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Dent. J., Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2021) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): By using magnifying aids, a dentist achieves optical, ergonomic and musculoskeletal benefits. Highly demanding eye–hand coordination and tactile perception require the highest visual binocular function and three-dimensional image creation with object depth perception, as well as other psychological and neurological qualities. The miniaturization of Snellen’s visual test enabled this study to examine how properly fitted magnification loupes improve visual acuity at close range, producing higher-quality dentistry. View this paper.
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Article
Molecular Screening and Analysis Reveal Novel Oral Site-Specific Locations for the Cariogenic Pathogen Scardovia wiggsiae
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060073 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Introduction: Scardovia wiggsiae (SW) is a newly identified cariogenic pathogen associated with severe early childhood caries and oral disease. New studies have confirmed the presence of this organism among clinical samples from both pediatric and adult patients. However, the recent discovery of this [...] Read more.
Introduction: Scardovia wiggsiae (SW) is a newly identified cariogenic pathogen associated with severe early childhood caries and oral disease. New studies have confirmed the presence of this organism among clinical samples from both pediatric and adult patients. However, the recent discovery of this organism has left researchers with only limited information available regarding the prevalence of this organism—and virtually no information regarding oral site-specific locations. Based upon this lack of information, the overall objective of this study was to perform an oral site-specific analysis of SW prevalence from clinical samples. Methods: Using an approved human subjects protocol, samples (n = 60) from an existing saliva and site-specific biorepository were identified and screened for SW presence using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). These data were summarized and subsequently analyzed for correlations with demographic (age, sex, race or ethnicity) or clinical (body mass index or BMI, primary/mixed/permanent dentition, orthodontic brackets) variables. Results: These data revealed that average DNA concentrations from all sample sites (saliva, dorsum of tongue, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), biofilm of upper buccal molar, and biofilm of lower lingual incisor) ranged between 13.74 and 14.69 μg/μL, with an overall average of 14.30 μg/μL ± 1.12 (standard error or SE). qPCR screening revealed a total of n = 34/60 or 56.7% of patient samples harboring SW. A total of n = 71/170 specific oral sites harbored this organism, with the majority of the SW-positive participant samples harboring SW at more than one oral site, n = 22/34 or 64.7%, including non-traditional sites such as GCF and the dorsum of the tongue. Weak correlations were found between specific SW outcomes in GCF and type of dentition (permanent; R = 0.2444), as well as SW outcomes in saliva with age (R = 0.228) and presence of orthodontic brackets (R = 0.2118). Conclusions: This study may be among the first to provide oral site-specific analysis to reveal the prevalence and location of Scardovia among clinical patient samples. Moreover, these data also provide some of the first evidence to suggest this organism may be present not only in traditional supragingival tooth-associated biofilm sites, but also in non-traditional oral sites including the dorsum of the tongue and the gingival crevice. Based upon these results, these data may represent a significant advance in our understanding of the potential sites and locations that harbor this organism and may help contribute to our understanding of the prevalence, distribution and potential for the development of oral disease among clinic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Diagnostics in Oral Diseases)
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Case Report
External Root Resorption Management of an Avulsed and Reimplanted Central Incisor: A Case Report
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060072 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 715
Abstract
Background: Avulsion and reimplantation of permanent teeth represent a major challenge in terms of treatment and long-term prognosis. The present study reported clinical management of external root resorption of an avulsed and reimplanted maxillary central incisor. Case report: A 9-year-old boy [...] Read more.
