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Dent. J., Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 11 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Recent advancement in LED technology has enabled the development of antibacterial photodynamic (aPDT) devices for continuous use in a home environment. We assigned 15 healthy adults to receive aPDT in a randomized split-mouth protocol. Repeated daily aPDT use resulted in reduced plaque development with a decrease in the gingival inflammatory and antiproteolytic action. The relative number of cariogenic bacteria reduced, while the overall bacterial flora diversity stayed intact. View this paper.
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Article
Peer Mentoring as a Tool for Developing Soft Skills in Clinical Practice: A 3-Year Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(5), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj9050057 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Education currently focuses on improving academic knowledge and clinical skills, but it is also important for students to develop personal and interpersonal skills from the start of their clinical practice. The aim was to evaluate the effect of peer mentoring in third-year students [...] Read more.
Education currently focuses on improving academic knowledge and clinical skills, but it is also important for students to develop personal and interpersonal skills from the start of their clinical practice. The aim was to evaluate the effect of peer mentoring in third-year students and to gauge the evolution of non-technical skills (NTS) acquisition up to the fifth year. The study groups were selected between September 2015 and May 2018, based on the NTS training they had or had not received: (1) fifth-year students with no training (G1); (2) third-year students mentored in NTS (G2a); and (3) a small group of fifth-year students who became mentors (G2b). A total of 276 students who took part in this study were assessed using a 114-item self-evaluation questionnaire. Data were collected from seven surveys conducted between September 2015 and May 2018, and statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Fisher’s post-hoc test. G2a improved their non-technical skill acquisition over three years of clinical training up to their fifth year. This group and G2b showed statistically significant differences compared to non-mentored students (G1). Peer mentoring at the beginning of clinical practice is a valid option for training students in non-technical skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
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Brief Report
Psychometric Characteristics of Oral Pathology Test Items in the Dental Hygiene Curriculum—A Longitudinal Analysis
Dent. J. 2021, 9(5), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9050056 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 567
Abstract
As the landscape of oral healthcare and the delivery of services continue to undergo change, the dental hygienist plays an increasing role in assisting dentists with oral diagnosis and preventive strategies. Hence, the dental hygiene curriculum standards require biomedical science instructions, including general [...] Read more.
As the landscape of oral healthcare and the delivery of services continue to undergo change, the dental hygienist plays an increasing role in assisting dentists with oral diagnosis and preventive strategies. Hence, the dental hygiene curriculum standards require biomedical science instructions, including general and oral pathology. Student learning and cognitive competencies are often measured using multiple-choice questions (MCQs). The objectives of this study were to perform a longitudinal analysis of test items and to evaluate their relation to the absolute grades of the oral pathology course in the dental hygiene curriculum. A total of 1033 MCQs covering different concepts of oral pathology administered from 2015 through 2019 were analyzed for difficulty and discriminatory indices, and the differences between the years were determined by one-way ANOVA. Test reliability as determined by the average KR-20 value was 0.7 or higher for each exam. The mean difficulty index for all exams was 0.73 +/− 0.05, and that of the discriminatory index was 0.33 +/− 0.05. Wide variations were observed in the discriminatory indices of test items with approximately the same difficulty index, as well as in the grade distribution in each cohort. Furthermore, longitudinal data analyses identified low achieving cohorts amongst the groups evaluated for the same knowledge domain, taught with the same instruction, and using similar test tools. This suggest that comparative analyses of tests could offer feedback not only on student learning attributes, but also potentially on the admission processes to the dental hygiene program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
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Case Report
Conservative Non-Surgical Management of Horizontal Root-Fractured Maxillary Incisors in a Young Male with Angle Class II, Division 2, Malocclusion
Dent. J. 2021, 9(5), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9050055 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Horizontal root fractures are a rare emergency in a dental office. The injury involves periodontal ligament, cementum, dentine and pulp. The healing is influenced by the location of the root fracture, the displacement of the fragments and the status of the pulp. This [...] Read more.
