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Foods, Volume 10, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 268 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): One of the objectives of this study was to determine the effect of the cooking method on the antioxidant activity of Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis). This work was focused on the importance of performing proper cooking for studying Sacha inchi. The result of this study sheds light on preventing nutritional loss with appropriate cooking methods. Three types of cooking processes were selected: uncooked, roasted at 160 °C for 6 min, boiled at 100 °C for 13 min. View this paper
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Article
Separation of Fructosyl Oligosaccharides in Maple Syrup by Using Charged Aerosol Detection
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123160 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Fructosyl oligosaccharides, including fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), are gaining popularity as functional oligosaccharides and have been found in various natural products. Our previous study suggested that maple syrup contains an unidentified fructosyl oligosaccharide. Because these saccharides cannot be detected with high sensitivity using derivatization methods, [...] Read more.
Fructosyl oligosaccharides, including fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), are gaining popularity as functional oligosaccharides and have been found in various natural products. Our previous study suggested that maple syrup contains an unidentified fructosyl oligosaccharide. Because these saccharides cannot be detected with high sensitivity using derivatization methods, they must be detected directly. As a result, an analytical method based on charged aerosol detection (CAD) that can detect saccharides directly was optimized in order to avoid relying on these structures and physical properties to clarify the profile of fructosyl oligosaccharides in maple syrup. This analytical method is simple and can analyze up to hepta-saccharides in 30 min. This analytical method was also reliable and reproducible with high validation values. It was used to determine the content of saccharides in maple syrup, which revealed that it contained not only fructose, glucose, and sucrose but also FOS such as 1-kestose and nystose. Furthermore, we discovered a fructosyl oligosaccharide called neokestose in maple syrup, which has only been found in a few natural foods. These findings help to shed light on the saccharides profile of maple syrup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Chromatography to Food Analysis)
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Article
Technological Feasibility of Couscous-Algae-Supplemented Formulae: Process Description, Nutritional Properties and In Vitro Digestibility
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123159 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 425
Abstract
The aim of this work was to develop functional couscous in a traditional Tunisian manner (hand rolling), enriched in algae biomass (6% w/w). Four Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) biomasses and one mixture of C. vulgaris and two macroalgae biomasses ( [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to develop functional couscous in a traditional Tunisian manner (hand rolling), enriched in algae biomass (6% w/w). Four Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) biomasses and one mixture of C. vulgaris and two macroalgae biomasses (Ulva rigida and Fucus vesiculosus) were used. The C. vulgaris strain was subjected to random mutagenesis and different culture conditions (Allmicroalgae), resulting in different pigmentations and biochemical compositions. Couscous samples were characterized in terms of nutritional properties, oscillatory rheology properties and digestibility. All biomasses provided a significant supplementation of nutrients and excellent acceptance. The enrichment resulted in lower firmness, higher viscoelastic functions (G′ and G″) and a significant improvement in the cooking quality. Major differences between couscous samples with different microalgae were observed in protein and mineral contents, fully meeting Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006 requirements for health claims made on foodstuffs. The amount of digested proteins was also higher in algae-containing samples. The fatty acid profile of the enriched couscous varied in a biomass-specific way, with a marked increase in linolenic acid (18:3 ω3) and a decrease in the ω6/ω3 ratio. Sensory analysis revealed that microalgae-containing products could compete with conventional goods with an added advantage, that is, having an ameliorated nutritional value using algae as a “trendy” and sustainable ingredient. Full article
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Article
Comparative Effect of Frying and Baking on Chemical, Physical, and Microbiological Characteristics of Frozen Fish Nuggets
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123158 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 315
Abstract
The effects of deep-frying and oven-baking on chemical, physical, and microbiological, properties of cassava croaker (Pseudotolithus senegalensis) nuggets during frozen storage were investigated. The moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate contents varied among the cooking methods and frozen storage times. The [...] Read more.
The effects of deep-frying and oven-baking on chemical, physical, and microbiological, properties of cassava croaker (Pseudotolithus senegalensis) nuggets during frozen storage were investigated. The moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate contents varied among the cooking methods and frozen storage times. The deep-fried nugget had a higher fat content, which resulted in a higher energy value (p < 0.05). The free fatty acid content and peroxide value (PV) of the oven-baked nuggets were higher than the deep-fried ones (p < 0.05). The PV tended to increase with increasing storage time, but it was still within the recommended range for consumption. The deep-fried nugget showed a vivid orange–yellow color, with higher L*, a*, and b* values, while oven-baked nuggets showed a pale-yellow color. The baked nuggets had relatively lower total expressible fluid than the deep-fried nuggets at all time points (p < 0.05). The hardness, springiness, and chewiness of deep-fried nuggets were higher than baked nuggets throughout the storage period (p < 0.05). The total plate count and yeast and mold counts produced by the two cooking methods were within the acceptable range throughout the storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Safety of Fish Products)
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Article
Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Sensorial Quality Attributes of a Fermented Milk Drink (Laban) Fortified with Date Syrup (Dibs) during Cold Storage
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123157 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 362
Abstract
This study investigated the nutritional, microbial, and sensory quality attributes of a fermented milk (laban) drink flavored with date syrup (dibs) during cold storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Date syrup was added to laban in specific proportions (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, [...] Read more.
