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Foods, Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 199 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A substantial body of evidence accumulated over the past few decades indicates that food bioactive compounds (FBCs), including polyphenols, terpenoids, and glucosinolates, among others, can induce positive outcomes on human health. In this context, this review reports on comprehensive and deep insights into the potential of polyphenols, from their chemical structure, classification, and biosynthesis, to preventive effects on chronic diseases as cancer, CVDs, and NDDs. The challenge of polyphenol bioavailability and bioaccessibility is explored, in addition to useful industrial and environmental applications. Advanced and emerging extraction techniques are highlighted, and not least, high-resolution analytical techniques are used for FBCs characterization, identification, and quantification. View this paper
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Intestinal Epithelium—A Review
Foods 2021, 10(1), 199; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010199 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 741
Abstract
Epithelial cells (enterocytes) form part of the intestinal barrier, the largest human interface between the internal and external environments, and responsible for maintaining regulated intestinal absorption and immunological control. Under inflammatory conditions, the intestinal barrier and its component enterocytes become inflamed, leading to [...] Read more.
Epithelial cells (enterocytes) form part of the intestinal barrier, the largest human interface between the internal and external environments, and responsible for maintaining regulated intestinal absorption and immunological control. Under inflammatory conditions, the intestinal barrier and its component enterocytes become inflamed, leading to changes in barrier histology, permeability, and chemical mediator production. Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can influence the inflammatory state of a range of cell types, including endothelial cells, monocytes, and macrophages. This review aims to assess the current literature detailing the effects of ω-3 PUFAs on epithelial cells. Marine-derived ω-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, as well as plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid, are incorporated into intestinal epithelial cell membranes, prevent changes to epithelial permeability, inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids and induce the production of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and docosanoids. Altered inflammatory markers have been attributed to changes in activity and/or expression of proteins involved in inflammatory signalling including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ, G-protein coupled receptor (GPR) 120 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Effective doses for each ω-3 PUFA are difficult to determine due to inconsistencies in dose and time of exposure between different in vitro models and between in vivo and in vitro models. Further research is needed to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of less-studied ω-3 PUFAs, including docosapentaenoic acid and stearidonic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Bioactive Lipids Research in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Vitamin C from Seaweed: A Review Assessing Seaweed as Contributor to Daily Intake
Foods 2021, 10(1), 198; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010198 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Seaweeds are indiscriminately said to contain significant amounts of vitamin C, but seaweeds are a diverse group, which may limit the ability to generalize. Several studies have been performed on vitamin C in seaweed, and this review covers these findings, and concludes on [...] Read more.
Seaweeds are indiscriminately said to contain significant amounts of vitamin C, but seaweeds are a diverse group, which may limit the ability to generalize. Several studies have been performed on vitamin C in seaweed, and this review covers these findings, and concludes on how much vitamin C is found in seaweeds. A systematic review of vitamin C in 92 seaweed species was conducted followed by analyzing the 132 data entries. The average vitamin C content was 0.773 mg g−1 seaweed in dry weight with a 90th percentile of 2.06 mg g−1 dry weight. The vitamin C content was evaluated based on taxonomical categories of green, brown and red seaweeds (Chlorophyta (phylum), Phaeophyceae (class), and Rhodophyta (phylum)), and no significant differences were found between them. The vitamin C content was compared to other food sources, and this showed that seaweeds can contribute to the daily vitamin C intake, but are not a rich source. Moreover, seasonal variations, analytical methods, and processing impacts were also evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Food Quality and Safety of Cultivated Macroalgae)
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Pumpkin Polysaccharide (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poiret) Modified by Subcritical Water
Foods 2021, 10(1), 197; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010197 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 478
Abstract
In this paper, subcritical water (SCW) was applied to modify pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poiret) polysaccharides, and the properties and antioxidant activity of pumpkin polysaccharides were investigated. SCW treatments at varying temperature led to changes in the rheological and emulsifying properties [...] Read more.
In this paper, subcritical water (SCW) was applied to modify pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poiret) polysaccharides, and the properties and antioxidant activity of pumpkin polysaccharides were investigated. SCW treatments at varying temperature led to changes in the rheological and emulsifying properties of pumpkin polysaccharides. SCW treatments efficiently degraded pumpkin polysaccharides and changed the molecular weight distribution. Decreases in intrinsic viscosity, viscosity-average molecular weight, and apparent viscosity were also observed, while the activation energy and flow behavior indices increased. The temperature of SCW treatment has a great influence on the linear viscoelastic properties and antioxidant activity of pumpkin polysaccharides. Pumpkin polysaccharides solution treated by SCW at 150 °C exhibited the highest emulsifying activity and antioxidant activity, which was probably due to a broader molecular mass distribution and more reducing ends exposed after treatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed that SCW treatment changed the microstructure of pumpkin polysaccharides, resulting in the exposure of bigger surface area. Our results suggest that SCW treatment is an effective approach to modify pumpkin polysaccharides to achieve improved solution properties and antioxidant activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Native Species Facing Climate Changes: Response of Calafate Berries to Low Temperature and UV Radiation
Foods 2021, 10(1), 196; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010196 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 435
Abstract
Calafate (Berberis microphylla G. Forst) is a wild bush plant widely distributed in the south of Argentina and Chile. Their blue colored fruits present particular flavor and health benefits attributed to high polyphenol contents biosynthesized by the plant under stress. Studies about [...] Read more.