Horizontal root fractures are a rare emergency in a dental office. The injury involves periodontal ligament, cementum, dentine and pulp. The healing is influenced by the location of the root fracture, the displacement of the fragments and the status of the pulp. This report presents a clinical case of horizontal fractures to both maxillary central incisors due to an act of violence. The type of occlusion has avoided a severe diastasis of the coronal parts with a subsequent damage to the pulp and periodontum. The fractures were treated with an orthodontic splint without any further therapy and hard tissue healing was observed. A careful diagnosis and well-timed treatment planning usually allow a cost-efficient and biologically-oriented therapy with a favorable outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Article
Factors Influencing the Accuracy of Freehand Implant Placement: A Prospective Clinical Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(5), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9050054 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 672
Abstract
(1) Background: The objective of implant prosthetic restoration is to ensure the best possible rehabilitation of function and esthetics. Optimal positioning of the implant with regard to the bone availability, surrounding soft tissue, and prosthetic sustainability should be strived for during implant placement. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The objective of implant prosthetic restoration is to ensure the best possible rehabilitation of function and esthetics. Optimal positioning of the implant with regard to the bone availability, surrounding soft tissue, and prosthetic sustainability should be strived for during implant placement. The factors influencing freehand implant placement and the accuracy achieved with this procedure are investigated in this prospective clinical study. (2) Methods: Implants were placed in the single-tooth edentulous sites of the premolar and molar areas in 52 patients. Three-dimensional (3D)-planning was performed virtually prior to the freehand implant operation, and the desired position of the implant was provided to the surgeon. (3) Results: The deviations between the planned and the actually achieved position with freehand implant placement showed the following mean values and standard deviations: angle 8.7 ± 4.8°, 3D deviation at the implant shoulder 1.62 ± 0.87 mm, mesiodistal deviation 0.87 ± 0.75 mm, buccolingual deviation 0.70 ± 0.66 mm, and apiocoronal deviation 0.95 ± 0.61 mm. The type of jaw had a significant influence on accuracy. Major deviations were observed in the lower jaw. Furthermore, the timing of implant placement influenced the mesiodistal deviation and angular deviation; (4) Conclusions: Freehand implant placement demonstrated a higher level of deviation between the planned and actually achieved implant positions. In particular, the ranges showed a large spread. From a prosthetic point of view, there may be complications during the restoration of the prosthetic crown if the implant exit point is not optimally located or if the implants show a high angular deviation. Full article
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Article
Identifying Risk Factors Affecting the Usage of Digital and Social Media: A Preliminary Qualitative Study in the Dental Profession and Dental Education
Dent. J. 2021, 9(5), 53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9050053 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 861
Abstract
Aims: This study aimed to identify the risk factors of using DSM to provide an insight into the inherent implications this has on dental professionals in practice and trainee professionals’ education. Materials and methods: Twenty-one participants (10 dental professionals and 11 undergraduate and [...] Read more.
Aims: This study aimed to identify the risk factors of using DSM to provide an insight into the inherent implications this has on dental professionals in practice and trainee professionals’ education. Materials and methods: Twenty-one participants (10 dental professionals and 11 undergraduate and postgraduate dental students) participated in this qualitative study using semi-structured interviews in a dental school in the UK. The interviews were analysed and categorised into themes, some of which were identified from previous literature (e.g., privacy and psychological risks) and others emerged from the data (e.g., deceptive and misleading information). Results: The thematic analysis of interview transcripts identified nine perceived risk themes. Three themes were associated with the use of DSM in the general context, and six themes were related to the use of DSM in professional and education context. Conclusions: This study provided evidence to understand the risk factors of using DSM in dental education and the profession, but the magnitude of these risks on the uptake and usefulness of DSM needs to be assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
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Article
Indocyanine Green-Assisted and LED-Light-Activated Antibacterial Photodynamic Therapy Reduces Dental Plaque
Dent. J. 2021, 9(5), 52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9050052 - 03 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Aim: This study aimed to determine the feasibility and first efficacy of indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted antimicrobial photodynamictherapy (aPDT) as activated using LED light to the dental plaque. Methods: Fifteen healthy adults were assigned to this four-day randomized study. After rinsing with ICG, 100 [...] Read more.