This study investigated the nutritional, microbial, and sensory quality attributes of a fermented milk (laban) drink flavored with date syrup (dibs) during cold storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Date syrup was added to laban in specific proportions (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15% date syrup/total weight of flavored laban) and an appropriate percentage (12.5%, 74 °Bx) was selected based on the sensory preference of panelists. The results indicate that flavoring laban with date syrup affected the physicochemical, nutritional, microbial, and sensory quality attributes of the product in different ways. Incorporation of date syrup in fresh laban drink significantly increased the pH, ash, protein, total solids, sugars, and magnesium (p < 0.05). However, acidity, fat, casein, lactose, calcium, total microbial count, and total yeast and molds count were decreased (p < 0.05). During storage, acidity, ash, and microbial load were concomitantly increased, while fat, casein, total solids, and sugars showed a concurrent reduction as the storage period progressed. The panelists preferred the freshly prepared flavored laban drink compared with the stored one, which is not surprising. After 7 days of storage, flavored laban drink was more acceptable than a non-flavored one. The findings of this research will help in fortifying dairy products with dates to create highly nutritious drinks without the addition of artificial additives, refined sweeteners, and preservatives, which at the same time would be accepted by consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Article
An Alternative Nutrient Rich Food Index (NRF-ai) Incorporating Prevalence of Inadequate and Excessive Nutrient Intake
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123156 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 483
Abstract
Most nutrient profiling models give equal weight to nutrients irrespective of their ubiquity in the food system. There is also a degree of arbitrariness about which nutrients are included. In this study, an alternative Nutrient Rich Food index was developed (NRF-ai, where ai [...] Read more.
Most nutrient profiling models give equal weight to nutrients irrespective of their ubiquity in the food system. There is also a degree of arbitrariness about which nutrients are included. In this study, an alternative Nutrient Rich Food index was developed (NRF-ai, where ai denotes adequate intake) incorporating prevalence of inadequate and excessive nutrient intake among Australian adults. Weighting factors for individual nutrients were based on a distance-to-target method using data from the Australian Health Survey describing the proportion of the population with usual intake less than the Estimated Average Requirement defined by the Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. All nutrients for which data were available were included, avoiding judgements about which nutrients to include, although some nutrients received little weight. Separate models were developed for females and males and for selected age groups, reflecting differences in nutrient requirements and usual intake. Application of the new nutrient profiling models is demonstrated for selected dairy products and alternatives, protein-rich foods, and discretionary foods. This approach emphasises the need to identify foods that are rich in those specific nutrients for which intake is below recommended levels and can be used to address specific nutrient gaps in subgroups such as older adults. In addition, the new nutrient profiling model is used to explore other sustainability aspects, including affordability (NRF-ai per AUD) and ecoefficiency (NRF-ai/environmental impact score). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Article
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Four Triterpenoids Isolated from Poriae Cutis
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123155 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
In this study, triterpenoid compounds from Poriae Cutis were separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of the purified triterpenoids on [...] Read more.
In this study, triterpenoid compounds from Poriae Cutis were separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of the purified triterpenoids on RAW 264.7 cells were also investigated. Triterpenoids, poricoic acid B, poricoic acid A, dehydrotrametenolic acid, and dehydroeburicoic acid were obtained; their levels of purity were 90%, 92%, 93%, and 96%, respectively. The results indicated that poricoic acid B had higher anti-inflammatory activity than those of poricoic acid A by inhibiting the generation of NO in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. However, dehydrotrametenolic acid and dehydroeburicoic acid had no anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, the production of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in cells treated with poricoic acid B decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the concentration range from 10 to 40 μg/mL. The results provide evidence for the use of Poriae Cutis as a natural anti-inflammatory agent in medicines and functional foods. Full article
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Article
Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Extract Induces p53-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Inhibits Migration of Breast Cancer Cells
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123154 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Green tea (GT) has been shown to play an important role in cancer chemoprevention. However, the related molecular mechanisms need to be further explored, especially regarding the use of GT extract (GTE) from the food matrix. For this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and [...] Read more.
Green tea (GT) has been shown to play an important role in cancer chemoprevention. However, the related molecular mechanisms need to be further explored, especially regarding the use of GT extract (GTE) from the food matrix. For this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were identified in GTE, representing 42 and 40% of the total polyphenols, respectively. MDA-MB-231 (p53-p.R280K mutant) and MCF-7 (wild-type p53) breast tumor cells and MCF-10A non-tumoral cells were exposed to GTE for 24–48 h and cell viability was assessed in the presence of p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α. GTE selectively targeted breast tumor cells without cytotoxic effect on non-tumoral cells and p53 inhibition led to an increase in viable cells, especially in MCF-7, suggesting the involvement of p53 in GTE-induced cytotoxicity. GTE was also effective in reducing MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231 cell migration by 30 and 50%, respectively. An increment in p53 and p21 expression stimulated by GTE was observed in MCF-7, and the opposite phenomenon was found in MDA-MB-231 cells, with a redistribution of mutant-p53 from the nucleus and no differences in p21 levels. All these findings provide insights into the action of GTE and support its anticarcinogenic potential on breast tumor cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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Article
Profile of Volatile Compounds in Dessert Yogurts Prepared from Cow and Goat Milk, Using Different Starter Cultures and Probiotics
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123153 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 407
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds (aroma) and overall flavor in dessert yogurts prepared from cow and goat milk, using three different, commercially available starter cultures, in the presence or absence of probiotic bacteria and to [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds (aroma) and overall flavor in dessert yogurts prepared from cow and goat milk, using three different, commercially available starter cultures, in the presence or absence of probiotic bacteria and to correlate this to organoleptic evaluation results obtained using a consumer acceptability method. The extraction of volatile compounds was carried out by solid phase micro-extraction; separation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Variations among the different classes of compounds (i.e., aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, volatile acids, hydrocarbons, and terpenes) were recorded for different treatments. The results showed that the main volatiles in the cow milk dessert yogurts without Bifidobacterium BB-12 were: acetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 3-OH-2-butanone, 2-propanone, hexanoic acid and limonene). Respective volatiles in cow milk dessert yogurts with Bifidobacterium BB-12 were: acetaldehyde, pentanal, hexanal, the same ketones, acetic acid and limonene). The volatiles in goat milk dessert yogurts without Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 were: acetaldehyde, the same ketones, no carboxylic acids, limonene, camphene, α- and β-pinene. Respective volatiles in goat milk dessert yogurts with Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 were: aldehydes acetaldehyde, the same ketones, butanoic acid, α-pinene and camphene varying in concentration in different samples. Based on the results of volatiles and organoleptic evaluation, it can be concluded that dessert yogurts from cow milk without probiotic bacterial strains using the mild and classic starter cultures, and dessert yogurts from goat milk with probiotic bacterial strains using the classic and acidic starter cultures are found to be more organoleptically acceptable by consumers. In most cases, a positive correlation was found between dessert yogurt organoleptically determined flavor and volatiles (aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Review
Procyanidins: From Agro-Industrial Waste to Food as Bioactive Molecules
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123152 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Procyanidins are an important group of bioactive molecules known for their benefits to human health. These compounds are promising in the treatment of chronic metabolic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, as they prevent cell damage related to oxidative stress. It [...] Read more.