Background: Avulsion and reimplantation of permanent teeth represent a major challenge in terms of treatment and long-term prognosis. The present study reported clinical management of external root resorption of an avulsed and reimplanted maxillary central incisor. Case report: A 9-year-old boy reported an uncomplicated crown fracture and avulsion of tooth 11 and complicated crown fracture of tooth 21 due to trauma. Reimplantation of element 11 was obtained within 30 min post-trauma and 3 days after both elements were diagnosed with necrotic pulp. In addition, tooth 11 showed early external root resorption. Both elements underwent endodontic treatment and root closure with apical plug using calcium-silicate-based cement. At 6-month follow-up root resorption appeared to be arrested. Twenty-four months after trauma the clinical results were stable, although signs and symptoms of ankylosis were observed. Conclusions: An immediate endodontic approach and use of calcium-silicate-based cement seemed to contrast the progression of root resorption of an avulsed and reimplanted central incisor after 24 months of follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Article
A Short Form of the Children’s Experiences of Dental Anxiety Measure (CEDAM): Validation and Evaluation of the CEDAM-8
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060071 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Background: The Children’s Experiences of Dental Anxiety Measure (CEDAM-14) is a child-centred measure of dental anxiety which assesses a range of behaviours, thoughts and feelings/physical symptoms related to dental anxiety. A short form of the CEDAM-14, which places less time burden on patients [...] Read more.
Background: The Children’s Experiences of Dental Anxiety Measure (CEDAM-14) is a child-centred measure of dental anxiety which assesses a range of behaviours, thoughts and feelings/physical symptoms related to dental anxiety. A short form of the CEDAM-14, which places less time burden on patients and clinicians, could promote the feasibility and applicability of the CEDAM in clinical settings. The aim of the study was to develop a short version of the CEDAM that can be used to assess children’s dental anxiety in clinical practice. Methods: A short version of the CEDAM was developed using a combination of item impact and regression methods. Measurement properties including floor/ceiling effects, variance, criterion validity, construct validity and internal consistency was calculated for the short form. Results: An eight-item CEDAM short form was developed (CEDAM-8) that had good psychometric properties, was significantly correlated with the CEDAM measure (r = 0.90; p < 0.01), had minimal floor and ceiling effects (3.5% and 1.2%, respectively) and was sensitive to change. Conclusion: The CEDAM-8 is a useful assessment tool for clinicians that is easy and quick to administer and could help to understand children’s experiences of dental anxiety and changes in anxiety over time and following intervention. Full article
Article
Effects of Different Application Times of Silver Diamine Fluoride on Mineral Precipitation in Demineralized Dentin
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060070 - 14 Jun 2021
Viewed by 790
Abstract
Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a cost-effective method for arresting active dental caries. However, the limited cooperation of patients may lead to an SDF application time that is shorter than the recommended 1–3 min for carious lesions. Therefore, the aim of this study [...] Read more.
Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a cost-effective method for arresting active dental caries. However, the limited cooperation of patients may lead to an SDF application time that is shorter than the recommended 1–3 min for carious lesions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of different application times of SDF on the degree of mineral precipitation in demineralized dentin. Demineralized dentin specimens from permanent maxillary molars were treated by applying 38% SDF for 30, 60, or 180 s. Water was applied in the control group. The specimens were immersed in simulated body fluid for 2 weeks, and the mineral precipitation in demineralized dentin was then analyzed using FTIR-ATR, SEM-EDX, and synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM). The FTIR-ATR results showed a significant increase in mineral precipitation in the 180 s group after 1 week. However, after 2 weeks, the SRXTM images indicated comparable mineral density between the 30, 60, and 180 s groups. The precipitation of silver chloride and calcium phosphate crystals that occluded dentinal tubules was similar in all experimental groups. In conclusion, an application time of either 30, 60, or 180 s promoted a comparable degree of mineral precipitation in demineralized dentin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Care Dentistry)
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Article
The Best Dentistry Professional Visual Acuity Measured under Simulated Clinical Conditions Provides Keplerian Magnification Loupe: A Cross-Sectional Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060069 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 530
Abstract
Visual acuity plays an important role in dentists’ vision in their daily clinical routine. This study aimed to determine dental students’ visual acuity without optical aids and when using magnification devices in simulated clinical conditions. The participants were forty-six students at the School [...] Read more.