Aim: This study aimed to determine the feasibility and first efficacy of indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted antimicrobial photodynamictherapy (aPDT) as activated using LED light to the dental plaque. Methods: Fifteen healthy adults were assigned to this four-day randomized study. After rinsing with ICG, 100 J/cm2 of 810 nm LED light was applied to the aPDT-treatment area. Plaque area and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) were measured, and plaque bacteriomes before and after the study were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: aPDT administration was preformed successfully and plaque-specifically with the combination of ICG and the applicator. Total plaque area and endpoint MMP-8 levels were reduced on the aPDT-treatment side. aPDT reduced Streptococcus, Acinetobacteria, Capnocytophaga, and Rothia bacteria species in plaques. Conclusion: ICG-assisted aPDT reduces plaque forming bacteria and exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-proteolytic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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Review
The Impact of Sport Training on Oral Health in Athletes
Dent. J. 2021, 9(5), 51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9050051 - 03 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
Athletes’ oral health appears to be poor in numerous sport activities and different diseases can limit athletic skills, both during training and during competitions. Sport activities can be considered a risk factor, among athletes from different sports, for the onset of oral diseases, [...] Read more.
Athletes’ oral health appears to be poor in numerous sport activities and different diseases can limit athletic skills, both during training and during competitions. Sport activities can be considered a risk factor, among athletes from different sports, for the onset of oral diseases, such as caries with an incidence between 15% and 70%, dental trauma 14–70%, dental erosion 36%, pericoronitis 5–39% and periodontal disease up to 15%. The numerous diseases are related to the variations that involve the ecological factors of the oral cavity such as salivary pH, flow rate, buffering capability, total bacterial count, cariogenic bacterial load and values of secretory Immunoglobulin A. The decrease in the production of S-IgA and the association with an important intraoral growth of pathogenic bacteria leads us to consider the training an “open window” for exposure to oral cavity diseases. Sports dentistry focuses attention on the prevention and treatment of oral pathologies and injuries. Oral health promotion strategies are needed in the sports environment. To prevent the onset of oral diseases, the sports dentist can recommend the use of a custom-made mouthguard, an oral device with a triple function that improves the health and performance of athletes. During training, the sports dentist must monitor the athletes and the sports examination protocol must be implemented with the inclusion of the clinical examination, quantitative and qualitative analysis of saliva and instructions on the use, cleansing and storage of the mouthguard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Case Report
Epi-Mucosa Fixation and Autologous Platelet-Rich Fibrin Treatment in Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
Dent. J. 2021, 9(5), 50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9050050 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 664
Abstract
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) frequently affects patients after treatments with bisphosphonates or denosumab, especially with high doses in patients with bone osteoporosis, neoplastic metastases, or possibly anti-angiogenic treatment for cancer. The aim of this article was to show a new treatment [...] Read more.
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) frequently affects patients after treatments with bisphosphonates or denosumab, especially with high doses in patients with bone osteoporosis, neoplastic metastases, or possibly anti-angiogenic treatment for cancer. The aim of this article was to show a new treatment planning for stage 2 and stage 3 MRONJ using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) at the surgical field to enhance healing in association with a new epi-mucosal fixation technique to prevent or treat mandibular fracture. Two cases were treated by epi-mucosa fixation and autologous PRF use for prevention of mandibular fracture risks related to necrotic bone resection or a narrow fracture reduction. Both cases were successfully treated by this new technique of epi-mucosa fixation combined with autologous PRF and achieved good results and good quality of life. Ability to wear prosthesis with good mastication in the absence of side effect such as infection, plate and screw mobilization, pain, and other disabilities or extension of necrosis was reported. After surgical removal of necrotic bone, no infection was detected without any extension of the necrosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
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Article
Dentinogenesis Imperfecta and Caries in Osteogenesis Imperfecta among Vietnamese Children
Dent. J. 2021, 9(5), 49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9050049 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 767
Abstract