Procyanidins are an important group of bioactive molecules known for their benefits to human health. These compounds are promising in the treatment of chronic metabolic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, as they prevent cell damage related to oxidative stress. It is necessary to study effective extraction methods for the recovery of these components. In this review, advances in the recovery of procyanidins from agro-industrial wastes are presented, which are obtained through ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction. Current trends focus on the extraction of procyanidins from seeds, peels, pomaces, leaves and bark in agro-industrial wastes, which are extracted by ultrasound. Some techniques have been coupled with environmentally friendly techniques. There are few studies focused on the extraction and evaluation of biological activities of procyanidins. The identification and quantification of these compounds are the result of the study of the polyphenolic profile of plant sources. Antioxidant, antibiotic, and anti-inflammatory activity are presented as the biological properties of greatest interest. Agro-industrial wastes can be an economical and easily accessible source for the extraction of procyanidins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Characterization of Polyphenols from Food Matrix)
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Article
Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Combined with Vacuum-Freeze Drying on the Aroma-Active Compounds in Blended Pumpkin, Mango, and Jujube Juice
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123151 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 366
Abstract
A combination process of completely non-thermal processing methods involving high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and vacuum-freeze drying (VFD) for producing a new snack from fruit and vegetable blends was developed, and the effect of the process on flavor quality was investigated. The HHP–VFD treatment [...] Read more.
A combination process of completely non-thermal processing methods involving high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and vacuum-freeze drying (VFD) for producing a new snack from fruit and vegetable blends was developed, and the effect of the process on flavor quality was investigated. The HHP–VFD treatment did not significantly reduce volatile compound contents compared to single HHP or VFD. Gas chromatography–olfactometry showed that HHP–VFD raised the contents of floral-like volatile compounds (e.g., β-ionone) compared to the untreated sample. Sensory evaluation analysis confirmed that the overall liking was unchanged after the HHP–VFD treatment. The HHP–VFD combined treatment is effective in maintaining the flavor and extending shelf life, and is convenient for the portability and transportation of ready-to-drink juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Evaluation of Nitrite, Ethyl Carbamate, and Biogenic Amines in Four Types of Fermented Vegetables
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123150 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Nitrite, ethyl carbamate, and biogenic amines in fermented vegetables are considered harmful compounds. In this study, the concentration of the nitrite, ethyl carbamate, and biogenic amines in four different varieties of fermented vegetables in China was determined. The results show that the nitrite [...] Read more.
Nitrite, ethyl carbamate, and biogenic amines in fermented vegetables are considered harmful compounds. In this study, the concentration of the nitrite, ethyl carbamate, and biogenic amines in four different varieties of fermented vegetables in China was determined. The results show that the nitrite concentration in the fermented cabbage was the highest, followed by fermented mustard, fermented bamboo, and fermented radish. Additionally, nitrite concentration in two fermented cabbage samples and one fermented mustard sample exceeded the maximum allowed residue limit (20 mg/kg) suggested by China’s National Food Safety Standards. However, only one fermented cabbage sample had a very low level of ethyl carbamate (<10 μg/kg). Otherwise, higher biogenic amines were found in the samples of fermented cabbage, fermented bamboo, and fermented mustard. Additionally, the concentration of biogenic amines in some samples exceeded the recommended limit. On the contrary, biogenic amines in fermented radish samples were relatively low. Therefore, the concentration of nitrite and biogenic amine should be closely monitored and controlled during the vegetable fermentation processes, especially for the fermentation processes of bamboo, cabbage, and mustard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Essential-Oil-Loaded Nanoemulsion Lipidic-Phase Optimization and Modeling by Response Surface Methodology (RSM): Enhancement of Their Antimicrobial Potential and Bioavailability in Nanoscale Food Delivery System
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123149 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Nanoencapsulation is an attractive technique used for incorporating essential oils in foods. Thus, our main goal was to formulate a novel nanoemulsion (NE) with nanoscale droplet size and lowest interfacial tension in the oil–water interface, contributing positively to the stability and the enhancement [...] Read more.
