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Foods, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 243 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Food preparations are often accused of being responsible for the increase in food-borne infections (e.g., salmonellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, botulism, listeriosis)—likewise increasing the pressure on healthcare systems. Risk assessment in agri-food supply chains is of utmost importance for the food industry and for policymakers. A wrong perception of risks may alter the functioning of supply chains; therefore, efforts should be devoted to communicating risks in an efficient way. By adopting a multidisciplinary approach to investigate how consumers perceive different food risks, we show that planning effective communication strategies is very much important to efficiently inform the consumers about the potential food risks. View this paper
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Article
Lipoxygenase in Wheat: Genetic Control and Impact on Stability of Lutein and Lutein Esters
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051149 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Preservation of lutein concentrations in wheat-based end-products during processing is important both for product quality and nutritional value. A key constituent involved in lutein degradation is endogenous lipoxygenase. Lutein and lutein ester concentrations were compared at intervals during storage of noodle sheets prepared [...] Read more.
Preservation of lutein concentrations in wheat-based end-products during processing is important both for product quality and nutritional value. A key constituent involved in lutein degradation is endogenous lipoxygenase. Lutein and lutein ester concentrations were compared at intervals during storage of noodle sheets prepared from flour of wheat varieties representing a range in lipoxygenase activity, as well as in different mill streams and in different grain tissues. Higher lipoxygenase concentration was associated with an increased loss of free lutein and lutein mono-esters whereas lutein diesters appeared to be more resistant to degradation. Lutein degradation was reduced in the presence of a lipoxygenase inhibitor, when noodle sheets were heated to destroy enzyme activity or when pH was increased. In addition, three populations were used to investigate the genetic control of lipoxygenase. A previously reported mutation of Lpx-B1.1 was associated with a reduction in activity from high to intermediate whilst a new locus on chromosome 4D was associated with variation between intermediate and near-zero. The gene underlying the 4D locus is a putative lipoxygenase. Stability of lutein could be improved by deployment of the mutations at the 4B and 4D loci and/or by post-harvest storage of grain under conditions that promote esterification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoid Esters in Foods)
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Article
Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Processing of Chilled and Frozen-Thawed Lamb Meat Cuts: Relationships between Sensory Characteristics and Chemical Composition of Meat
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051148 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 566
Abstract
The effect of PEF processing and chilled storage on the volatile composition and sensory properties of chilled and frozen lamb cuts was investigated in this study. Results showed that PEF-treated chilled and frozen lamb cuts varied in temporal flavour attributes with storage. Storage [...] Read more.
The effect of PEF processing and chilled storage on the volatile composition and sensory properties of chilled and frozen lamb cuts was investigated in this study. Results showed that PEF-treated chilled and frozen lamb cuts varied in temporal flavour attributes with storage. Storage for 7 days resulted in oxidized flavour, while PEF treatments for all chilled and frozen cuts were associated with browned and livery flavour attributes. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to determine the predictive relationships between the volatile composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and sensory responses for PEF treated lamb cuts. The results showed that some volatile compounds (2-nonanone, 2-pentylfuran, pyrrole, methyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-3-methyl pyrazine, and thiophene) correlated well with the meaty and juicy flavour of PEF treated frozen lamb cuts. In PEF treated chilled lamb cuts, meaty and juicy flavours were associated with the presence of fatty acids (C18:0, SFA, 20:5(n-3), and n-3). In contrast, livery and browned perception of both PEF processed chilled and frozen lamb cuts were associated with the presence of amino acids (threonine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and methionine), and some volatile compounds (heptanal, 2-ethylfuran, pyridine, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide, and 3,5-diethyl-2-methyl pyrazine). Overall, these results imply that careful consideration of type of meat cuts, PEF pre-treatment, and storage are important when subjecting lamb meat to PEF processing. Full article
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Article
Metal Contents in Fish from the Bay of Bengal and Potential Consumer Exposure—The EAF-Nansen Programme
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051147 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Fish represent an important part of the Sri Lankan and Bangladeshi diet. However, fish is also a source of contaminants that may constitute a health risk to consumers. The aim of this study was to analyse the contents of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and [...] Read more.
