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Dent. J., Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2021) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The use of fluorescence spectroscopy for plaque detection is a fast and effective way to monitor oral health. To carry out experiments on dental plaque, the fluorescence spectra of three bacterial species (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Streptococcus mutans) were measured by hyperspectral imaging microscopy. This study proposes a method of classifying three bacteria based on spectral intensity ratios under a 405 nm excitation light. The sensitivity and specificity of the classification were approximately 99% and 99%, respectively. View this paper.
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Case Report
Compound Odontoma Removed by Endoscopic Intraoral Approach: Case Report
Dent. J. 2021, 9(7), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9070081 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 360
Abstract
A 12-year-old Japanese boy was referred to our hospital for evaluation of a radiopaque area on the left side of the mandible. Radiographic and computed tomographic examinations revealed a radiopaque lesion located on the lingual side, along with permanent tooth eruption. Several small [...] Read more.
A 12-year-old Japanese boy was referred to our hospital for evaluation of a radiopaque area on the left side of the mandible. Radiographic and computed tomographic examinations revealed a radiopaque lesion located on the lingual side, along with permanent tooth eruption. Several small tooth-like structures were noted within the lesion and the mandibular left second premolar was inclined in a mesial direction. An odontoma was clinically diagnosed and surgical removal by an endoscopic intraoral approach under general anesthesia was planned. Reports of oral surgery using an endoscopic approach have been presented, though none for an odontoma. With the expectation that removal of the odontoma would improve dentition in this case, we planned future management. A minimally invasive surgical removal procedure by an endoscopic intraoral approach from the lingual side was performed and good early recovery was noted. The resected tumor consisted of several small tooth-like structures. Histopathological diagnosis was a compound odontoma. One-year follow-up findings showed that the post-surgical course was good. Full article
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Article
Effects of Extraoral Suction on Droplets and Aerosols for Infection Control Practices
Dent. J. 2021, 9(7), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9070080 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Dental professionals are at increased risk of being infected with airborne pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 because they are often exposed to droplets/aerosols production during dental treatment. To scientifically clear the effects of extraoral and oral suctions on the droplets and aerosols produced by [...] Read more.
Dental professionals are at increased risk of being infected with airborne pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 because they are often exposed to droplets/aerosols production during dental treatment. To scientifically clear the effects of extraoral and oral suctions on the droplets and aerosols produced by dental treatments using an ultrasonic scaler was analyzed. The adenosine triphosphate and bacteria in droplets and aerosols produced during simulated scaling were quantitatively observed by reactions with luciferin/luciferase and incubation in culture plates to grow bacteria, respectively. The protection against spreading droplets and aerosols by oral and extraoral suctions was recognized, and the areas were limited to the left and posterior sides of the dental chair head when a right-handed dentist and dental hygienist performed scaling. Extraoral suction is a very useful tool for reducing the infection risk of COVID-19 in dental care, but the effective area is limited depending on physical characteristics of dentist and dental hygienist. Full article
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Case Report
The “Pre-Finishing” Approach in Direct Anterior Restorations. A Case Series
Dent. J. 2021, 9(7), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9070079 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
In esthetic restorations of anterior teeth the clinician has to manage several aspects in order to have a predictable outcome. A deep knowledge of the anatomy as well as the adhesive procedures and the optical properties of resin-based composites are mandatory to achieve [...] Read more.
In esthetic restorations of anterior teeth the clinician has to manage several aspects in order to have a predictable outcome. A deep knowledge of the anatomy as well as the adhesive procedures and the optical properties of resin-based composites are mandatory to achieve esthetic results. Contemporary restorative materials present either several shades and different translucency properties and therefore they are able to mimic teeth’s optical behavior thus providing a natural aspect to anterior restorations. The wrong thickness of different composite layers may provide unpleasant results such as low value (grayish) restorations that often requires reintervention. A precise step-by-step procedure is therefore mandatory to provide the proper shade at the correct place. There is therefore the need of some corrections and adjustments during the layer procedure in order to avoid errors in shade positioning that could affect final result. The authors present a case series (six clinical cases) treated with the proposed technique with up to five years follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Materials)
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Article
Effect of Water Storage on Hardness and Interfacial Strength of Resin Composite Luting Agents Bonded to Surface-Treated Monolithic Zirconia
Dent. J. 2021, 9(7), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9070078 - 04 Jul 2021
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Background: Durable bonding between resin composite luting agents (CLA) and zirconia is still a matter of controversy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of water storage on hardness and interfacial strength of three CLA, a non-adhesive (Multilink Automix/ML), an [...] Read more.