Nanoencapsulation is an attractive technique used for incorporating essential oils in foods. Thus, our main goal was to formulate a novel nanoemulsion (NE) with nanoscale droplet size and lowest interfacial tension in the oil–water interface, contributing positively to the stability and the enhancement of essential oil potential. Thereby, response surface methodology (RSM), with mixture design was used to optimize the composition of the NE lipid phase. The essential oil combinations were encapsulated through high-pressure homogenization (HPH) with the binary emulsifier system (Tween 80: Gum Arabic). Then, the electrophoretic and physical properties were evaluated. We also conducted a follow-up stability and antimicrobial study that examined the stabilization mechanism of optimal NE. Thereafter, the effect of nanoencapsulation on the essential oil composition was assessed. The RSM results were best fitted into polynomial models with regression coefficient values of more than 0.95. The optimal NE showed a nanometer-sized droplet (270 nm) and lower interfacial tension (~11 mN/m), favoring negative ζ-potential (−15 mV), showing good stability under different conditions—it synergistically enhances the antimicrobial potential. GC-MS analysis showed that the use of HPH affected the active compounds, consistent with the differences in linalool and 2-Caren-10-al content. Hence, the novel nanometric delivery system contributes to food industry fortification. Full article
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Editorial
Advanced Research on Glucosinolates in Food Products
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123148 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Glucosinolate-containing foods, such as vegetables from the plant order Brassicales and its derivative products, are valued for their health-beneficial properties [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Glucosinolates in Food Products)
Article
Health- or Environment-Focused Text Messages as a Potential Strategy to Increase Plant-Based Eating among Young Adults: An Exploratory Study
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123147 - 19 Dec 2021
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Previous plant-based diet (PBD) adoption strategies have primarily focused on health rather than environmental rationale and meat reduction rather than plant-based protein promotion. In this study, we explored the effect of a theory-informed text-message intervention on dietary intentions and behaviors in young adult [...] Read more.
Previous plant-based diet (PBD) adoption strategies have primarily focused on health rather than environmental rationale and meat reduction rather than plant-based protein promotion. In this study, we explored the effect of a theory-informed text-message intervention on dietary intentions and behaviors in young adult omnivores and the potential explanatory role of PBD beliefs, subjective norm, self-efficacy, moral norm, and health and environmental values. Participants completed baseline questionnaires and reported dietary intake before being randomly assigned to receive 2–3 health- or environment-focused text messages per week for eight weeks and then repeated baseline assessments. Although we did not see significant changes in meat or plant protein intake, we did observe a marked decrease in intentions to consume animal protein and a marginal increase in fruit and vegetable consumption intention. We identified subjective norms, self-efficacy, and moral satisfaction as the strongest predictors of changes in intention to consume animal or plant protein. Although few group differences were observed, those receiving environment-focused text messages experienced a greater change in values and were more likely to increase vegetable intake. Messages that improve sustainability awareness and provide practical adoption strategies may be part of an effective strategy to influence PBD intake among young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Article
Influence of Transglutaminase Crosslinking on Casein Protein Fractionation during Low Temperature Microfiltration
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123146 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Low temperature microfiltration (MF) is applied in dairy processing to achieve higher protein and microbiological quality ingredients and to support ingredient innovation; however, low temperature reduces hydrophobic interactions between casein proteins and increases the solubility of colloidal calcium phosphate, promoting reversible dissociation of [...] Read more.
Low temperature microfiltration (MF) is applied in dairy processing to achieve higher protein and microbiological quality ingredients and to support ingredient innovation; however, low temperature reduces hydrophobic interactions between casein proteins and increases the solubility of colloidal calcium phosphate, promoting reversible dissociation of micellar β-casein into the serum phase, and thus into permeate, during MF. Crosslinking of casein proteins using transglutaminase was studied as an approach to reduce the permeation of casein monomers, which typically results in reduced yield of protein in the retentate fraction. Two treatments (a) 5 °C/24 h (TA) and (b) 40 °C/90 min (TB), were applied to the feed before filtration at 5 °C, with a 0.1 µm membrane. Flux was high for TA treatment possibly due to the stabilising effect of transglutaminase on casein micelles. It is likely that formation of isopeptide bonds within and on the surface of micelles results in the micelles being less readily available for protein-protein and protein–membrane interactions, resulting in less resistance to membrane pores and flow passage, thereby conferring higher permeate flux. The results also showed that permeation of casein monomers into the permeate was significantly reduced after both enzymatic treatments as compared to control feed due to the reduced molecular mobility of soluble casein, mainly β-casein, caused by transglutaminase crosslinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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Article
Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis from Milk Products and Other Habitats
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123145 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 433
Abstract
As components of many cheese starter cultures, strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (LDL) must be tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility to avoid the potential horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance (ABR) determinants in the human body or in the environment. To [...] Read more.