Fish represent an important part of the Sri Lankan and Bangladeshi diet. However, fish is also a source of contaminants that may constitute a health risk to consumers. The aim of this study was to analyse the contents of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in 24 commonly consumed marine fish species from the Bay of Bengal and to assess the potential health risk associated with their consumption. Mercury and lead contents did not exceed the maximum limits for any of the sampled species, and consumer exposure from estimated daily consumption was assessed to be minimal for adults and children. Numerous samples exceeded the maximum limit for cadmium (58%), particularly those of small size (≤25 cm). However, consumer exposure was insignificant, and health assessment showed no risk connected to consumption. These data represent an important contribution to future risk/benefit assessments related to the consumption of fish. Full article
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Article
Preliminary Investigation on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Commercial Salmorejo Found in Spanish Supermarkets
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051146 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Salmorejo is a traditional Spanish food made of raw tomatoes, bread, garlic, and virgin olive oil. The food industry aims to satisfy consumer demand for ready-to-eat salmorejo while trying to maintain characteristics of the homemade product. In this work, we have assessed physical-chemical [...] Read more.
Salmorejo is a traditional Spanish food made of raw tomatoes, bread, garlic, and virgin olive oil. The food industry aims to satisfy consumer demand for ready-to-eat salmorejo while trying to maintain characteristics of the homemade product. In this work, we have assessed physical-chemical and color parameters, radical scavenging activity, and total polyphenol, lycopene, and β-carotene contents of raw and pasteurized commercial salmorejo, as well as homemade (raw) salmorejo samples. Our results showed that heat treatment had a significant influence on color parameters of salmorejo, with pasteurized samples being less red and exhibiting an increase in the degree of browning. Pasteurized samples also showed the highest radical scavenging activity when expressing the results per dry weight. However, when water content was considered, radical scavenging activity was superior in homemade samples when analyzing non-polar molecules extracted with acetone. Results were similar for polyphenol content. It was also observed that heat treatment affected lycopene but not β-carotene content. When acquiring commercial salmorejo at the supermarket, consumers have the option to choose between already prepared pasteurized or raw salmorejo. According to the results obtained in this work, physicochemical and functional properties of commercial raw salmorejo were comparable to a larger extent than pasteurized salmorejo compared to those exhibited by homemade salmorejo samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
Article
Seasonal Changes in the Nutritional Composition of Agarophyton vermiculophyllum (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales) from the Center of Portugal
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051145 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 534
Abstract
Seaweeds exhibit high nutritional value due to a balanced concentration of proteins, vitamins and minerals, a high concentration of low digestibility polysaccharides, and reduced levels of lipids, many of which are n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The species Agarophyton vermiculophyllum is no exception [...] Read more.
Seaweeds exhibit high nutritional value due to a balanced concentration of proteins, vitamins and minerals, a high concentration of low digestibility polysaccharides, and reduced levels of lipids, many of which are n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The species Agarophyton vermiculophyllum is no exception and, as such, a comprehensive study of the chemical and nutritional profile of this red seaweed was carried out for 1 year. Seasonal variations in moisture, ash, protein and amino acids content, crude fibers, ascorbic acid, agar, lipids, and the corresponding fatty acid profile, were analyzed. We found low levels of fatty acids and a high protein content, but also noticed interesting seasonal change patterns in these compounds. The present study gives insights on the environmental conditions that can lead to changes in the nutritional composition of this species, aiming, therefore, to bring new conclusions about the manipulation of environmental conditions that allow for maximizing the nutritional value of this seaweed. Full article
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Article
Characterization and Discrimination of Commercial Portuguese Beers Based on Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051144 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 447
Abstract
Beer has been highly appreciated due to its phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity conjugated with its low alcohol content. Although some studies exist regarding the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacities of beers, there are no studies related to the determination of these parameters [...] Read more.
Beer has been highly appreciated due to its phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity conjugated with its low alcohol content. Although some studies exist regarding the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacities of beers, there are no studies related to the determination of these parameters in the most commonly consumed commercial beers in Portugal. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of 23 Portuguese commercial beers of different styles and types were studied for the first time. The total phenolic content, ortho-diphenols, and flavonoids ranged between 0.15 ± 0.01 and 0.82 ± 0.07 g Gallic Acid (GA) L−1; 0.07 ± 0.02 and 1.80 ± 0.09 g GA L−1, and 0.02 ± 0.00 and 0.15 ± 0.02 g Catechin (CAT) L−1, respectively. An accurate quantitative phenolic analysis was also performed, and the compound identified with a higher amount was gallic acid, followed by syringic acid. Concerning flavonoids, gallo-catechin was the most abundant compound identified (from 21.44 ± 2.87 and 144.00 ± 10.93 μg mL−1). A significant correlation between ortho-diphenols and the antiradical capacity (ABTS and DPPH) was found, the latter being negatively correlated. Flavonoids content was also positively correlated with total phenols and antiradical capacity determined by the ABTS assay. These results evidence that phenolic composition is affected by several factors inherent to beers, namely ingredients, fermentation type, and brewing process. Full article
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Article
Relationships among Consumer Liking, Lipid and Volatile Compounds from New Zealand Commercial Lamb Loins
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1143; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051143 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Loin sections (m. Longissimus lumborum) were collected at slaughter from forty-eight lamb carcasses to evaluate consumer-liking scores of six types of typical New Zealand commercial lamb and to understand the possible underlying reasons for those ratings. A consumer panel (n = [...] Read more.