Visual acuity plays an important role in dentists’ vision in their daily clinical routine. This study aimed to determine dental students’ visual acuity without optical aids and when using magnification devices in simulated clinical conditions. The participants were forty-six students at the School of Dental Medicine with a visual acuity of 1.0 in decimal values or 100% in percentage. The central visual acuity was tested using a miniature Snellen eye chart placed in the molar cavity of a dental phantom, in simulated clinical conditions under five different settings (natural visual acuity, by applying head magnifying glasses x1,5 and binocular magnifying devices using Galileo’s x2,5/350 mm, Keplerx3,3/450 mm and Keplerx4,5/350 mm optical system). The Wilcoxon Signed Rank test shows that the distribution of measurements of the visual acuity undertaken by the application of magnifying devices (VNL, VGA2,5, VKP3,3, VKP4,5) contained higher values of visual acuity than those received by the use of natural vision (VSC) (p < 0.001 for the comparison to the VNL, VGA2,5, VKP3,3 and VKP4,5 groups). The highest and statistically most significant increase in visual acuity is achieved using the Keplerian telescope x4.5/350 mm. The application of magnifying devices provided dentistry professionals with better visual acuity, improving detail detection in an oral cavity during dental procedures by magnifying the oral structure. The use of magnification devices means much more precise work, decreases the operating time, improves posture and reduces muscle pain in the shoulder during dental treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
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Review
Understanding Motor Skill Learning as Related to Dentistry
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060068 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Learning dental procedures is a complex task involving the development of fine motor skills. The reported use of theories and/or evidence for designing learning activities to develop the fine motor skills needed for dental practice is limited. The aim of this review is [...] Read more.
Learning dental procedures is a complex task involving the development of fine motor skills. The reported use of theories and/or evidence for designing learning activities to develop the fine motor skills needed for dental practice is limited. The aim of this review is to explore the available body of knowledge related to learning motor skills relevant to dentistry. Evidence from studies investigating motor skill learning highlights the negative impact of self-focus and self-regulation on learning outcomes, particularly during the early stages of learning. The development of activities and schedules that enable novices to demonstrate characteristics similar to experts, without the reported long period of ‘deliberate practice’, is clearly of value. Outcomes of learning implicitly are important in dentistry because working under stressful conditions is common, either during undergraduate study or in practice. It is suggested that learning implicitly in the simulation stage can reduce disrupted performance when transitioning to clinical settings. Therefore, further investigation of effective methods for learning dental fine motor skills is indicated, using approaches that result in robust performance, even under stressful conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
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Article
Antibacterial Ability of Sodium Hypochlorite Activated with PUI vs. XPF File against Bacteria Growth on Enterococcus faecalis Mature Biofilm
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060067 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 553
Abstract
The objectives of the present study were to assess the antibacterial effectiveness of two sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) concentrations (2.5% and 5.25%) activated by means of two techniques, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and XP-endo® Finisher (FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) (XPF) against [...] Read more.
The objectives of the present study were to assess the antibacterial effectiveness of two sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) concentrations (2.5% and 5.25%) activated by means of two techniques, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and XP-endo® Finisher (FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) (XPF) against bacteria growth in intracanal mature biofilm. Our aim was to determine if the effect of heating up NaOCl at body temperature (BT) contributed to an improvement of the efficacy of XPF. Sixty-two single-canal human roots previously instrumented were infected with E. faecalis inoculum at 0.5 McFarland and incubated at 37 °C for two weeks. Twelve specimens were randomly selected as positive control, and the remaining fifty were divided into five experimental groups (n = 10). The first two were irrigated with 2.5 vs. 5.25% NaOCl at room temperature (RT), activated with PUI, and the other three were irrigated with XPF. Of these three, two were irrigated using 2.5 vs. 5.25% NaOCl at RT and one was irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl at BT. Our results showed that NaOCl was effective in biofilm removal for all experimental groups (p > 0.05), especially in the groups irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl at room temperature (RT) activated with PUI and the group treated with 5.25% NaOCl at BT with XPF. These groups were the most successful ones (p < 0.001). NaOCl, activated with XPF, was as effective as PUI in biofilm removal from the apical third of the canal when it was used at higher concentration and heated up. This study indicates that XPF only reached the efficacy of PUI when NaOCl was heated up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Materials)
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Case Report
Uncovering and Autonomous Eruption of Palatally Impacted Canines—A Case Report
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060066 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 700
Abstract
The impaction of permanent maxillary canine is a common clinical occurrence, and it is observed in 2% of patients who require orthodontic treatment. This case report describes a new orthodontic-surgical approach through the use of CO2 laser, for the exposure of the [...] Read more.