As components of many cheese starter cultures, strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (LDL) must be tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility to avoid the potential horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance (ABR) determinants in the human body or in the environment. To this end, a phenotypic test, as well as a screening for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in genome sequences, is commonly performed. Historically, microbiological cutoffs (MCs), which are used to classify strains as either ‘sensitive’ or ‘resistant’ based on the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of a range of clinically-relevant antibiotics, have been defined for the whole group of the obligate homofermentative lactobacilli, which includes LDL among many other species. This often leads to inaccuracies in the appreciation of the ABR status of tested LDL strains and to false positive results. To define more accurate MCs for LDL, we analyzed the MIC profiles of strains originating from various habitats by using the broth microdilution method. These strains’ genomes were sequenced and used to complement our analysis involving a search for ARGs, as well as to assess the phylogenetic proximity between strains. Of LDL strains, 52.1% displayed MICs that were higher than the defined MCs for kanamycin, 9.9% for chloramphenicol, and 5.6% for tetracycline, but no ARG was conclusively detected. On the other hand, all strains displayed MICs below the defined MCs for ampicillin, gentamycin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. Considering our results, we propose the adaptation of the MCs for six of the tested clinically-relevant antibiotics to improve the accuracy of phenotypic antibiotic testing. Full article
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Article
Social Media Analysis to Understand the Expected Benefits by Plant-Based Meat Alternatives Consumers
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123144 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 462
Abstract
The plant-based alternative meat products market has attracted attention in recent years, as the demand for these products has grown worldwide. To meet the needs of this promising market, marketers must pay attention to the expected benefits of consumers and the insights that [...] Read more.
The plant-based alternative meat products market has attracted attention in recent years, as the demand for these products has grown worldwide. To meet the needs of this promising market, marketers must pay attention to the expected benefits of consumers and the insights that can be gleaned from comments posted on social media. This article proposed an investigation of the potential of the content analysis of comments posted on the Instagram social network of food companies that manufacture plant-based alternative meat products to understand the expected benefits by end consumers from the perspective of the classic marketing mix variables. The content posted voluntarily by consumers was organized into 13 categories of expected benefits analyzed within a proposal of evidence from the perspective of the marketing mix. The results showed that, among the insights obtained, 63% were related to the place variable, 21% to the product variable, 11% to the price variable, and 5% to the promotion variable. The insights reinforce the notion that marketing mix variables are crucial factors for companies to make products available in the right place, in the right quantity, and at a fair price, in addition to engaging with consumers through social media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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Article
Rosemary Extract and Essential Oil as Drink Ingredients: An Evaluation of Their Chemical Composition, Genotoxicity, Antimicrobial, Antiviral, and Antioxidant Properties
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3143; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123143 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) is in high demand in the food and drink industries due to its distinct organoleptic properties. With the aim of evaluating the rosemary leaves as drink ingredients, both the essential oil and alcoholic (38%, v/v) extract [...] Read more.
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) is in high demand in the food and drink industries due to its distinct organoleptic properties. With the aim of evaluating the rosemary leaves as drink ingredients, both the essential oil and alcoholic (38%, v/v) extract were studied in terms of chemical composition, genotoxicity, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant properties. GC–MS analysis showed that the main volatile compounds in the essential oil were eucalyptol (40.1%), camphor (12.4%), and α-pinene (12.9%). LC–MS analysis revealed gallocatechin and rosmarinic acid as the main extract ingredients. Both the essential oil and the extract were not genotoxic (Ames test) against TA98 and TA100 at the dilutions of 5% and 90%, respectively; those dilutions were selected as the maximum possible ones in the drink industry. Their activity was investigated against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Adenovirus 35. Both were effective against Adenovirus and A. niger, even the essential oil at 5% (v/v). The extract at dilutions of 25–90% had more pronounced activity against tested bacteria than the essential oil at the dilutions of 5–100%; the essential oil at the dilution of 5% inhibited S. aureus growth. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, the 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid decolorization assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Both exhibited good antioxidant activity, but rosemary essential oil was far more effective than the extract. Our results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil and extract are safe and have beneficial biological properties. Therefore, they could serve as health-promoting ingredients in the drink industry. Full article
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Review
Safety Assessment of Vitamin D and Its Photo-Isomers in UV-Irradiated Baker’s Yeast
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123142 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency due to, e.g., nutritional and life style reasons is a health concern that is gaining increasing attention over the last two decades. Vitamin D3, the most common isoform of vitamin D, is only available in food derived from [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency due to, e.g., nutritional and life style reasons is a health concern that is gaining increasing attention over the last two decades. Vitamin D3, the most common isoform of vitamin D, is only available in food derived from animal sources. However, mushrooms and yeast are rich in ergosterol. This compound can be converted into vitamin D2 by UV-light, and therefore act as a precursor for vitamin D. Vitamin D2 from UV-irradiated mushrooms has become an alternative source of vitamin D, especially for persons pursuing a vegan diet. UV-irradiated baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for the production of fortified yeast-leavened bread and baked goods was approved as a Novel Food Ingredient in the European Union, according to Regulation (EC) No. 258/97. The Scientific Opinion provided by the European Food Safety Authority Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies has assessed this Novel Food Ingredient as safe under the intended nutritional use. However, recent findings on the formation of side products during UV-irradiation, e.g., the photoproducts tachysterol and lumisterol which are compounds with no adequate risk assessment performed, have only been marginally considered for this EFSA opinion. Furthermore, proceedings in analytics can provide additional insights, which might open up new perspectives, also regarding the bioavailability and potential health benefits of vitamin D-fortified mushrooms and yeast. Therefore, this review is intended to give an overview on the current status of UV irradiation in mushrooms and yeast in general and provide a detailed assessment on the potential health effects of UV-irradiated baker’s yeast. Full article
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Review
Inactivation of Foodborne Viruses by UV Light: A Review
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123141 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Viruses on some foods can be inactivated by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. This green technology has little impact on product quality and, thus, could be used to increase food safety. While its bactericidal effect has been studied extensively, little is known about [...] Read more.