Loin sections (m. Longissimus lumborum) were collected at slaughter from forty-eight lamb carcasses to evaluate consumer-liking scores of six types of typical New Zealand commercial lamb and to understand the possible underlying reasons for those ratings. A consumer panel (n = 160) evaluated tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, and overall liking of the different types of lamb loins. Consumer scores differed among the types of lamb meat for all the evaluated attributes (p < 0.05). Further segmentation based on overall liking scores showed two consumer clusters with distinct ratings. Correlation and external preference map analyses indicated that one consumer cluster (n = 75) liked lamb types that had lower total lipid content, a lower proportion of branched-chain fatty acids, oleic and heptadecanoic acids; and a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and volatile compounds (green and fruity descriptors). Consumer liking of the other segment (n = 85) was less influenced by fatty acids and volatiles, except hexanoic, heptanoic and octanoic acids (rancid, fatty, and sweaty descriptors). Thus, the fatty acid profile and the volatile compounds derived from their oxidation upon cooking seem to be a stronger driver of consumer liking of lamb for some consumers than others. Full article
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Article
Underutilized Green Banana (Musa acuminata AAA) Flours to Develop Fiber Enriched Frankfurter-Type Sausages
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051142 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 504
Abstract
This study aimed to develop a fiber-enriched Frankfurter-type sausage by incorporating underutilized green banana flours as a meat extender, replacing wheat flour with banana flours (8%). A low-fat formulation substituting 12% pork fat with 24% banana peel flour was also studied. Sausages were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop a fiber-enriched Frankfurter-type sausage by incorporating underutilized green banana flours as a meat extender, replacing wheat flour with banana flours (8%). A low-fat formulation substituting 12% pork fat with 24% banana peel flour was also studied. Sausages were stored at 4 °C/15 days. Cooking loss was low (5.6–4.1%) in all formulations and the substitution of wheat flour with banana flour did not modify moisture and protein composition, while carbohydrate, fiber, and ashes varied with the flour composition. In the low-fat sausages, fiber carbohydrate and ashes increased the most. Texture and color parameters were very similar for high-fat sausages throughout storage, although low-fat sausage showed higher hardness, while chewiness, L*, and whiteness tended to decrease. During the first week of storage, the microbial growth was scarce and then, an increase, except in the low-fat batch, in which growth remained constant. Enterobacteria and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected during storage. Sensory attributes throughout storage were very similar for all high-fat sausages; the odor in the formulations was defined as “different” but not unpleasant. The low-fat sausages, defined as a new product different from conventional sausages, were well accepted by the panelist. Banana flours are a suitable ingredient option to add nutritional value to Frankfurter-type sausages, which can be consumed by the wheat allergic population. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity, Deodorizing Effect, and Antibacterial Activity of ‘Porotan’ Chestnut By-Products and Establishment of a Compound Paper
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051141 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Chestnuts are widely cultivated for their edible portion (kernel), whereas the non-edible parts are discarded. To enable the utilization of the by-products of processed chestnuts, we separated them into green and brown burs, shells, inner skin, and leaves, and analyzed the bioactive properties [...] Read more.
Chestnuts are widely cultivated for their edible portion (kernel), whereas the non-edible parts are discarded. To enable the utilization of the by-products of processed chestnuts, we separated them into green and brown burs, shells, inner skin, and leaves, and analyzed the bioactive properties of the ground components. We also created a composite paper, comprising the inner skin, and examined its deodorant properties. It was revealed that the inner skin had the highest functionality and showed potent antioxidant, antibacterial, and deodorant properties. Furthermore, when we produced a paper, containing 60% inner skin, and examined its deodorant properties, we found that it was highly effective in deodorizing ammonia and acetic acid gases. These results show that the inner skin of chestnuts is a promising material for developing hygiene and other products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recovery of High Value-Added Compounds from Food By-Product)
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Article
Influence of Emulsifiers and Dairy Ingredients on Manufacturing, Microstructure, and Physical Properties of Butter
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1140; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051140 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 486
Abstract
The influence of emulsifiers and dairy solids on churning and physical attributes of butter was investigated. Commercial dairy cream was blended with each of the ingredients (0.5%, w/w) separately, aged overnight (10 °C), and churned (10 °C) into butter. The [...] Read more.