Calafate (Berberis microphylla G. Forst) is a wild bush plant widely distributed in the south of Argentina and Chile. Their blue colored fruits present particular flavor and health benefits attributed to high polyphenol contents biosynthesized by the plant under stress. Studies about correlation of abiotic conditions with anthocyanin profiles and physicochemical features of calafate beneath wild origin environment are not described yet. Hence, this research aimed to evaluate the physicochemical changes, antioxidant activity and anthocyanin content of calafate fruit in relationship to UV solar radiation (W.m−2) and air temperature (°C) environment condition during three consecutive years (2017, 2018, 2019). Variations in fruit anthocyanins were determined by comparison between high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD-ESI)/MSn and CIEL*a*b* colors parameters. Correlations were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Radiation was negatively correlated with fruit size and weight. Physicochemical aspects such as pH, soluble solids, color, total anthocyanins, flavanols and other phenolic compounds were positively correlated with temperature changes. The quantities of monomeric anthocyanins were dependent on both low temperature and global radiation (reaching 20.01 mg g−1 FW in calafate fruit). These results constitute a valuable resource to understand the structural and physiological plasticity of calafate in facing climate changes for future domestication research as well as for agri-food industrial application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Changes and Global Warming—the Future of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Innovative Characterization Based on Stress Relaxation and Creep to Reveal the Tenderizing Effect of Ultrasound on Wooden Breast
Foods 2021, 10(1), 195; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010195 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
In order to explore a new strategy to characterize the texture of raw meat, based on the ultrasonic tenderized wooden breast (WB), this study proposed stress relaxation and creep to determine the rheological properties. Results showed that hardness was significantly decreased from 3625.61 [...] Read more.
In order to explore a new strategy to characterize the texture of raw meat, based on the ultrasonic tenderized wooden breast (WB), this study proposed stress relaxation and creep to determine the rheological properties. Results showed that hardness was significantly decreased from 3625.61 g to 2643.64 g, and elasticity increased, after 600 W ultrasound treatment at 20 kHz for 20 min (on-time 2 s and off-time 3 s) at 4 °C. In addition, based on the transformation of creep data, a new indicator, slope ε′(t), was innovatively used to simulate a sensory feedback of hardness from the touch sensation, proving WB became tender at 600 W treatment due to the feedback speed to external force. These above results were confirmed by the reduced shear force, increased myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), decreased particle size, and increased myofibrillar protein degradation. Histology analysis and collagen suggested the tenderizing results was caused by muscle fiber rather than connective tissue. Overall, stress relaxation and creep had a potential to predict meat texture characteristics and 600 W ultrasound treatment was an effective strategy to reduce economic losses of WB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Trends for the Meat Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Whey Protein Supplementation Increases Immunoglobulin G Production by Affecting Helper T Cell Populations after Antigen Exposure
Foods 2021, 10(1), 194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010194 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Whey protein is a by-product of cheese and casein manufacturing processes. It contains highly bioactive molecules, such as epidermal growth factor, colony-stimulating factor, transforming growth factor-α and -β, insulin-like growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor. Effects of whey protein on immune responses after [...] Read more.
Whey protein is a by-product of cheese and casein manufacturing processes. It contains highly bioactive molecules, such as epidermal growth factor, colony-stimulating factor, transforming growth factor-α and -β, insulin-like growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor. Effects of whey protein on immune responses after antigen (hemagglutinin peptide) injection were evaluated in rats. Experimental diets were formulated based on NIH-31M and supplemented with 1% amino acids mixture (CON) or 1% whey protein concentrate (WPC) to generate isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Rats were fed the experimental diets for two weeks and then exposed to antigen two times (Days 0 and 14). Blood was collected on Days 0, 7, 14, and 21 for hematological analysis. The WPC group showed decreased IgA and cytotoxic T cells before the antigen injection (Day 0) but increased IgG, IL-2, and IL-4 after antigen injection due to increased B cells and T cells. Helper T cells were increased at Days 14 and 21, but cytotoxic T cells were not affected by WPC. WPC may activate adaptive immunity (IgG) against antigen by modulating helper T cells. Bioactive molecules might contribute to the immune-enhancing effects of whey protein concentrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Flour and Fat Type on Dough Rheology and Technological Characteristics of 3D-Printed Cookies
Foods 2021, 10(1), 193; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010193 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
In this study, we designed high fiber cookie recipe without using additives by means of extrusion-based 3D printing. We aimed to relate printing quality and cookie physical properties with dough rheology and dietary fiber content depending on the flour (oat, rye, rice, and [...] Read more.
In this study, we designed high fiber cookie recipe without using additives by means of extrusion-based 3D printing. We aimed to relate printing quality and cookie physical properties with dough rheology and dietary fiber content depending on the flour (oat, rye, rice, and carob flour) and fat type (olive oil or butter). The flour choice influenced all cookie quality parameters: baking loss, color, line height and width, and dietary fiber content. Results indicated that lower baking loss and better printing quality were obtained for cookie dough containing olive oil, which had higher viscosity and consistency coefficient compared with dough containing butter. Cookies with olive oil in which part of the oat flour was replaced with rye and carob flour were printed with high accuracy (≥98%), close to the ideal 3D shape. Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of selecting fat and particularly flour, as well as the extrusion rate on the quality and repeatability of 3D-printed cookies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolomic Approach for Characterization of Polyphenolic Compounds in Laminaria japonica, Undaria pinnatifida, Sargassum fusiforme and Ascophyllum nodosum
Foods 2021, 10(1), 192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010192 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 385
Abstract
Profiling of polyphenolics in four types of brown macroalgae, namely Laminaria japonica (L. japonica), Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida), Sargassum fusiforme (S. fusiforme), and Ascophyllum nodosum (A. nodosum), and their effect on oxidation resistance were investigated [...] Read more.