Viruses on some foods can be inactivated by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. This green technology has little impact on product quality and, thus, could be used to increase food safety. While its bactericidal effect has been studied extensively, little is known about the viricidal effect of UV on foods. The mechanism of viral inactivation by UV results mainly from an alteration of the genetic material (DNA or RNA) within the viral capsid and, to a lesser extent, by modifying major and minor viral proteins of the capsid. In this review, we examine the potential of UV treatment as a means of inactivating viruses on food processing surfaces and different foods. The most common foodborne viruses and their laboratory surrogates; further explanation on the inactivation mechanism and its efficacy in water, liquid foods, meat products, fruits, and vegetables; and the prospects for the commercial application of this technology are discussed. Lastly, we describe UV’s limitations and legislation surrounding its use. Based on our review of the literature, viral inactivation in water seems to be particularly effective. While consistent inactivation through turbid liquid food or the entire surface of irregular food matrices is more challenging, some treatments on different food matrices seem promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses in Food)
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Review
Volatile Compounds in Pulses: A Review
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3140; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123140 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 511
Abstract
The worldwide demand for pulse-based products is increasing in the face of climate change, but their acceptability is limited due to the presence of off-flavours. Off-notes contribute to negative perceptions of pulses (beany notes). Volatile compounds belong to a large variety of chemical [...] Read more.
The worldwide demand for pulse-based products is increasing in the face of climate change, but their acceptability is limited due to the presence of off-flavours. Off-notes contribute to negative perceptions of pulses (beany notes). Volatile compounds belong to a large variety of chemical classes. They are mainly produced from the oxidation of unsaturated free fatty acids and the degradation of amino acids during seed development, storage, and transformation (dehulling, milling, and starch or protein production). This review aims to provide an overview highlighting the identification of these molecules in different pulses, their potential origins, and their impact on perceptions. However, data on odour-active compounds in pulses are sparse, as they are limited to those of two studies on peas and lupins. A better knowledge of the volatile compounds involved in the off-notes and their origins should allow for drawing efficient strategies to limit their impact on overall perception for more acceptable healthy food design. Full article
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Article
Detection of Enteric Viruses on Strawberries and Raspberries Using Capture by Apolipoprotein H
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123139 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) and the hepatitis A virus (HAV) are the main viral causes of foodborne illness worldwide. These viruses are frequently transmitted via fresh and frozen berries, such as strawberries and raspberries. ISO 15216:1 (2017), currently the preferred method for their detection, [...] Read more.
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) and the hepatitis A virus (HAV) are the main viral causes of foodborne illness worldwide. These viruses are frequently transmitted via fresh and frozen berries, such as strawberries and raspberries. ISO 15216:1 (2017), currently the preferred method for their detection, involves several steps and is time-consuming. Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) has been shown to have a strong affinity for several microorganisms, including HuNoVs. In this article, we report an ApoH-based method of capturing the HAV and HuNoVs adherent to berries and concentrating them for assay. The limit of detection of both viruses suspended in a buffer was low. On strawberries, the HAV was detected down to 104 genome copies/25 g in 100% of cases and down to 103 genome copies/25 g on raspberries in 50% of cases. This sensitivity was not significantly different from that of the ISO method 15216:1 (2017). HuNoV GII.4 was more difficult to detect using the ApoH method. The ApoH CaptoVIR kit does, nevertheless, appear to be usable in the near future as a single-test, multiple-detection method for viruses on fresh and frozen berries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses in Food)
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Article
Breba Fruits Characterization from Four Varieties (Ficus carica L.) with Important Commercial Interest in Spain
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3138; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123138 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Although most of the published articles generalize with the fruit of the fig tree (Ficus carica L.), the differentiation between fig and breba is increasingly common in the bibliography. In this regard, keep in mind that the fig tree generally produces two [...] Read more.