The influence of emulsifiers and dairy solids on churning and physical attributes of butter was investigated. Commercial dairy cream was blended with each of the ingredients (0.5%, w/w) separately, aged overnight (10 °C), and churned (10 °C) into butter. The employed additives showed a distinctive impact on the macroscopic properties of butter without largely affecting the melting behavior. In fresh butter, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) emulsifier having dominated hydrophobic moieties significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the softness. Among dairy solids, sodium caseinate (SC) was the most effective in reducing the solid fat fraction, hardness, and elastic modulus (G’), while whey protein isolate (WPI) and whole milk powder (WMP) produced significantly harder, stiffer, and more adhesive butter texture. As per tribological analysis, PGPR, Tween 80, and SC lowered the friction-coefficient of butter, indicating an improved lubrication property of the microstructure. The extent of butter-setting during 28 days of storage (5 °C) varied among the samples, and in specific, appeared to be delayed in presence of WPI, WMP, and buttermilk solids. The findings of the study highlighted the potential of using applied emulsifiers and dairy-derived ingredients in modifying the physical functionality of butter and butter-like churned emulsions in addition to a conventional cream-ageing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Functionality and Applications of Dairy Ingredients)
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Article
Impact of Very Hot Drink Consumption Habits, Age, and Sex, on Taste Sensitivity
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051139 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The temperature range for consuming hot drinks includes temperatures that can damage cells on the tongue. We hypothesized that the consumption of very hot drinks can lead to a decrease in the ability to perceive low concentrations of tastants. We evaluated the ability [...] Read more.
The temperature range for consuming hot drinks includes temperatures that can damage cells on the tongue. We hypothesized that the consumption of very hot drinks can lead to a decrease in the ability to perceive low concentrations of tastants. We evaluated the ability to perceive low concentrations of five prototypical sapid compounds in 42 women and 40 men aged 18–65. A questionnaire made it possible to collect the usual frequencies (number of unit/day) and consumption temperature levels (medium hot/very hot) for four very common hot drinks (coffee, tea, herbal infusions, and hot chocolate). Our results showed that subjects who consumed very hot drinks (versus medium hot) were less sensitive to sweet (p = 0.020) and salty (p = 0.046) tastes. An aggravating effect of high consumption frequencies was only shown for sweet taste (p = 0.036). Moreover, our data also showed that women were more sensitive than men to sour, bitter, and umami tastes (p values < 0.05), as well as that taste sensitivity decreases with age, especially after 50 years old (all tastes; p values < 0.05). These findings strengthen our knowledge about the influence of sex and age on taste sensitivity, and they provide knowledge on the influence of consumption habits related to hot drinks on taste sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Texture Sensitivity and Consumer Food Preference and Behaviour)
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Article
Evaluation of Quality Parameters of Seven Processing Type Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cultivars in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan Plains
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1138; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051138 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 914
Abstract
The eastern sub-Himalayan plain of India is a popular potato growing belt in which vast scope exists to introduce processing grade cultivars. The selection and introduction of a better quality processing grade cultivar in this region may pave the way for the processing [...] Read more.
The eastern sub-Himalayan plain of India is a popular potato growing belt in which vast scope exists to introduce processing grade cultivars. The selection and introduction of a better quality processing grade cultivar in this region may pave the way for the processing industries. Keeping these in the backdrop, this study was conducted at Instructional Farm of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya (UBKV), Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India under eastern sub-Himalayan plains during winter seasons of 2016–17 and 2017–18 in which seven processing type potato cultivars (Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chipsona-3, Kufri Chipsona-4, Kufri Frysona, Kufri Himsona, Kufri Surya and Kufri Chandramukhi) were evaluated in terms of different quality parameters pre-requisite for chips processing viz., dry matter content, specific gravity, starch content, chips colour score, crispiness and hardness of chips through randomised complete block design (RCBD). The study revealed wide variation in all quality parameters amongst the cultivars. Cultivar ‘Kufri Frysona’ showed the highest specific gravity (1.121) as well as dry matter content (23.35%) followed by ‘Kufri Chipsona-3’. The cultivar ‘Kufri Frysona’ showed the highest starch content (28.52%) too. Chips prepared from ‘Kufri Chipsona-1’ were recorded to be crispier with a relatively lower value of deformation before the first break and less hardness value. All processing type potato cultivar reflected the chips colour score <3 (evaluated, based on 1–10 scale, 10 being the darkest and least desirable) though ‘Kufri Frysona’ had the lowest chips colour score (1.50) signifying its superiority for the region. ‘Kufri Frysona’ cultivation could be recommended in this agro-climatic region particularly for chips manufacturing potato industries. Full article
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Article
Proton Dynamics of Water Diffusion in Shrimp Hydrolysates Flour and Effects of Moisture Absorption on Its Properties
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051137 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Moisture absorbed into shrimp hydrolysates (SHs) flour profoundly affected its properties. The unstored hydrolysate flour was called SHs-0h and SHs stored for 30 h at 25 °C and 75% relative humidity was named SHs-30. During the process of storage, the moisture dynamics in [...] Read more.