Profiling of polyphenolics in four types of brown macroalgae, namely Laminaria japonica (L. japonica), Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida), Sargassum fusiforme (S. fusiforme), and Ascophyllum nodosum (A. nodosum), and their effect on oxidation resistance were investigated for the first time. Polyphenolic extracts from marine brown macroalgae were shown to effectively remove oxidants from cells and cellular systems. A. nodosum showed the highest antioxidant activity among evaluated brown macroalgae, showing a better scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and alleviating oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide to human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells. Through Q-Exactive HF-X mass spectrometry analysis, 12 polyphenolic compounds were preliminarily identified, including phlorotannins, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Significant differences in content and variety of polyphenolics were found in evaluated brown macroalgae, which could be related to differences in antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the antioxidant activity might be related to the total phenolic content and the types of polyphenolics, especially phlorotannins. The findings presented in this study indicate that A. nodosum could be used as an important substitute for functional ingredients in foods and pharmaceutical preparations, as well as a raw material for phlorotannins research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Intact Glycosidic Aroma Precursors in Grapes by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with a Diode Array Detector
Foods 2021, 10(1), 191; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010191 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Nowadays, the techniques for the analysis of glycosidic precursors in grapes involve changes in the glycoside structure or it is necessary the use of very expensive analytical techniques. In this study, we describe for the first time an approach to analyse intact glycosidic [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the techniques for the analysis of glycosidic precursors in grapes involve changes in the glycoside structure or it is necessary the use of very expensive analytical techniques. In this study, we describe for the first time an approach to analyse intact glycosidic aroma precursors in grapes by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), a simple and cheap analytical technique that could be used in wineries. Briefly, the skin of Muscat of Alexandria grapes was extracted using a microwave and purified using solid-phase extraction combining Oasis MCX and LiChrolut EN cartridges. In total, 20 compounds were selected by HPLC-DAD at 195 nm and taking as a reference the spectrum of phenyl β-D-glucopyranoside, whose DAD spectrum showed a first shoulder from 190 to 230 nm and a second around 200–360 nm. After that, these glycosidic compounds were identified by High-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-qTOF-MS). Disaccharides hexose pentose were the most abundant group observed with respect to the sugars and monoterpendiols the main aglycones found. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioactive Compounds in Wild Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Leaves and Stalks: Polyphenols and Pigments upon Seasonal and Habitat Variations
Foods 2021, 10(1), 190; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010190 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 459
Abstract
This study evaluated the presence of bioactives in wild nettle leaves and stalks during the phenological stage and in the context of natural habitat diversity. Thus, wild nettle samples collected before flowering, during flowering and after flowering from 14 habitats situated in three [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the presence of bioactives in wild nettle leaves and stalks during the phenological stage and in the context of natural habitat diversity. Thus, wild nettle samples collected before flowering, during flowering and after flowering from 14 habitats situated in three different regions (continental, mountain and seaside) were analyzed for low molecular weight polyphenols, carotenoids and chlorophylls using UPLC-MS/MS and HPLC analysis, while the ORAC method was performed for the antioxidant capacity measurement. Statistical analysis showed that, when compared to the stalks, nettle leaves contained significantly higher amounts of analyzed compounds which accumulated in the highest yields before flowering (polyphenols) and at the flowering stage (pigments). Moreover, nettle habitat variations greatly influenced the amounts of analyzed bioactives, where samples from the continental area contained higher levels of polyphenols, while seaside region samples were more abundant with pigments. The levels of ORAC followed the same pattern, being higher in leaves samples collected before and during flowering from the continental habitats. Hence, in order to provide the product’s maximum value for consumers’ benefit, a multidisciplinary approach is important for the selection of a plant part as well as its phenological stage with the highest accumulation of bioactive compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Three Typical Metabolites of Pyrethroid Pesticides in Tea Using a Modified QuEChERS Sample Preparation by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2021, 10(1), 189; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010189 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Pyrethroid pesticides are widely used on tea plants, and their residues of high frequency and concentration have received great attention. Until recently, the residues of typical metabolites of pyrethroid pesticides in tea were unknown. Herein, a modified “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and [...] Read more.
Pyrethroid pesticides are widely used on tea plants, and their residues of high frequency and concentration have received great attention. Until recently, the residues of typical metabolites of pyrethroid pesticides in tea were unknown. Herein, a modified “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe” (QuEChERS) method for the determination of three typical metabolites of pyrethroid pesticides in tea, using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, was developed. The mixture of florisil, octadecylsilane, and graphite carbon black was employed as modified QuEChERS adsorbents. A Kinetex C18 column achieved good separation and chromatographic peaks of all analytes. The calibration curves of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4-F-3-PBA) were linear in the range of 0.1–50 ng mL−1 (determination coefficient R2 higher than 0.999), and that of cis-3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-en-1-yl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (TFA) was in the range of 1–100 ng mL−1 (R2 higher than 0.998). The method was validated and recoveries ranged from 83.0% to 117.3%. Intra- and inter-day precisions were lower than or equal to 13.2%. The limits of quantification of 3-PBA, 4-F-3-PBA, and TFA were 5, 2, and 10 μg kg−1, respectively. A total of 22 tea samples were monitored using this method, and 3-PBA and TFA were found in two green tea samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection of Residual Pesticide in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic and Carotenoid Profile of Lamb’s Lettuce and Improvement of the Bioactive Content by Preharvest Conditions
Foods 2021, 10(1), 188; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010188 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 413
Abstract
This study characterizes the phenolic, carotenoid and chlorophyll profile of lamb’s lettuce, a vegetable whose consumption in salads and ready-to-eat products is constantly growing. The MS/MS analysis allowed the identification of thirty-five phenolic compounds including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanones, flavanols and flavanones, [...] Read more.