Although most of the published articles generalize with the fruit of the fig tree (Ficus carica L.), the differentiation between fig and breba is increasingly common in the bibliography. In this regard, keep in mind that the fig tree generally produces two crops a year, the parthenocarpic breba, also called as early fig, and the main non-parthenocarpic crop, the fig proper. In this study, four brebas varieties (‘Colar’, ‘SuperFig1’, ‘Cuello de Dama Negro’ and ‘San Antonio’) were selected in order to identify compositional, nutritional, and chemical diversity. These varieties were chosen for their commercial relevance in Spain. Color (internal and external), fruit and peel weight, size, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), maturity index (MI), sugar, and organic content were determined for all the breba fruits samples. In addition, polyphenolic profile, amino acids, and volatile aromatic compounds were also identified. The varieties ‘Colar’ and ‘SuperFig1’ showed the highest fruit weight and size, while ‘Cuello de Dama Negro’ presented the higher pulp yield. The higher organic acid and sugar contents were determined for ‘SuperFig1’ and ‘Cuello de Dama Negro’, respectively. Although in low concentrations, the phenolic compound quercetin 3-(6-O-acetyl-beta-glucoside) and the amino acid tyrosine were only detected in the ‘’Cuello de Dama Negra’ and ‘SuperFig1’ fruits, respectively. Of the eighty volatile aromatic compounds identified, only eight were common in four varieties. An important knowledge gap was identified in relation to the characterization of the two Ficus carica L. crops, that is, the differentiation and specification in the literature when working with brebas and/or figs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Biological Functions of Plant-Based Foods)
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Article
Exploring the DPP-IV Inhibitory, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Ovine “Scotta” Hydrolysates
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123137 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 346
Abstract
The aim of this work was to valorize the by-product derived from the ricotta cheese process (scotta). In this study, ovine scotta was concentrated by ultrafiltration and then subjected to enzymatic hydrolyses using proteases of both vegetable (4% E:S, 4 h, 50 °C) [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to valorize the by-product derived from the ricotta cheese process (scotta). In this study, ovine scotta was concentrated by ultrafiltration and then subjected to enzymatic hydrolyses using proteases of both vegetable (4% E:S, 4 h, 50 °C) and animal origin (4% E:S, 4 h, 40 °C). The DPP-IV inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of hydrolysates from bromelain (BSPH) and pancreatin (PSPH) were measured in vitro. Both the obtained hydrolysates showed a significantly higher DPP-IV inhibitory activity compared to the control. In particular, BSPH proved to be more effective than PSPH (IC50 8.5 ± 0.2 vs. 13 ± 1 mg mL−1). Moreover, BSPH showed the best antioxidant power, while PSPH was more able to produce low-MW peptides. BSPH and PSPH hydrolysates showed a variable but slightly inhibitory effect depending on the species or strain of bacteria tested. BSPH and PSPH samples were separated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). LC-MS/MS analysis of selected GPC fractions allowed identification of differential peptides. Among the peptides 388 were more abundant in BSPH than in the CTRL groups, 667 were more abundant in the PSPH group compared to CTRL, and 97 and 75 of them contained sequences with a reported biological activity, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valorization of Food Processing By-Products)
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Review
Relationship between Structure and Biological Activity of Various Vitamin K Forms
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123136 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Vitamin K is involved many biological processes, such as the regulation of blood coagulation, prevention of vascular calcification, bone metabolism and modulation of cell proliferation. Menaquinones (MK) and phylloquinone vary in biological activity, showing different bioavailability, half-life and transport mechanisms. Vitamin K1 and [...] Read more.
Vitamin K is involved many biological processes, such as the regulation of blood coagulation, prevention of vascular calcification, bone metabolism and modulation of cell proliferation. Menaquinones (MK) and phylloquinone vary in biological activity, showing different bioavailability, half-life and transport mechanisms. Vitamin K1 and MK-4 remain present in the plasma for 8–24 h, whereas long-chain menaquinones can be detected up to 96 h after administration. Geometric structure is also an important factor that conditions their properties. Cis-phylloquinone shows nearly no biological activity. An equivalent study for menaquinone is not available. The effective dose to decrease uncarboxylated osteocalcin was six times lower for MK-7 than for MK-4. Similarly, MK-7 affected blood coagulation system at dose three to four times lower than vitamin K1. Both vitamin K1 and MK-7 inhibited the decline in bone mineral density, however benefits for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases have been observed only for long-chain menaquinones. There are currently no guidelines for the recommended doses and forms of vitamin K in the prevention of osteoporosis, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular disorders. Due to the presence of isomers with unknown biological properties in some dietary supplements, quality and safety of that products may be questioned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy)
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Article
Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan–Nano-ZnO Composite Films for Preservation of Cherry Tomatoes
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123135 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Chitosan is widely used as a natural preservative of fruits and vegetables, but its poor mechanical and water resistances have limited its application. Therefore, in this study, we prepared chitosan composite films by incorporating different amounts of nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) to improve the [...] Read more.
Chitosan is widely used as a natural preservative of fruits and vegetables, but its poor mechanical and water resistances have limited its application. Therefore, in this study, we prepared chitosan composite films by incorporating different amounts of nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) to improve the mechanical properties of chitosan. We also assessed the antibacterial activity of these films against selected microorganisms. The addition of nano-ZnO improved the tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EAB) of the chitosan films and reduced their light transmittance. TS and EAB increased from 44.64 ± 1.49 MPa and 5.09 ± 0.38% for pure chitosan film to 46.79 ± 1.65 MPa and 12.26 ± 0.41% for a 0.6% nano-ZnO composite film, respectively. The ultraviolet light transmittance of composite films containing 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% nano-ZnO at 600 nm decreased from 88.2% to 86.0%, 82.7%, and 81.8%, respectively. A disc diffusion test showed that the composite film containing 0.6% nano-ZnO had the strongest antibacterial activity against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. In a 15-day preservation study, chitosan composite films containing 0.6% nano-ZnO maintained the soluble solid content of cherry tomatoes, effectively inhibited their respiration, and exhibited good antibacterial properties against the selected microorganisms. Overall, the prepared chitosan nano-ZnO composite film showed a good preservation effect on cherry tomatoes. Full article
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Article
Cognitive Keys in Psychophysical Estimation of Chemosensory Perception in University Students
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123134 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Psychophysical methods allow us to measure the relationship between stimuli and sensory perception. Of these, Detection Threshold (DT) allows us to know the minimum concentration to produce taste identification. Given this, we wonder whether, for example, wine tasting experts are more capable of [...] Read more.