Moisture absorbed into shrimp hydrolysates (SHs) flour profoundly affected its properties. The unstored hydrolysate flour was called SHs-0h and SHs stored for 30 h at 25 °C and 75% relative humidity was named SHs-30. During the process of storage, the moisture dynamics in SHs flour were investigated by dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). The effects of moisture absorption on the radicals scavenging rates of SHs flour were evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The effects of moisture absorption on secondary structure were studied by mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and infrared microimaging spectroscopy. The changes of volatile components were monitored by purge and trap coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-GC-MS). DVS results showed that the moisture absorption rate of SHs flour could reach a maximum of 88.93%. Meanwhile, the water was transformed into more stable water with shorter relaxation times. The porous structure of the SHs-30 h flour disappeared and became smoother compared to SH-0 h flour. DPPH (31.09 ± 0.54%) and OH (26.62 ± 1.14%) radicals scavenging rates of SHs-30 h significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared to that of SHs-0 h flour. The vibrations of the MIR absorbance peaks were changed. Finally, eight volatile components disappeared and six new volatile compounds were found. This study provided a theory basis for moisture dynamics in peptide flour during the storage process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
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An Insight into the Growing Concerns of Styrene Monomer and Poly(Styrene) Fragment Migration into Food and Drink Simulants from Poly(Styrene) Packaging
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051136 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Poly(styrene) (PS) has been heavily utilised in disposable food packaging due to its insulating properties, optical translucency, and long-shelf life. Despite these desirable characteristics, (PS) poses toxicity concerns to human’s health through styrene monomer leaching into foodstuffs. Environmental and marine hazards are another [...] Read more.
Poly(styrene) (PS) has been heavily utilised in disposable food packaging due to its insulating properties, optical translucency, and long-shelf life. Despite these desirable characteristics, (PS) poses toxicity concerns to human’s health through styrene monomer leaching into foodstuffs. Environmental and marine hazards are another growing concerns due to improper and/or absence of recycling strategies and facilities. This preliminary work aims to investigate the effect of temperature, food composition and contact times on the migration of the styrene monomer from poly(styrene) food contact materials into food simulants. Poly(styrene) cups showed a relatively low level of styrene migration with the highest being 0.110 µg/mL, whereas food containers showed a much higher level of styrene leaching with up to 6 µg/mL. This could be due to an increase in the hydrophobicity of the simulants’ characteristics from low to high fat content and the increase in the testing temperatures from 5 °C to 70 °C. ANOVA statistical analysis is used to compare the means of three or more groups of data, whereas t-test analysis is used to compare means of two groups. This was carried out on each individual sample to determine the significance of changing the temperature, simulant type, or both on the level of migration observed in the results. All significant values were tested at 95% confidence level p < 0.05, concluding that fat content and high temperatures were found to significantly increase the level of styrene migration. Nile Red staining method was used to demonstrate that particulate poly(styrene), as well as styrene monomer, migrated into tested food simulants from typical containers, which is becoming a cause for concern as evidence of microplastic ingestion increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Development of a Home Meal Replacement Product Containing Braised Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) with Radish (Raphanus sativus)
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051135 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 616
Abstract
The coronavirus disease pandemic has contributed to increasing convenience in food preferences. Home meal replacement (HMR) products are ready-to-eat, -cook, or -heat foods, providing convenience for consumers. We developed a HMR product containing mackerel as a protein- and lipid-rich source using various food-processing [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease pandemic has contributed to increasing convenience in food preferences. Home meal replacement (HMR) products are ready-to-eat, -cook, or -heat foods, providing convenience for consumers. We developed a HMR product containing mackerel as a protein- and lipid-rich source using various food-processing technologies to maintain its nutritional content and prolong shelf life. The HMR product contained mackerel, radish, and sauce in a ratio of 5:1:4. Raw frozen mackerels were thawed by using a high-frequency defroster before being braised using a superheated steam roaster. Response surface methodology was employed to obtain the optimal heating conditions of 181 °C for 9 min. The final test HMR product was packed in a polypropylene plastic bowl prior to freezing at −35 °C for 1 h using a quick freezing system. The HMR product developed using these technologies exhibited stable microbiological and chemical properties for 90 days of storage. Sensory scores gradually decreased with increasing storage temperature and time. Protein content in the HMR product was 13%, 40% of which comprised essential amino acids; lipid content was 13.4%, 18% of which was composed of docosahexaenoic acid. The HMR product can preserve its quality and is considered safe for consumption for up to 40 months of storage at −18 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing, Preservation and Analysis of Seafood Products)
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Article
The Egg Yolk Content in ω-3 and Conjugated Fatty Acids Can Be Sustainably Increased upon Long-Term Feeding of Laying Hens with a Diet Containing Flaxseeds and Pomegranate Seed Oil
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051134 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Long-term feeding trials examining the incorporation of conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) into the diet of laying hens are lacking. In the present study, we compared two diets in sixty-six red Sex-Link hens (33 hens/treatment), fed for 26 weeks. The control diet was high [...] Read more.