This study characterizes the phenolic, carotenoid and chlorophyll profile of lamb’s lettuce, a vegetable whose consumption in salads and ready-to-eat products is constantly growing. The MS/MS analysis allowed the identification of thirty-five phenolic compounds including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanones, flavanols and flavanones, many of which are reported here in lamb’s lettuce for the first time. Chlorogenic acid was the principal phenolic compound found (57.1% of the total phenolic concentration) followed by its isomer cis-5-caffeoylquinic. Other major phenolic compounds were also hydroxycinnamic acids (coumaroylquinic, dicaffeoylquinic and feruloylquinic acids) as well as the flavones luteolin-7-rutinoside, diosmetin-apiosylglucoside and diosmin. Regarding carotenoids, seven xanthophyll and four carotenes, among which β-carotene and lutein were the major compounds, were detected from their UV-Vis absorption spectrum. In addition, chlorophylls a and b, their isomers and derivatives (pheophytin) were identified. Preharvest factors such as reduced fertilization levels or salinity increased some secondary metabolites, highlighting the importance of these factors on the final nutritional value of plant foods. Lamb’s lettuce was seen to be a good potential source of bioactive compounds, and fertilization management might be considered a useful tool for increasing its nutritional interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Identification of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites)
Open AccessArticle
Quality Differences between Fresh and Dried Buckwheat Noodles Associated with Water Status and Inner Structure
Foods 2021, 10(1), 187; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010187 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Buckwheat noodles are mainly sold in the form of fresh and dried noodles in China. Among the noodles with varied proportions of extruded buckwheat flour (20% to 80%), the cooking or textural qualities of fresh and dried buckwheat noodles (FBN and DBN, respectively) [...] Read more.
Buckwheat noodles are mainly sold in the form of fresh and dried noodles in China. Among the noodles with varied proportions of extruded buckwheat flour (20% to 80%), the cooking or textural qualities of fresh and dried buckwheat noodles (FBN and DBN, respectively) were significantly different, and FBN showed a lower cooking loss and breakage ratio and were more elastic than DBN. FBN-20% showed the highest sensory score, followed by DBN-50%. The mechanisms causing the quality differences were investigated using water mobility and the internal structures of the noodles were investigated with low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Compared with FBN, DBN showed a denser internal structure, which explained its higher hardness. The water within FBN and DBN was mainly in the form of softly bound water and tightly bound water, respectively. FBN with highly mobile softly bound water (longer T22) and a more uniform internal structure had a lower breakage ratio, whereas the trends of water relation with texture properties were different for FBN and DBN. The drying process and added extruded buckwheat flour together contributed to the varied cooking and textural properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Structure, Processing and Digestion)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Post-Harvest Biochemical Composition, Enzymatic Activities, and Oxidative Browning in 14 Apple Cultivars
Foods 2021, 10(1), 186; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010186 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Phenolic compounds in fruit provide human health benefits, and they contribute to color, taste, and the preservation of post-harvest fruit quality. Phenolic compounds also serve as modifiers of enzymatic activity, whether inhibition or stimulation. Polyphenol oxidases (PPO) and peroxidases (POD) use phenolic compounds [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds in fruit provide human health benefits, and they contribute to color, taste, and the preservation of post-harvest fruit quality. Phenolic compounds also serve as modifiers of enzymatic activity, whether inhibition or stimulation. Polyphenol oxidases (PPO) and peroxidases (POD) use phenolic compounds as substrates in oxidative browning. Apple browning leads to flesh color, taste, texture, and flavor degradation, representing a drawback for the variety and its’ market appraisal. This study was conducted to investigate the process of browning in 14 apple cultivars throughout post-harvest at three-time points: immediately (T0), one hour (T1), and 24 h (T2) after apples were cut in half. Color parameters L* (lightness), a* (red/green), b* (yellow/blue) were measured, and chroma (ΔC*) and color (ΔE) were calculated to quantify differences between T0₋T1 and T1₋T2 on the fruit surface. Enzymatic activity (PPO, POD) and phenolic composition were also quantified for each cultivar. ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Cripps Pink’ browned minimally. In contrast, ‘Fiesta’ and ‘Mondial Gala’ browned severely, reporting high enzymatic activity and quantified phenolic concentration (QPC). Phenolic compound polymerization appears to play a significant role in enzymatic inhibition. ‘Topaz’ does not fit the high QPC, PPO, and browning formula, suggesting alternative pathways that contribute to apple browning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive (Poly)phenols in Food: Current Topics and Advances)
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Open AccessArticle
Purification and Characterization of Resistant Dextrin
Foods 2021, 10(1), 185; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010185 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 298
Abstract
In this study, an efficient method for the purification of resistant dextrin (RD) using membrane filtration and anion exchange resin decolorization was developed, then the purified RD was characterized. In the membrane filtration stage, suspended solids in RD were completely removed, and the [...] Read more.