The impaction of permanent maxillary canine is a common clinical occurrence, and it is observed in 2% of patients who require orthodontic treatment. This case report describes a new orthodontic-surgical approach through the use of CO2 laser, for the exposure of the palatally impacted canines. A 13-year-old female referred to our observation to make an orthodontic examination because of the maxillary primary canines’ persistence in upper arch. Orthopanoramic X-ray showed impaction of both permanent maxillary canines. The family history revealed that the patient’s mother had the same orthodontic problem. Cone Beam Computer Tomography (CBCT) was requested to plan the surgical-orthodontic treatment. Surgical exposure of the impacted canines was performed using a CO2 laser and subsequent periodontal pack application. No orthodontic devices were applied for impacted teeth traction on dental arch. Canines’ movement was monitored at 1, 8 and 16 weeks post-surgery with photo and intraoral scanner CS3500 (CS3500®, Carestream Health, Atlanta, GA, USA). When canine crowns were completely erupted on palatal side, the alignment in the arch with indirect bonding technique was performed. Complete disimpaction of canine crowns was obtained in only four months. As reported in the literature, this case confirms that impacted canines’ exposure to CO2 laser has advantages if compared with traditional surgery: no bleeding during and after the procedure, decontaminant effect on the surgical area, no suture, and a fast spontaneous eruption. Conclusions: The pre-orthodontic uncovering and autonomous eruption of palatally impacted maxillary canines provides simplified, predictable, and more aesthetic outcomes. Furthermore, a significant positive factor is that there is no need to carry out the orthodontic traction of the impacted element, undoubtedly better compliance by the patient during the next alignment phase with the fix orthodontic appliance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Light and Laser Dentistry)
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Article
Maxillary Sinus Augmentation Using Ceramic Alloplastic Granules or Paste: An Experimental Study in Rabbits
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060065 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Background: Due to the lack of data comparing the biological behavior of two formulations, granules and paste, of alloplastic graft from microtomographic and histomorphometric points of view, the aim of the present experiment was to compare the histomorphometric and microtomographic healing of two [...] Read more.
Background: Due to the lack of data comparing the biological behavior of two formulations, granules and paste, of alloplastic graft from microtomographic and histomorphometric points of view, the aim of the present experiment was to compare the histomorphometric and microtomographic healing of two formulations, i.e., granules (MR sites) or paste (MR-inject sites) of an alloplastic graft composed of a combination of beta-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite used for maxillary sinus lifting. Methods: A sinus lifting procedure was carried out bilaterally in 20 rabbits, and the elevated space was filled with either paste or granules of an alloplastic material. A collagen membrane was placed on the antrostomy and the animals were euthanized after 2 or 10 weeks, 10 animals each group. Microtomographic and histological analyses were performed. Results: Higher proportions of new bone formation were found at the MR, compared to the MR-inject sites both after 2 weeks (2.65 ± 2.89% vs. 0.08 ± 0.12%; p < 0.01) and 10 weeks of healing (34.20 ± 13.86 vs. 23.28 ± 10.35%; p = 0.022). Conclusions: It was concluded that new bone formation was faster in the MR sites, compared to the MR-inject. However, a longer time of healing should be allowed to make final conclusions about the efficiency in bone formation of the paste formulation of the biomaterial used in the present study. Full article
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Review
Fluoride Varnishes for Preventing Occlusal Dental Caries: A Review
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060064 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 835
Abstract
Dental caries are most likely to occur on occlusal surfaces from the early eruptive stages of the tooth. In children, about 80% to 90% of dental caries are occlusal caries. Different preventive modalities are used to prevent occlusal caries. One of the methods [...] Read more.