Long-term feeding trials examining the incorporation of conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) into the diet of laying hens are lacking. In the present study, we compared two diets in sixty-six red Sex-Link hens (33 hens/treatment), fed for 26 weeks. The control diet was high in oleic acid, while the test diet was high in α-linolenic acid (ALA) and punicic acid (PunA). No significant differences were observed between treatments for hens’ performance, egg weight and yolk weight. In contrast, dietary ALA and PunA resulted in a significant increase in n-3 PUFA, rumenic acid (RmA) and PunA contents in egg yolk, as well as in the liver, heart, muscle and adipose tissue of the hens. Other conjugated dienes resulting from the metabolism of PunA or RmA also accumulated in the egg yolk and tissues. Unlike DHA, which was exclusively distributed in phospholipids, ALA, RmA and PunA were preferably distributed in triglycerides. Full article
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Article
Meat Quality, Fatty Acid Content and NMR Metabolic Profile of Dorper Sheep Supplemented with Bypass Fats
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1133; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051133 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 510
Abstract
The supplementation of rumen bypass fat (RBF) has remained one of the preferred approaches used to decrease undesirable saturated fatty acids (FA) and increase beneficial unsaturated FA in the meat. This study was planned to evaluate the influences of rumen bypass fats on [...] Read more.
The supplementation of rumen bypass fat (RBF) has remained one of the preferred approaches used to decrease undesirable saturated fatty acids (FA) and increase beneficial unsaturated FA in the meat. This study was planned to evaluate the influences of rumen bypass fats on meat quality, fatty acid and metabolic profiles in male Dorper sheep (n = 36) with 24.66 ± 0.76 kg (mean ± standard error) initial body weight. Treatment comprised a basal diet (30:70 rice straw to concentrate) with no added RBF as a control (CON), basal diet with prilled fat (PF), basal diet with prilled fat plus lecithin (PFL) and basal diet with calcium soap of palm fatty acids (CaS). The findings revealed that cooking loss, drip loss and shear force in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were not affected by RBF supplementation, while meat pH was significantly higher in the CaS on aging day 1. However, the diet supplemented with prilled fat and lecithin modified the meat’s fatty acid profile significantly by increasing unsaturated fatty acids and decreasing saturated fats. The relative quantification of the major differentiating metabolites found in LD muscle of sheep showed that total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, choline, glycerophosphocholine and glycerophospholipids were significantly lower in CaS and PFL diets, while glycerol and sphingomyelin were significantly higher in CaS and PFL diets. Most of the metabolites in the liver did not show any significant difference. Based on our results, the supplementation of protected fats did not have a negative influence on meat quality and the meat from Dorper sheep fed prilled fat with lecithin contained more healthy fatty acids compared to other diets. Full article
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Article
One-Day Molecular Detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Chicken Meat: A Pilot Study
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1132; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051132 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Salmonella and Campylobacter ssp. are bacterial pathogens responsible for most foodborne infections in EU countries. Poultry serves as a reservoir for these pathogens, and its important role in the meat industry makes it essential to develop a rapid detection assay able to provide [...] Read more.