In this study, an efficient method for the purification of resistant dextrin (RD) using membrane filtration and anion exchange resin decolorization was developed, then the purified RD was characterized. In the membrane filtration stage, suspended solids in RD were completely removed, and the resulting product had a negligible turbidity of 2.70 ± 0.18 NTU. Furthermore, approximately half of the pigments were removed. Static decolorization experiments revealed that the D285 anion exchange resin exhibited the best decolorization ratio (D%), 84.5 ± 2.03%, and recovery ratio (R%), 82.8 ± 1.41%, among all the tested resins. Under optimal dynamic decolorization conditions, the D% and R% of RD were 86.26 ± 0.63% and 85.23 ± 0.42%, respectively. The decolorization efficiency of the D285 resin was superior to those of activated carbon and H2O2. Moreover, the chemical characteristics and molecular weight of RD did not change significantly after purification. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of RD showed the formation of new glycosidic linkages that are resistant to digestive enzymes. The superior water solubility (99.14%), thermal stability (up to 200 °C), and rheological properties of RD make it possible to be widely used in food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Quark-Type Cheese: Effect of Fat Content, Homogenization, and Heat Treatment of Cheese Milk
Foods 2021, 10(1), 184; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010184 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 335
Abstract
The effect of homogenization and fat reduction in combination with variable heating conditions of cow milk on the characteristics of Quark-type cheese were investigated. The mean composition of full-fat cheeses was 71.96% moisture, 13.95% fat, and 10.31% protein, and that of its reduced-fat [...] Read more.
The effect of homogenization and fat reduction in combination with variable heating conditions of cow milk on the characteristics of Quark-type cheese were investigated. The mean composition of full-fat cheeses was 71.96% moisture, 13.95% fat, and 10.31% protein, and that of its reduced-fat counterparts was 73.08%, 10.39%, and 12.84%, respectively. The increase of heat treatment intensity increased moisture retention and improved the mean cheese protein-to-fat ratio from 0.92 to 1. Homogenization increased the moisture and protein retention in cheese, but the effect was less intense for milk treated at 90 °C for 5 min. The extended denaturation of whey proteins resulted in harder, springier, and less cohesive cheese (p < 0.05). Treatment of milk at 90 °C for 5 min resulted in higher residual lactose and citric acid and lower water-soluble nitrogen contents of cheese (p < 0.05); the latter was also true for homogenization (p < 0.05). Storage did not affect the composition and texture but decreased galactose and increased citric acid and soluble nitrogen fractions (p < 0.05). In conclusion, heat treatment conditions of milk that induced a considerable denaturation of β-lactoglobulin and left a considerable amount of native α-lactalbumin was adequate for the manufacture of a “clean-label” Quark-type cheese, whereas homogenization was more effective for full-fat cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese and Whey)
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Open AccessArticle
Potentialities of Rapid Analytical Strategies for the Identification of the Botanical Species of Several “Specialty” or “Gourmet” Oils
Foods 2021, 10(1), 183; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010183 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 289
Abstract
A comprehensive data collection of authentic “specialty” or “gourmet” oils, namely cold-pressed industrial virgin oils, was performed. Eight different botanical species, i.e., Almond, Apricot, Avocado, Hazelnut, Mosqueta rose, Rosehip, Sunflower, and Walnut oils were studied plus Olive oil as the gold standard of [...] Read more.
A comprehensive data collection of authentic “specialty” or “gourmet” oils, namely cold-pressed industrial virgin oils, was performed. Eight different botanical species, i.e., Almond, Apricot, Avocado, Hazelnut, Mosqueta rose, Rosehip, Sunflower, and Walnut oils were studied plus Olive oil as the gold standard of cold-pressed virgin oils. Two different analytical approaches are proposed to rapidly verify the botanical species of the oil-based raw material. The first approach is based on a multivariate statistical analysis of conventional analytical data, namely their fatty acid composition. These data have been re-elaborated in a multivariate way by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and classification methods. The second approach proposes a fast and non-destructive spectrophotometric analysis to determine the color of these oils to discriminate among different species. In this regard, the raw diffuse reflectance spectra (380–780 nm) obtained by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere was considered and elaborated by chemometrics. This information was compared with the results obtained by the most common approach based on the CIELab parameters. A data fusion of chromatographic and spectral data was also investigated. Either fatty acid composition or color of these oils demonstrated to be two promising markers of their botanical authenticity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional and Functional Advantages of the Use of Fermented Black Chickpea Flour for Semolina-Pasta Fortification
Foods 2021, 10(1), 182; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010182 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Pasta represents a dominant portion of the diet worldwide and its functionalization with high nutritional value ingredients, such as legumes, is the most ideal solution to shape consumers behavior towards healthier food choices. Aiming at improving the nutritional quality of semolina pasta, semi-liquid [...] Read more.