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by increased bone fragility and low bone mass, caused mainly by mutations in collagen type I encoding genes. The current study aimed to evaluate dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), oral manifestations and caries status of OI children. [...] Read more.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by increased bone fragility and low bone mass, caused mainly by mutations in collagen type I encoding genes. The current study aimed to evaluate dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), oral manifestations and caries status of OI children. Sixty-eight children (41 males, 27 females) aged from 3 to 17 years old (mean 9 ± 4.13) participated in the study. Participants were classified into three OI type groups (I—2 cases, III—31 cases and IV—35 cases). Clinical examination and an orthopantomogram were used to obtain prevalences and associations of DI, caries status, malocclusion, crossbite, open bite, eruption, impaction and missing teeth with OI. The prevalence of DI among OI patients was 47.1%, more common in OI type III than type IV. The yellow-brown discoloration type was more vulnerable to attrition than the opalescent-grey one in the primary dentition. OI seemed not to have a high risk of caries; the prevalence of caries was 69.1%. A high incidence of malocclusion, crossbite and open bite was observed. In-depth oral information would provide valuable data for better dental management in OI patients. Parents and general doctors should pay more attention to dental care to prevent caries and premature tooth loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study of Relationship between Oral Health and Systemic Health)
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Article
Effect of 10% Carbamide Peroxide on Tooth Shade, Plaque Index and Gingival Index during Invisalign Treatment
Dent. J. 2021, 9(5), 48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9050048 - 26 Apr 2021
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Invisalign has improved periodontal health in comparison to traditional metal wire braces. Due to a growing interest in attaining better teeth esthetics, there are more adults seeking Invisalign treatment. Ten percent carbamide peroxide (CP) breaks down to 6.5% urea and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide, [...] Read more.
Invisalign has improved periodontal health in comparison to traditional metal wire braces. Due to a growing interest in attaining better teeth esthetics, there are more adults seeking Invisalign treatment. Ten percent carbamide peroxide (CP) breaks down to 6.5% urea and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide, which elevates oral pH, removes stains, and diminishes caries by inhibiting plaque formation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether 10% CP use during Invisalign treatment can enhance tooth shade esthetics while decreasing plaque levels and improving gingival health indices. Twenty-eight patients at Western University dental center undergoing Invisalign were assigned to two groups where the experimental group applied daily bleaching material (10% CP, Ultradent Inc., South Jordan, UT, USA), while the control group did not for 4 weeks. Tooth shade, plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI) were assessed at baseline and in 2-week intervals for 6 weeks. Results showed that 10% CP had significant change in tooth shade over the 2- and 4-weeks periods (p < 0.05) and significantly reduced plaque and gingival indices (p < 0.05), with minimal to no relapse after 2 weeks post-op. Thus, applying CP at 10% may be a useful application during Invisalign treatment in improving teeth shade and overall gingival health. Full article
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Article
Attitude towards Telemonitoring in Orthodontists and Orthodontic Patients
Dent. J. 2021, 9(5), 47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9050047 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze the attitude of dentists and patients towards the use of Dental MonitoringTM (DM), an orthodontic telemonitoring software. Thus, two different specially prepared specific questionnaires were administered to 80 dentists (40 were general dentists and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the attitude of dentists and patients towards the use of Dental MonitoringTM (DM), an orthodontic telemonitoring software. Thus, two different specially prepared specific questionnaires were administered to 80 dentists (40 were general dentists and 40 orthodontists) and 80 orthodontic patients. All dentists judged positively telemonitoring, as 96.25% of them considered telemonitoring indicative of high tech and high-quality treatment; 100% considered it a way to reduce the number of in-office visits; 17.5% agreed on a weekly telemonitoring frequency, 40% on a biweekly, and 42.5% on a lower frequency. Further, 97.5% of patients judged positively telemonitoring; 81.25% of them considered telemonitoring indicative of high-tech treatment; 81.25% declared to be interested in reducing the number of in-office visits through telemonitoring; 27.5% agreed on taking self-picture every week, 57.5% every two weeks, and 15% on a lower frequency. Both patients and dentists positively judged telemonitoring, considering it a technologically advanced tool increasing the perception of quality and accuracy of the treatment. Both groups were interested in reducing the number of in-office visits, although not all of them revealed to be ready to invest more money and time in it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Digital Technologies)
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