Salmonella and Campylobacter ssp. are bacterial pathogens responsible for most foodborne infections in EU countries. Poultry serves as a reservoir for these pathogens, and its important role in the meat industry makes it essential to develop a rapid detection assay able to provide results in one day. Indeed, the rapid identification of foodborne pathogens is an important instrument for the monitoring and prevention of epidemic outbreaks. To date, Salmonella and Campylobacter screening is mainly conducted through molecular methods (PCR or real-time PCR) performed after 18–24 h long enrichments. In this study, we evaluated short enrichments (0, 2, 4, and 6 h) combined with a colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) or real-time PCR to detect Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry meat contaminated at different concentration levels (101, 103, and 105 CFU/g). Our results show that real-time PCR allows the detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter, even after shorter enrichment times than prescribed by ISO references; particularly, it detected Salmonella down to 101 CFU/g since T0 and Campylobacter from 103 CFU/g since T0. Detection with LAMP was comparable to real-time PCR without the requirement of a thermal cycler and with shorter execution times. These characteristics make colorimetric LAMP a valid alternative when one-day results are needed, improving the timely identification of positive meat batches, even in the absence of specialized instrumentation. Full article
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Editorial
Secondary Metabolites in Edible Species: Looking beyond Nutritional Value
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1131; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051131 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Secondary metabolites are organic molecules of low molecular weight, biosynthesized by any living being using a wide range of biosynthetic pathways, known as secondary metabolism [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Identification of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites)
Article
Perilla Seed Oil Enhances Cognitive Function and Mental Health in Healthy Elderly Japanese Individuals by Enhancing the Biological Antioxidant Potential
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1130; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051130 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Oxidative stress plays an important role in age-associated cognitive decline. We recently reported that dietary intake of perilla seed oil (PO), a rich source of α-linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3, ω-3), helps in maintaining good mental health in adults. This study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress plays an important role in age-associated cognitive decline. We recently reported that dietary intake of perilla seed oil (PO), a rich source of α-linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3, ω-3), helps in maintaining good mental health in adults. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary PO intake on cognitive functions and mental health in healthy, elderly Japanese individuals. Seventy-five healthy volunteers aged 64–84 years were randomly divided into two groups: a control group and a PO-administered group. At baseline and at 12 months of intervention, cognitive function, mental health condition, fatty acid profile of the red blood cell plasma membranes (RBC-PM), and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results showed that serum biological antioxidant potential and LNA levels in the RBC-PM at 12 months after the trial were significantly higher in the PO group compared to the control group. Further, both the cognitive function measures, as evaluated by the Frontal Assessment Battery test and the apathy scores, tended to be improved after 12 months in the PO group. Our results demonstrate that dietary PO intake enhances the antioxidant potential and prevents the age-related cognitive and mental decline in healthy elderly individuals by enhancing the blood LNA levels. Full article
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Article
Mild Pretreatments to Increase Fructose Consumption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast Strains
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051129 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 528
Abstract
The present research investigates the effect of different pretreatments on glucose and fructose consumption and ethanol production by four Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains, three isolated and identified from different wine regions in Turkey and one reference strain. A mild stress temperature (45 °C, [...] Read more.
The present research investigates the effect of different pretreatments on glucose and fructose consumption and ethanol production by four Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains, three isolated and identified from different wine regions in Turkey and one reference strain. A mild stress temperature (45 °C, 1 h) and the presence of ethanol (14% v/v) were selected as pretreatments applied to cell cultures prior to the fermentation step in synthetic must. The goodness fit of the mathematical models was estimated: linear, exponential decay function and sigmoidal model were evaluated with the model parameters R2 (regression coefficient), RMSE (root mean square error), MBE (mean bias error) and χ2 (reduced Chi-square). Sigmoidal function was determined as the most suitable model with the highest R2 and lower RMSE values. Temperature pretreatment allowed for an increase in fructose consumption rate by two strains, evidenced by a t90 value 10% lower than the control. One of the indigenous strains showed particular promise for mild temperature treatment (45 °C, 1 h) prior to the fermentation step to reduce residual glucose and fructose in wine. The described procedure may be effective for indigenous yeasts in preventing undesirable sweetness in wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Review
Background, Applications and Issues of the Experimental Designs for Mixture in the Food Sector
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051128 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Background: Mixtures play a key role in Food Science and Technology. For studying them, rational approaches should be used. In detail, the experimental designs for mixtures are useful tools for studying the effects of ingredients/components in formulations. Results: Food Science and Technology is [...] Read more.
Background: Mixtures play a key role in Food Science and Technology. For studying them, rational approaches should be used. In detail, the experimental designs for mixtures are useful tools for studying the effects of ingredients/components in formulations. Results: Food Science and Technology is the fourth category among the total records considered in this review. The applications span from food formulation to the composition of modified atmosphere, shelf-life improvement and bioactives extraction. However, the majority of the studies regards few products and ingredients. Simplex-lattice and simplex-centroid designs are the most common used, although some optimal designs, such as the D-optimal, have also interesting applications. Finally, some issues are highlighted, which basically regard the interpretation of the models coefficients and the lack of model validation. Conclusion: In the last decade, mixture designs have been fairly used in the field of Food Science and Technology. Modeling the response(s) allows researchers to achieve a global knowledge of the system under study within the defined experimental domain. However, the majority of application has regarded limited classes of products, and thus an increase in the spectrum of applications is desired. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Designs for Mixture in the Food Sector)
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Article
Construction and Application of EGCG-Loaded Lysozyme/Pectin Nanoparticles for Enhancing the Resistance of Nematodes to Heat and Oxidation Stresses
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051127 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 463
Abstract
Novel nanoparticles (NPs) were constructed with lysozyme (LY) and pectin (Ps) through self-assembly, which were used as a carrier to encapsulate epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The binding of EGCG and LY is a static quenching process. Hydrogen bonds might play a major role in the [...] Read more.
