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Review

Microalgae Derived Astaxanthin: Research and Consumer Trends and Industrial Use as Food

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Almería, Spain
2
CIESOL Solar Energy Research Centre, Joint Centre University of Almería-CIEMAT, 04120 Almería, Almería, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jean-Paul Vernoux
Received: 17 September 2021 / Accepted: 23 September 2021 / Published: 28 September 2021
Astaxanthin is a high-value carotenoid currently being produced by chemical synthesis and by extraction from the biomass of the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis. Other microalgae, such as Chlorella zofingiensis, have the potential for being used as sources of astaxanthin. The differences between the synthetic and the microalgae derived astaxanthin are notorious: not only their production and price but also their uses and bioactivity. Microalgae derived astaxanthin is being used as a pigment in food and feed or aquafeed production and also in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Several health-promoting properties have been attributed to astaxanthin, and these were summarized in the current review paper. Most of these properties are attributed to the high antioxidant capacity of this molecule, much higher than that of other known natural compounds. The aim of this review is to consider the main challenges and opportunities of microalgae derived products, such as astaxanthin as food. Moreover, the current study includes a bibliometric analysis that summarizes the current research trends related to astaxanthin. Moreover, the potential utilization of microalgae other than H. pluvialis as sources of astaxanthin as well as the health-promoting properties of this valuable compound will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis; Chlorella zofingiensis; carotenoids; xanthophylls; pigments; bibliometric analysis; functional foods; bioactive compounds; antioxidant capacity; biotechnology Haematococcus pluvialis; Chlorella zofingiensis; carotenoids; xanthophylls; pigments; bibliometric analysis; functional foods; bioactive compounds; antioxidant capacity; biotechnology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Villaró, S.; Ciardi, M.; Morillas-España, A.; Sánchez-Zurano, A.; Acién-Fernández, G.; Lafarga, T. Microalgae Derived Astaxanthin: Research and Consumer Trends and Industrial Use as Food. Foods 2021, 10, 2303. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10102303

AMA Style

Villaró S, Ciardi M, Morillas-España A, Sánchez-Zurano A, Acién-Fernández G, Lafarga T. Microalgae Derived Astaxanthin: Research and Consumer Trends and Industrial Use as Food. Foods. 2021; 10(10):2303. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10102303

Chicago/Turabian Style

Villaró, Silvia, Martina Ciardi, Ainoa Morillas-España, Ana Sánchez-Zurano, Gabriel Acién-Fernández, and Tomas Lafarga. 2021. "Microalgae Derived Astaxanthin: Research and Consumer Trends and Industrial Use as Food" Foods 10, no. 10: 2303. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10102303

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