Dental caries are most likely to occur on occlusal surfaces from the early eruptive stages of the tooth. In children, about 80% to 90% of dental caries are occlusal caries. Different preventive modalities are used to prevent occlusal caries. One of the methods used for occlusal caries prevention is fluoride varnish. A vast number of clinical trials have evaluated several types of sealant material and fluoride varnish to assess their ability to prevent occlusal caries in both primary and permanent dentition. The purpose of the current study was to provide an updated overview of the development, composition, mechanism of action, application, and safety of fluoride varnish, as well as its effect on occlusal caries prevention. This review of recently published studies on fluoride varnish and its effect on occlusal caries prevention shows that in children at moderate to high risk of caries, fluoride varnishes prevent occlusal caries. Both resin-based fissure sealants and fluoride varnish are effective for occlusal caries prevention for first-permanent molars. However, it was not possible to identify which one has the best effect. It is recommend that fluoride varnish is applied for children at high risk of caries two to four times per year. Full article
Article
Integration of Dental Implants in Conjunction with EDTA-Conditioned Dentin Grafts: An Experimental Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060063 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 733
Abstract
This study was undertaken to investigate the integration of titanium micro-implants installed in conjunction with previously dentin-grafted areas and to study the morphological appearance, mineral content, and healing pattern of xenogenic EDTA-conditioned dentin blocks and granules grafted to cavities in the tibial bone [...] Read more.
This study was undertaken to investigate the integration of titanium micro-implants installed in conjunction with previously dentin-grafted areas and to study the morphological appearance, mineral content, and healing pattern of xenogenic EDTA-conditioned dentin blocks and granules grafted to cavities in the tibial bone of rabbits. Demineralized and non-demineralized dentin blocks and granules from human premolars were implanted into cavities prepared on the lateral aspects of the tibias of rabbits. After a healing period of six months, micro-implants were installed at each surgical site. Histological examinations were carried out after 24 weeks. Characterization of the EDTA-conditioned dentin blocks was performed by means of light microscopy, dental X-rays, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). No implants were found to be integrated in direct contact with the dentin particles or blocks. On the EDTA-conditioned dentin surface, the organic marker elements C and N dominated, as revealed by EDX. The hydroxyapatite constituents Ca and P were almost absent on the dentin surface. No statistically significant difference was observed between the EDTA-conditioned and non-demineralized dentin, as revealed by BIC and BA. The bone-inductive capacity of the dentin material seemed limited, although demineralization by means of EDTA indicated higher BIC and BA values in conjunction with the installed implants in the area. A 12 h EDTA treatment did not fully decalcify the grafts, as revealed by X-ray analysis. Full article
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Article
Time Efficiency of Digitally and Conventionally Produced Single-Unit Restorations
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060062 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 719
Abstract
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the time efficiency of digital chairside and labside workflows with a conventional workflow for single-unit restorations. The time efficiency in this specific sense was defined as the time, which has to be spent [...] Read more.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the time efficiency of digital chairside and labside workflows with a conventional workflow for single-unit restorations. The time efficiency in this specific sense was defined as the time, which has to be spent in a dental office by a dental professional performing the relevant steps. A model with interchangeable teeth on position 36 was created. These teeth were differently prepared, responding to several clinical situations to perform single-unit restorations. Different manufacturing techniques were used: For the digital workflows, CEREC Omnicam (CER) and Trios 3 (TN/TI) were used. The conventional workflow, using a dual-arch tray impression technique, served as the control group. For the labside workflow (_L) and the conventional impression procedure (CO), the time necessary for the impressions and temporary restorations was recorded and served as operating time. The chairside workflow time was divided by the time for the entire workflow (_C) including scan, design, milling and finishing the milled restoration, and in the actual working time (_CW) leaving out the chairside milling of the restoration. Labside workflow time ranged from 9 min 27 s (CER_L) to 12 min 41 s (TI_L). Entire chairside time ranged from 43 min 35 s (CER_C) to 58 min 43 s (TI_C). Pure chairside working time ranged from 15 min 21 s (CER_CW) to 23 min 17 s (TI_CW). Conventional workflow time was 10 min 39 s (CO) on average. The digital labside workflow and the conventional workflow require a similar amount of time. The digital chairside workflow is more time consuming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Dentistry Journal in 2021)
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Article
Osteoconductivity of Bovine Xenograft Granules of Different Sizes in Sinus Lift: A Histomorphometric Study in Rabbits
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060061 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 718
Abstract
Background: Due to the lack of data on bone-to-graft contact (BGC) over time in the various regions within the subantral space of the augmented sinus floor, the present study aimed to evaluate the osteoconductivity of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) with granules of [...] Read more.