Pasta represents a dominant portion of the diet worldwide and its functionalization with high nutritional value ingredients, such as legumes, is the most ideal solution to shape consumers behavior towards healthier food choices. Aiming at improving the nutritional quality of semolina pasta, semi-liquid dough of a Mediterranean black chickpea flour, fermented with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum T0A10, was used at a substitution level of 15% to manufacture fortified pasta. Fermentation with the selected starter enabled the release of 20% of bound phenolic compounds, and the conversion of free compounds into more active forms (dihydrocaffeic and phloretic acid) in the dough. Fermented dough also had higher resistant starch (up to 60% compared to the control) and total free amino acids (almost 3 g/kg) contents, whereas antinutritional factors (raffinose, condensed tannins, trypsin inhibitors and saponins) significantly decreased. The impact of black chickpea addition on pasta nutritional, technological and sensory features, was also assessed. Compared to traditional (semolina) pasta, fortified pasta had lower starch hydrolysis rate (ca. 18%) and higher in vitro protein digestibility (up to 38%). Moreover, fortified cooked pasta, showing scavenging activity against DPPH and ABTS radicals and intense inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, was appreciated for its peculiar organoleptic profile. Therefore, fermentation technology appears to be a promising tool to enhance the quality of pasta and promote the use of local chickpea cultivars while preventing their genetic erosion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Freshness Quality and Shelf Life Evaluation of the Seaweed Ulva rigida through Physical, Chemical, Microbiological, and Sensory Methods
Foods 2021, 10(1), 181; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010181 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 364
Abstract
In Europe, the consumption of seaweeds and derived products has increased in recent years, due to the expansion of Asian cuisine and the emergence of many top-level chefs. Often in collaboration with scientists, many have initiated a new gastronomy using algae. However, little [...] Read more.
In Europe, the consumption of seaweeds and derived products has increased in recent years, due to the expansion of Asian cuisine and the emergence of many top-level chefs. Often in collaboration with scientists, many have initiated a new gastronomy using algae. However, little is known about the quality and degree of freshness of seaweeds for direct consumption or fresh use. For this reason, different analytical methods were applied to test sea vegetables and other marine products. These methods included physical (aw, pH, color, and texture), chemical (total volatile base nitrogen, TVB-N; and trimethylamine, TMA-N) parameters, microbiological count, and sensory evaluation. In this study, freshness quality and shelf life of the green seaweed Ulva rigida (UR) was evaluated during a 12-day period, stored at 4 and 16 °C. The parameters that proved to be most useful for evaluating its freshness were the TVB, TMA, microbiological, and sensory analyses. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters established a shelf life of UR of 6 days for a storage temperature of 16 °C and up to 10 days for a storage temperature of 4 °C. The changes that UR undergoes during its storage from the sensory point of view are more pronounced than those produced from the physicochemical point of view, which can condition its applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Food Quality and Safety of Cultivated Macroalgae)
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Open AccessArticle
Combined Extract of Leonurus japonicus Houtt, Eclipta prostrata L., and Pueraria lobata Ohwi Improved Hot Flashes and Depression in an Ovariectomized Rat Model of Menopause
Foods 2021, 10(1), 180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010180 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Menopause leads to ovarian hormone loss, which causes symptoms such as weight gain, hot flashes, and depression. Exploring nutraceuticals is important for treating menopausal symptoms that extensively impact women’s quality of life. We hypothesized that a combination of Leonurus japonicus Houtt, Eclipta prostrata [...] Read more.
Menopause leads to ovarian hormone loss, which causes symptoms such as weight gain, hot flashes, and depression. Exploring nutraceuticals is important for treating menopausal symptoms that extensively impact women’s quality of life. We hypothesized that a combination of Leonurus japonicus Houtt, Eclipta prostrata L., and Pueraria lobata Ohwi (LEPE) would alleviate menopausal symptoms in an ovariectomized menopausal rat model. Bilateral ovariectomy was performed and animals were assigned to five groups: (1) Sham, (2) Vehicle, (-) Control, (3) LEPE (100 mg/kg bw), (4) LEPE (200 mg/kg bw), and (5) Estradiol (3 μg/kg bw). LEPE was orally administered daily for 12 weeks. LEPE supplementation did not affect growth performance (body weight and feed intake) or body composition (lean mass and fat in tissue). LEPE did not cause deviations in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, estradiol, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, indicating no hepatotoxicity or endocrine disturbance. LEPE decreased type I collagen (CTX-1) but did not affect bone mineral density or osteocalcin. LEPE decreased tail temperature and increased rectal temperature, improving menopause-related vasomotor symptoms. Furthermore, LEPE ameliorated depression-related behavior, including in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Thus, LEPE may improve menopausal symptoms by enhancing vasomotor symptoms and depression in an ovariectomized rat menopause model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Bioactive Compounds as Functional Ingredient)
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Open AccessArticle
Colon Bioaccessibility under In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion of Different Coffee Brews Chemically Profiled through UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS
Foods 2021, 10(1), 179; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010179 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Coffee represents one of the most traditionally consumed beverages worldwide, containing a broad range of human health–related compounds. According to previous studies, regular coffee consumption may display protective effects against colorectal cancer and other chronic diseases. The main goal of this research was [...] Read more.
Coffee represents one of the most traditionally consumed beverages worldwide, containing a broad range of human health–related compounds. According to previous studies, regular coffee consumption may display protective effects against colorectal cancer and other chronic diseases. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of phenolic content and variation in antioxidant capacity of three different types of coffee brews after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. This would allow to elucidate how antioxidant compounds present in coffee may exert their effect on the human body, especially in the colonic stage. Moreover, the content of bioactive compounds namely chlorogenic acids (CGAs, n = 11) and caffeine was also assessed throughout ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography followed by high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS). The three main isomers of caffeoylquinic acid constituted the highest fraction of CGAs present in the samples, accounting for 66.0% to 70.9% of total CGAs. The bioaccessibility of coffee polyphenols significantly increased in digested samples from 45.9% to 62.9% at the end of the colonic passage, compared to the non-digested samples. These results point to the colonic stage as the major biological site of action of the active antioxidant coffee compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
Open AccessArticle
Postharvest Reduction of Salmonella enterica on Tomatoes Using a Pelargonic Acid Emulsion
Foods 2021, 10(1), 178; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010178 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
A novel produce wash consisting of pelargonic acid (PEL) emulsions was tested on tomatoes contaminated with a five-serovar Salmonella enterica cocktail. Ability to reduce contamination on the inoculated tomato surface, as well as mitigation of subsequent cross-contamination to uninoculated tomatoes washed in re-used/spent [...] Read more.