Background: Durable bonding between resin composite luting agents (CLA) and zirconia is still a matter of controversy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of water storage on hardness and interfacial strength of three CLA, a non-adhesive (Multilink Automix/ML), an adhesive (Panavia F 2.0/PF) and a self-adhesive (PermaCem 2.0/PC), bonded to polished (CL) and grit-blasted (AL: 50 μm alumina, SJ: Sil-Jet + Monobond Plus silane) monolithic zirconia surfaces. Methods: CLA specimens (n = 5/cement, condition) were prepared, stored under dry conditions or immersed in water, and Vickers hardness (VH) measurements were obtained at 1 h, 24 h, 1 week and 3 weeks intervals. Optical profilometry was used to determine the roughness parameters (Sa, Sz, Sdr, Sci) of zirconia surfaces (n = 5/treatment). A shear strength test (SBS, n = 10 × 2/cement) was performed to assess the strength and fractography of the cements bonded to zirconia after isothermal water storage and thermal-cycling (TC). Results: PF demonstrated significantly lower VHN after water storage at all time intervals, PC at 1 w, 3 w and ML at 3 w. SJ and AL showed significantly higher values from CL in all roughness parameters. Weibull analysis revealed the following significance in σο ranking within the same material: AL, SJ, ALTC > SJTC, CL > CLTC (PF); SJ, SJTC, AL, ALTC > CL, CLTC (PC) and SJ, SJTC > AL > ALTC > CL, CLTC (ML). Within the same surface treatment subgroups, the significance in σo ranking was PC, ML > PF (before/after TC) for SJ; PC > PF > ML (before TC), PC, PF > ML (after TC) for AL, and PC > PF > ML (before/after TC) for CL. For the m ranking, the only significant difference within each material group was found in PC (AL > ALTC) and for the same surface treatment in AL (PC > ML). Conclusion: There are significant differences in the water plasticization susceptibility of the CLA tested; the materials with adhesive monomers were the most affected. Tribo-chemical silica coating combined with a silane coupling agent was the most efficient bonding treatment for the non-adhesive and the self-adhesive materials. The adhesive CLA performed better on alumina-blasted than on tribo-chemically coated surfaces. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Extra Educational Elements on the Confidence of Undergraduate Dental Students Learning to Administer Local Anaesthesia
Dent. J. 2021, 9(7), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9070077 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Local anaesthesia is taught early in the practical part of dental programs. However, dental students express uncertainty and concern before their practical training in local anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate how extra educational elements in the teaching of local [...] Read more.
Local anaesthesia is taught early in the practical part of dental programs. However, dental students express uncertainty and concern before their practical training in local anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate how extra educational elements in the teaching of local anaesthesia affect students’ confidence using local anaesthesia. The students were divided into three groups (A, B and C). Group A received the same education that was used the previous year (i.e., four hours of theoretical lectures followed by four hours of practical exercises performed on a fellow student). Group B did their practical training on fellow students in groups of three, with each student taking turns performing, receiving and observing the procedure. Group C received training using an anatomically correct model before their practical training on a fellow student. After each training step, the students completed a questionnaire about their confidence administering local anaesthesia. The students experienced a significant increase in confidence after each educational step. Combining theory and practical instruction, including the use of anatomically correct models and peer instruction, improved students’ confidence in administering local anaesthesia. The greatest increase in confidence was in the students placed in groups of three where each student performed, received and observed the procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
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Article
Influence of Anatomical Parameters on the Dimensions of the Subantral Space and Sinus Mucosa Thickening after Sinus Floor Elevation. A Retrospective Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(7), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9070076 - 24 Jun 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Background: Various anatomical parameters might influence the surgical approach for maxillary sinus floor elevation. The objective of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the influence of anatomical parameters on the dimensions of the subantral space and of the sinus mucosa thickening after [...] Read more.