Background: Due to the lack of data on bone-to-graft contact (BGC) over time in the various regions within the subantral space of the augmented sinus floor, the present study aimed to evaluate the osteoconductivity of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) with granules of different sizes applied in maxillary sinus floor elevation. Methods: A maxillary sinus augmentation was performed bilaterally in 18 rabbits using DBBM with particle dimensions of either 0.125–1.0 mm or 1–2 mm. The antrostomy was covered using a collagen barrier. The animals were euthanized in groups of six after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of healing. MicroCT and histological analyses were performed. Results: After 2 weeks of healing, BGC was 10.9% and 11.9% for the small and large granule sites, respectively. After 8 weeks of healing, the BGC increased to 65% and 62% at the small and large granule sites, respectively. The highest values were located close to the bony walls and the bony window. New bone content developed between 2 and 8 weeks from 7.0% to 27.6% and from 6.1% to 27.6% at the small and large granule sites, respectively. Conclusions: Similar outcomes in osteoconductivity and bone formation were found at both small and large DBBM granule sites. Full article
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Article
Survival of Single-Unit Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal (PFM) and Metal Crowns Placed by Students at an Australian University Dental Clinic over a Five-Year Period
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060060 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 775
Abstract
The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the survival rate of single-unit porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) and metal crowns placed by dental students at an Australian university undergraduate dental clinic over a five-year period. Complications and the incidences of crown failures were recorded. [...] Read more.
The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the survival rate of single-unit porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) and metal crowns placed by dental students at an Australian university undergraduate dental clinic over a five-year period. Complications and the incidences of crown failures were recorded. Clinical records pertaining to single-unit PFM and metal crowns inserted over a five-year period were reviewed, including patient-related, tooth-related, and procedural factors for each crown. Crowns were evaluated as surviving, surviving with complications, or failed. Kaplan–Meier statistical analysis was used to estimate survival rate., This study is based on a sample of 232 (78.4%) PFM crowns and 64 (21.6%) metal crowns inserted between 2014 and 2018. Cumulatively, 224 (75.7%) were surviving, 48 (16.2%) were surviving but previously had complications, and 24 (8.1%) failed. The 5-year cumulative survival rate of all PFM and metal crowns was 83.9% (0.839 ± 0.038, Kaplan–Meier). The average survival time for all crowns was 4.432 ± 0.089 years. Comparatively, PFM crowns had a higher survival rate at 1 year (0.972 ± 0.010) and 2 years (0.919 ± 0.017), compared to metal crowns at 1 year (0.964 ± 0.011) and 2 years (0.894± 0.018). The survival rate of metal crowns remained constant from 2 years to 4 years and thereafter, whereas there was a continued decline in the survival rate of PFM crowns to 83.2% (0.832 ± 0.038) at 4 years and thereafter. Crowns placed on premolars had the highest cumulative survival rate whereas those placed on molars exhibited the lowest survival rate for the duration of the study period. Despite single-unit PFM crowns having a higher 1- and 2-year survival rate compared to metal crowns, metal crowns had a higher survival rate at 4 years and thereafter. Survival rates are comparable to previous studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Dentistry Journal in 2021)
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Article
Cold Atmospheric Plasma Improves Shear Bond Strength of Veneering Composite to Zirconia
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060059 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Chipping of veneering is the most common clinical complication for zirconia restorations. Veneering composite could be a promising alternative to renew restorations. Zirconia discs (3-YSZ) were prepared with varying surface treatments and bonded to indirect composite as follows: air abrasion and Scotchbond Universal [...] Read more.