A novel produce wash consisting of pelargonic acid (PEL) emulsions was tested on tomatoes contaminated with a five-serovar Salmonella enterica cocktail. Ability to reduce contamination on the inoculated tomato surface, as well as mitigation of subsequent cross-contamination to uninoculated tomatoes washed in re-used/spent wash water were examined. Sanitizer efficacy was also examined over 1 and 7 d storage time (8 °C, recommended for red ripe tomatoes) and in the presence of 0.5% (w/v) organic load. PEL performed statistically the same (p ≤ 0.05) at both 30 mM and 50 mM concentrations and resulted in greater than 1, 5 and 6 log CFU/g Salmonella reductions at 0 h, 1 d and 7 d, respectively, when compared to a water-only or no rinse (NR) treatment. This was also a significantly greater reduction than was observed due to chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA) at all time points (p ≤ 0.01). Organic load had no impact on sanitizer efficacy for all examined treatments. Finally, PEL had a deleterious impact on tomato texture. At 1 d, ca. 5 N and 7 N were required to achieve tomato skin penetration and compression, respectively, compared to >9 N and 15 N required by all other treatments (p ≤ 0.05). While PEL sanitizers effectively reduced inoculated Salmonella and subsequent transfer to uninoculated tomatoes, reformulation may be necessary to prevent deleterious quality impacts on produce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
Open AccessEditorial
Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages
Foods 2021, 10(1), 177; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010177 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Humans have used their senses to evaluate food for several thousands of years [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
Open AccessArticle
Interactions between L. monocytogenes and P. fluorescens in Dual-Species Biofilms under Simulated Dairy Processing Conditions
Foods 2021, 10(1), 176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010176 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 540
Abstract
In dairy processing environments, many bacterial species adhere and form biofilms on surfaces and equipment, leading to foodborne illness and food spoilage. Among them, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas spp. could be present in mixed-species biofilms. This study aimed to evaluate the interactions between [...] Read more.
In dairy processing environments, many bacterial species adhere and form biofilms on surfaces and equipment, leading to foodborne illness and food spoilage. Among them, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas spp. could be present in mixed-species biofilms. This study aimed to evaluate the interactions between L. monocytogenes and P. fluorescens in biofilms simulating dairy processing conditions, as well as the capability of P. fluorescens in co-culture to produce the blue pigment in a Ricotta-based model system. The biofilm-forming capability of single- and mixed-cultures was evaluated on polystyrene (PS) and stainless steel (SS) surfaces at 12 °C for 168 h. The biofilm biomass was measured, the planktonic and sessile cells and the carbohydrates in biofilms were quantified. The biofilms were also observed through Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy analysis. Results showed that only P. fluorescens was able to form biofilms on PS. Moreover, in dual-species biofilms at the end of the incubation time (168 h at 12 °C), a lower biomass compared to P. fluorescens mono-species was observed on PS. On SS, the biofilm cell population of L. monocytogenes was higher in the dual-species than in mono-species, particularly after 48 h. Carbohydrates quantity in the dual-species system was higher than in mono-species and was revealed also at 168 h. The production of blue pigment by P. fluorescens was revealed both in single- and co-culture after 72 h of incubation (12 °C). This work highlights the interactions between the two species, under the experimental conditions studied in the present research, which can influence biofilm formation (biomass and sessile cells) but not the capability of P. fluorescens to produce blue pigment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Starch Edible Films/Coatings Added with Carvacrol and Thymol: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
Foods 2021, 10(1), 175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010175 - 16 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 353
Abstract
The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of thymol and carvacrol added to edible starch films and coatings against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In vitro evaluation consisted of determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of carvacrol and [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of thymol and carvacrol added to edible starch films and coatings against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In vitro evaluation consisted of determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of carvacrol and thymol was determined at different pH values against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. With MIC values, binary mixtures were developed. From these results, two coatings formulations were in vivo evaluated on mango and papaya. Physicochemical analysis, color change, fruit lesions and C. gloeosporioides growth were determined during storage. In vitro assay indicated that the MIC value of carvacrol and thymol against C. gloeosporioides was 1500 mg/L at pH 5. An additive effect was determined with 750/750 and 1125/375 mg/L mixtures of carvacrol and thymol, respectively. Coated fruits with selected mixtures of carvacrol and thymol presented a delay in firmness, maturity index and color change. Moreover, a fungistatic effect was observed due to a reduction of lesions in coated fruits. These results were corroborated by the increase in the lag phase value and the reduction of the growth rate. Carvacrol and thymol incorporated into edible films and coatings are able to reduce the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on mango and papaya. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bioactive Compounds in Foods and Food Packages)
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Open AccessArticle
Disentangling Individual Phases in the Hunted vs. Farmed Meat Supply Chain: Exploring Hunters’ Perceptions in Italy
Foods 2021, 10(1), 174; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010174 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 343
Abstract
The growing body of literature concerning the hunted wild game meat (HWGM) supply chain is mainly focused on the final consumer, while little is known about upstream production processes. Even though the hunter plays a central role here, it is not well understood [...] Read more.
