords and MeSH terms, combined with the boolean operators “OR” and “AND”. Results:
The search led to 146 publications including guidelines, meta-analyses, systematic and non-systematic reviews, published between 2000 and 2021. Discussion and conclusions:
Due to the increased inflammatory and immune body response that characterizes pregnancy, periodontal conditions are often aggravated during pregnancy and periodontal disease encountered frequently in pregnant patients. There are conflicting study results in the literature regarding the association between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Periodontal treatment did not show a significant reduction in the adverse outcomes. Many dentists, often due to lack of information, are reluctant to provide dental treatment to pregnant women. However, preventive and restorative dental treatment is safe during pregnancy. Diagnostic radiographs may be performed after the first trimester if absolutely necessary. Analgesics (such as paracetamol) and anesthetics (such as lidocaine) are also considered safe. In case of infection, antibacterial drugs such as amoxicillin, ampicillin, and some cephalosporines and macrolides can also be prescribed. Organogenesis takes place in the first trimester, the time during which the fetus is susceptible to severe malformations (teratogenesis). The ideal time to perform dental treatment is the second trimester (week 17 to 28). However, acute pain or infections make the intervention of the dentist absolutely necessary and emergency treatment can be performed during the whole pregnancy period.
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