Background: Various anatomical parameters might influence the surgical approach for maxillary sinus floor elevation. The objective of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the influence of anatomical parameters on the dimensions of the subantral space and of the sinus mucosa thickening after sinus floor elevation. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight maxillary sinuses in sixty-five patients were evaluated on cone beam computed tomographies taken before surgery and after one week (t1w) and nine months (t9m). Several parameters such as the distance XF between an axis parallel to the base of the nose (X-axes) and the sinus floor (F) were correlated with the height gain (IF) at t1w and t9m and the post-surgical edema. Results: A weak significant positive correlation was observed between height gain vs. sinus height of interest (XF), the balcony, and the sinus floor angle. The post-surgical edema was influenced by the initial mucosa thickness and the xenograft used. Conclusions: Various parameters might affect height gain and sinus mucosa thickening after sinus floor elevation. The height of interest, the balcony, and the sinus floor angle showed significant correlations with height gain. The initial thickness of the mucosa and the biomaterial used influenced the post-surgical edema. Full article
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Article
A Comparison of Full Arch Trueness and Precision of Nine Intra-Oral Digital Scanners and Four Lab Digital Scanners
Dent. J. 2021, 9(7), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9070075 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1240
Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the full arch scan accuracy (precision and trueness) of nine digital intra-oral scanners and four lab scanners. Previous studies have compared the accuracy of some intra-oral scanners, but as this is a field [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the full arch scan accuracy (precision and trueness) of nine digital intra-oral scanners and four lab scanners. Previous studies have compared the accuracy of some intra-oral scanners, but as this is a field of quickly developing technologies, a more up-to-date study was needed to assess the capabilities of currently available models. (2) Methods: The present in vitro study compared nine different intra-oral scanners (Omnicam 4.6; Omnicam 5.1; Primescan; CS 3600; Trios 3; Trios 4; Runyes; i500; and DL206) as well as four lab light scanners (Einscan SE; 300e; E2; and Ineos X5) to investigate the accuracy of each scanner by examining the overall trueness and precision. Ten aligned and cut scans from each of the intra-oral and lab scanners in the in vitro study were brought into CloudCompare. A comparison was made with the master STL using the CloudCompare 3D analysis best-fit algorithm. The results were recorded along with individual standard deviation and a colorimetric map of the deviation across the surface of the STL mesh; a comparison was made to the master STL, quantified at specific points. (3) Results: In the present study, the Primescan had the best overall trueness (17.3 ± 4.9), followed by (in order of increasing deviation) the Trios 4 (20.8 ± 6.2), i500 (25.2 ± 7.3), CS3600 (26.9 ± 15.9), Trios 3 (27.7 ± 6.8), Runyes (47.2 ± 5.4), Omnicam 5.1 (55.1 ± 9.5), Omnicam 4.6 (57.5 ± 3.2), and Launca DL206 (58.5 ± 22.0). Regarding the lab light scanners, the Ineos X5 had the best overall trueness with (0.0 ± 1.9), followed by (in order of increasing deviation) the 3Shape E2 (3.6 ± 2.2), Up3D 300E (12.8 ± 2.7), and Einscan SE (14.9 ± 9.5). (4) Conclusions: This study confirms that all current generations of intra-oral digital scanners can capture a reliable, reproducible full arch scan in dentate patients. Out of the intra-oral scanners tested, no scanner produced results significantly similar in trueness to the Ineos X5. However, the Primescan was the only one to be statistically of a similar level of trueness to the 3Shape E2 lab scanner. All scanners in the study had mean trueness of under 60-micron deviation. While this study can compare the scanning accuracy of this sample in a dentate arch, the scanning of a fully edentulous arch is more challenging. The accuracy of these scanners in edentulous cases should be examined in further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Digital Technologies)
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Article
Autofluorescence Detection Method for Dental Plaque Bacteria Detection and Classification: Example of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Streptococcus mutans
Dent. J. 2021, 9(7), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9070074 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 657
Abstract
The use of fluorescence spectroscopy for plaque detection is a fast and effective way to monitor oral health. At present, there is no uniform specification for the design of the excitation light source of related products for generating fluorescence. To carry out experiments [...] Read more.
The use of fluorescence spectroscopy for plaque detection is a fast and effective way to monitor oral health. At present, there is no uniform specification for the design of the excitation light source of related products for generating fluorescence. To carry out experiments on dental plaque, the fluorescence spectra of three different bacterial species (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Streptococcus mutans) were measured by hyperspectral imaging microscopy (HIM). Three critical issues were found in the experiments. One issue was the unwanted spectrum generated from a mercury line source; two four-order low-pass filters were evaluated for eliminating the unwanted spectrum and meet the experimental requirements. The second issue was the red fluorescence generated from the microscope slide made of borosilicate glass; this could affect the observation of the red fluorescence from the bacteria; quartz microscope slides were found to reduce the fluorescence intensity by about 2 dB compared with the borosilicate slide. The third issue of photobleaching in the fluorescence of the Porphyromonas gingivalis was studied. This study proposes a method of classifying three bacteria based on the spectral intensity ratios (510/635 and 500/635 nm) under the 405 nm excitation light was proposed in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of the classification were approximately 99% and 99%, respectively. Full article
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