The growing body of literature concerning the hunted wild game meat (HWGM) supply chain is mainly focused on the final consumer, while little is known about upstream production processes. Even though the hunter plays a central role here, it is not well understood how hunters themselves perceive their role in the various phases of the production process. The present study explores Italian hunters’ perception of the HWGM supply chain and compares it to their perception towards the conventional farmed meat supply chain. We distinguish several phases of this production process and find that the final phase related to on-site game dressing is considered problematic, perhaps because hunters perceive themselves as less skilled than professional butchers. The results, in fact, show that hunters prefer hunted products over farmed meat, but that they consider hunted wild boar meat less safe compared to farmed pork. Findings from this study provide a rare glimpse from the inside of the supply chain and reveals the needs for a broad risk assessment analysis on the Italian game meat supply chain. Considering the development of the Italian emerging market of the HWGM, our results also highlight the relevance of training activities on hunters in order to increase the safety and quality of the final product. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Food and Beverages Containing Algae and Derived Ingredients Launched in the Market from 2015 to 2019: A Front-of-Pack Labeling Perspective with a Special Focus on Spain
Foods 2021, 10(1), 173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010173 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Algae are a source of functional ingredients, with a large spectrum of healthy and functional compounds. Therefore, this study aimed to provide an overview on commercialized food and beverages made from algae and derived ingredients, with emphasis on the Spanish market, relying on [...] Read more.
Algae are a source of functional ingredients, with a large spectrum of healthy and functional compounds. Therefore, this study aimed to provide an overview on commercialized food and beverages made from algae and derived ingredients, with emphasis on the Spanish market, relying on the front-of-pack labeling. For this reason, the Mintel Global New Products Database was searched for foods and beverages containing “algae” ingredients, launched during the period 2015–2019. A total of 13,090 items were found worldwide, including 5720 items in Europe, in which 436 items were in Spain. Regardless of the market (global, European, and Spanish), a similar number of products categories (n = 20), dominant categories (dairy and desserts and ice cream) and dominant algal ingredient (carrageenans) were found. Nutritional information retrieved from Spanish products underlined that algae-based snacks had significantly lower energy, fat, and salt content compared to algae-free counterparts. On the contrary, spirulina- enriched ready to drink beverages had significantly higher energy and salt than algae-free. As such, reading the nutritional labeling is crucial to selecting products that suit consumer needs or/and expectations. Furthermore, only 8% of products reported the algal species and the level of inclusion, so this study emphasizes the importance of labeling legislation to provide complete product information to consumers. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Target and Non-Target Approaches for Food Authenticity and Traceability
Foods 2021, 10(1), 172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010172 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 300
Abstract
In the last decade, consumers have become increasingly aware of and concerned about the quality and safety of food, in part due to several scandals that were widely disseminated by the media [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Lactic Acid Fermentation on Quinoa Characteristics and Quality of Quinoa-Wheat Composite Bread
Foods 2021, 10(1), 171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010171 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 357
Abstract
The application of selected starter cultures with specific properties for fermentation may determine steady lactic acid bacteria (LAB) variety and the characteristics of fermented products that influence nutritional value, the composition of biologically active compounds and quality. The aim of this research was [...] Read more.
The application of selected starter cultures with specific properties for fermentation may determine steady lactic acid bacteria (LAB) variety and the characteristics of fermented products that influence nutritional value, the composition of biologically active compounds and quality. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of different LAB on the biochemical characteristics of fermented quinoa. Moreover, total phenolic content (TPC), and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of protein fractions isolated from quinoa previously fermented with LAB were investigated. Quinoa additives, including quinoa fermented with Lactobacillus brevis, were incorporated in a wheat bread recipe to make nutritionally fortified quinoa-wheat composite bread. The results confirmed that L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. acidophilus were well adapted in quinoa medium, confirming its suitability for fermentation. LAB strains influenced the acidity, L/D-lactic acid content, enzyme activity, TPC and antioxidant activity of fermented quinoa. The maximum phytase activity was determined in quinoa fermented with L. brevis. The results obtained from the ABTS radical scavenging assay of protein fractions confirmed the influence of LAB strain on the antioxidant activity of protein fractions. The addition of 5 and 10% of quinoa fermented with L. brevis did not affect the total titratable acidity of wheat bread, while 10% of fermented quinoa with L. brevis resulted in a higher specific volume. Fermented quinoa additives increased the overall acceptability of bread compared with unfermented seed additives. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electroporation Assisted Improvement of Freezing Tolerance in Yeast Cells
Foods 2021, 10(1), 170; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010170 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Prolonged storage of frozen dough worsens the structure of thawed dough. The main reason is the inhibition of yeast activity. In this study we investigated applicability of pulsed electric field treatment for introduction of cryoprotectant into yeast cells. We showed that pre-treatment of [...] Read more.
Prolonged storage of frozen dough worsens the structure of thawed dough. The main reason is the inhibition of yeast activity. In this study we investigated applicability of pulsed electric field treatment for introduction of cryoprotectant into yeast cells. We showed that pre-treatment of cells suspended in a trehalose solution improves freezing tolerance and results in higher viability after thawing. Viability increased with rise in electric field strength (from 3 to 4.5 kV/cm) and incubation time (from 0 to 60 min) after exposure. Pretreatment resulted in lower decrease in the viability of thawed cells, viability of untreated cells dropped to 10%, while pre-treatment with PEF and trehalose tripled the viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology and Biophysics with Applications in Food Science)
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