Psychophysical methods allow us to measure the relationship between stimuli and sensory perception. Of these, Detection Threshold (DT) allows us to know the minimum concentration to produce taste identification. Given this, we wonder whether, for example, wine tasting experts are more capable of perceiving their sensory properties than other people, or whether they can distinguish them because they are better able to “describe” them. To verify this, this study analyses the influence of having prior knowledge of the name astringency and, failing that, to detect it and distinguish it between the four basic tastes. One-hundred-and-sixty-two university students with an average age of 19.43 (SD = 2.55) years were assigned to three experimental conditions: an experimental group (G.2) without previous knowledge of the name astringency and with alimentary satiety, and two control groups, both with previous knowledge of the name, these being G.1, with satiety, and G.3, with hunger. DT was collected for the four basic tastes and astringencies. Results showed significant differences in the identification of astringency, being the least identified experimental group with respect to the control groups. It is striking that G.2, without prior knowledge of the name, identified astringency as a bitter taste in most cases. This supports our hypothesis of the importance of attending to linguistic cognitive processes when psychophysically estimating taste in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensory Perception in Food)
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Article
Vinegar Production from Corinthian Currants Finishing Side-Stream: Development and Comparison of Methods Based on Immobilized Acetic Acid Bacteria
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3133; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123133 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Fruit wastes and side-streams can be used for vinegar production to create added value for the agri-food sector and enhance farmer incomes and local economies. In this study, methods for vinegar production by wild and selected acetic acid bacteria (the quick starter Acetobacter [...] Read more.
Fruit wastes and side-streams can be used for vinegar production to create added value for the agri-food sector and enhance farmer incomes and local economies. In this study, methods for vinegar production by wild and selected acetic acid bacteria (the quick starter Acetobacter aceti and the acid-resistant Komagataeibacter europaeus), free (FC) and immobilized (IC) on a natural cellulosic carrier, are proposed using sweet wine made from the industrial finishing side-stream (FSS) of Corinthian currants as raw material. The results showed all cultures can produce vinegar with 46.65 ± 5.43 g/L acidity, from sweet FSS wine containing 5.08 ± 1.19% alcohol. The effect of immobilization was more obvious in the case of the selected culture, presenting better acetification efficiency, both fresh and after cold storage for 2 months. The vinegars had an antioxidant capacity of 263.5 ± 8.4 and 277.1 ± 6.7 mg/L (as ascorbic acid) and phenolic content 333.1 ± 12.0 and 222.2 ± 2.9 mg/L (as gallic acid) (for FC and IC, respectively). They also had a rich volatilome (140 compounds identified by SPME GC-MS), with higher percentages of esters identified in vinegars made by IC. The results are encouraging for vinegar production with IC of a mixed A. aceti and K. europaeus culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Immobilization Technologies in Fermentation)
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Article
Moisture Distribution and Structural Properties of Frozen Cooked Noodles with NaCl and Kansui
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3132; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123132 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 332
Abstract
The effects of NaCl (1–3%) and kansui (0.5–1.5%) on the quality of frozen cooked noodles (FCNs) were investigated, which provided a reference for alleviating the quality deterioration of FCNs. Textural testing illustrated that the optimal tensile properties were observed in 2% NaCl (N-2) [...] Read more.
The effects of NaCl (1–3%) and kansui (0.5–1.5%) on the quality of frozen cooked noodles (FCNs) were investigated, which provided a reference for alleviating the quality deterioration of FCNs. Textural testing illustrated that the optimal tensile properties were observed in 2% NaCl (N-2) and the maximum hardness and chewiness were reached at 1% kansui (K-1). Compared to NaCl, the water absorption and cooking loss of recooked FCNs increased significantly with increasing kansui levels (p < 0.05). Rheological results confirmed NaCl and kansui improved the resistance to deformation and recovery ability of thawed dough; K-1 especially had the highest dough strength. SEM showed N-2 induced a more elongated fibrous protein network that contributed to the extensibility, while excessive levels of kansui formed a deformed membrane-like gluten network that increased the solid loss. Moisture analysis revealed that N-2 reduced the free water content, while K-1 had the lowest freezable water content and highest binding capacity for deeply adsorbed water. The N-2 and K-1 induced more ordered protein secondary structures with stronger intermolecular disulfide bonds, which were maximally improved in K-1. This study provides more comprehensive theories for the strengthening effect of NaCl and kansui on FCNs quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Review
Lactic Acid Bacteria as Antimicrobial Agents: Food Safety and Microbial Food Spoilage Prevention
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3131; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10123131 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 823
Abstract
In the wake of continual foodborne disease outbreaks in recent years, it is critical to focus on strategies that protect public health and reduce the incidence of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Currently, there are limitations associated with conventional microbial control methods, such [...] Read more.
In the wake of continual foodborne disease outbreaks in recent years, it is critical to focus on strategies that protect public health and reduce the incidence of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Currently, there are limitations associated with conventional microbial control methods, such as the use of chemical preservatives and heat treatments. For example, such conventional treatments adversely impact the sensorial properties of food, resulting in undesirable organoleptic characteristics. Moreover, the growing consumer advocacy for safe and healthy food products, and the resultant paradigm shift toward clean labels, have caused an increased interest in natural and effective antimicrobial alternatives. For instance, natural antimicrobial elements synthesized by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally inhibitory to pathogens and significantly impede the action of food spoilage organisms. Bacteriocins and other LAB metabolites have been commercially exploited for their antimicrobial properties and used in many applications in the dairy industry to prevent the growth of undesirable microorganisms. In this review, we summarized the natural antimicrobial compounds produced by LAB, with a specific focus on the mechanisms of action and applications for microbial food spoilage prevention and disease control. In addition, we provide support in the review for our recommendation for the application of LAB as a potential alternative antimicrobial strategy for addressing the challenges posed by antibiotic resistance among pathogens. Full article
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