Chipping of veneering is the most common clinical complication for zirconia restorations. Veneering composite could be a promising alternative to renew restorations. Zirconia discs (3-YSZ) were prepared with varying surface treatments and bonded to indirect composite as follows: air abrasion and Scotchbond Universal (A/SU); air abrasion and Clearfil Ceramic Primer (A/C); air abrasion and MKZ Primer (A/M); air abrasion and Monobond Plus (A/MP); silica-coating and Scotchbond Universal (S/SU); air abrasion (AP/SU), additional cold atmospheric plasma treatment, and Scotchbond Universal. An indirect composite material was then applied to the zirconia specimens. Specimens were divided into subgroups for short-term (14 days storage at 37 °C and 5000 thermal cycles) and long-term (250 days storage and 37,500 thermal cycles) artificial aging. Shear bond strength measurement (SBS) was performed, and data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis-test and multiple comparison testing with Dunn’s correction (p ≤ 0.05). The median SBS values (MPa) of short- and long-term artificial aging were: 3.09/1.36 (A/SU); 0.77/1.43 (S/SU); 2.82/2.15 (AP/SU); 1.97/1.80 (A/C); 2.01/1.58 (A/M); and 1.70/1.68 (A/MP). For short-term artificial aging A/SU showed the highest median SBS values, whereas in the long-term trial, AP/SU showed the highest values and the difference was significant. A prolonged artificial aging decreased SBS in all groups, except S/SU. In summary, treatment with CAP can improve SBS in the long-term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Materials)
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Article
Profiling of Microbiota at the Mouth of Bottles and in Remaining Tea after Drinking Directly from Plastic Bottles of Tea
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060058 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 643
Abstract
It has been speculated that oral bacteria can be transferred to tea in plastic bottles when it is drunk directly from the bottles, and that the bacteria can then multiply in the bottles. The transfer of oral bacteria to the mouth of bottles [...] Read more.
It has been speculated that oral bacteria can be transferred to tea in plastic bottles when it is drunk directly from the bottles, and that the bacteria can then multiply in the bottles. The transfer of oral bacteria to the mouth of bottles and bacterial survival in the remaining tea after drinking directly from bottles were examined immediately after drinking and after storage at 37 °C for 24 h. Twelve healthy subjects (19 to 23 years of age) were asked to drink approximately 50 mL of unsweetened tea from a plastic bottle. The mouths of the bottles were swabbed with sterile cotton, and the swabs and the remaining tea in the bottles were analyzed by anaerobic culture and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Metagenomic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene was also performed. The mean amounts of bacteria were (1.8 ± 1.7) × 104 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and (1.4 ± 1.5) × 104 CFU/mL at the mouth of the bottles immediately after and 24 h after drinking, respectively. In contrast, (0.8 ± 1.6) × 104 CFU/mL and (2.5 ± 2.6) × 106 CFU/mL were recovered from the remaining tea immediately after and 24 h after drinking, respectively. Streptococcus (59.9%) were predominant at the mouth of the bottles immediately after drinking, followed by Schaalia (5.5%), Gemella (5.5%), Actinomyces (4.9%), Cutibacterium (4.9%), and Veillonella (3.6%); the culture and metagenomic analyses showed similar findings for the major species of detected bacteria, including Streptococcus (59.9%, and 10.711%), Neisseria (1.6%, and 24.245%), Haemophilus (0.6%, and 15.658%), Gemella (5.5%, and 0.381%), Cutibacterium (4.9%, and 0.041%), Rothia (2.6%, and 4.170%), Veillonella (3.6%, and 1.130%), Actinomyces (4.9%, and 0.406%), Prevotella (1.6%, and 0.442%), Fusobacterium (1.0%, and 0.461%), Capnocytophaga (0.3%, and 0.028%), and Porphyromonas (1.0%, and 0.060%), respectively. Furthermore, Streptococcus were the most commonly detected bacteria 24 h after drinking. These findings demonstrated that oral bacteria were present at the mouth of the bottles and in the remaining tea after drinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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