Novel nanoparticles (NPs) were constructed with lysozyme (LY) and pectin (Ps) through self-assembly, which were used as a carrier to encapsulate epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The binding of EGCG and LY is a static quenching process. Hydrogen bonds might play a major role in the formation of NPs, which has also been verified by a lower binding constant of EGCG with LY/Ps NPs. Meanwhile, EGCG could lead to conformational and microenvironmental changes of LY, resulting in more folding of LY secondary structures. In addition, attaching Ps to LY might inhibit LY aggregation induced by addition of free EGCG. At the LY/Ps mass ratio of 1:1, the constructed LY/Ps NPs had a high EGCG-loading capacity without a significant change in mean particle size, thus, our NPs could be used as an effective nanocarrier for loading EGCG. In vivo, compared with free EGCG, EGCG loaded onto LY/Ps NPs significantly increased Caenorhabditis elegans’ (C. elegans) resistance to heat stress and oxidative injury and prolonged their lifespan. This study provides theoretical basis and reference for constructing nanoactive substance carriers so as to improve the resistance of organisms to heat stress and oxidative damage and to increase their survival rate and extend their lifespan under environment stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Article
Biodegradable Active Packaging as an Alternative to Conventional Packaging: A Case Study with Chicken Fillets
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051126 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Innovative active packaging has the potential to maintain the food quality and preserve the food safety for extended period. The aim of this study was to discover the effect of active films based on commercially available polylactic acid blend (PLAb) and [...] Read more.
Innovative active packaging has the potential to maintain the food quality and preserve the food safety for extended period. The aim of this study was to discover the effect of active films based on commercially available polylactic acid blend (PLAb) and natural active components on the shelf life and organoleptic properties of chicken fillets and to find out; to what extent they can be used as replacement to the traditional packaging materials. In this study, commercially available PLAb was compounded with citral and cinnamon oil. Active films with 300 µm thickness were then produced on a blown film extruder. The PLAb-based films were thermoformed into trays. Fresh chicken breast fillets were packed under two different gas compositions, modified atmosphere packaging of 60% CO2/40% N2, and 75% O2/25% CO2 and stored at 4 °C. The effect of active packaging materials and gas compositions on the drip loss, dry matter content, organoleptic properties, and microbial quality of the chicken fillets were studied over a storage time of 24 days. The presence of active components in the compounded films was confirmed with FTIR, in addition the release of active components in the headspace of the packaging was established with GC/MS. Additionally, gas barrier properties of the packages were studied. No negative impact on the drip loss and dry matter content was observed. The results show that PLAb-based active packaging can maintain the quality of the chicken fillets and have the potential to replace the traditional packaging materials, such as APET/PE trays. Full article
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Review
Bioactive Sugarcane Lipids in a Circular Economy Context
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051125 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Most of the global sugar and ethanol supply trade comes from the harvesting of Saccharum officinarum (i.e., sugarcane). Its industrial processing results in numerous by-products and waste streams, such as tops, straw, filter cake, molasses and bagasse. The recovery of lipids (i.e., octacosanol, [...] Read more.
Most of the global sugar and ethanol supply trade comes from the harvesting of Saccharum officinarum (i.e., sugarcane). Its industrial processing results in numerous by-products and waste streams, such as tops, straw, filter cake, molasses and bagasse. The recovery of lipids (i.e., octacosanol, phytosterols, long-chain aldehydes and triterpenoids) from these residues is an excellent starting point for the development of new products for various application fields, such as health and well-being, representing an important feature of the circular economy. By selecting green scalable extraction procedures, industry can reduce its environmental impact. Refluxed ethanol extraction methods have been demonstrated to meet these characteristics. On the other hand, effective non-solvent methodologies such as molecular distillation and supercritical CO2 extraction can fractionate lipids based on high temperature and pressure application with similar yields. Sugarcane lipophilic extracts are usually analyzed through gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) techniques. In many cases, the identification of such compounds involves the development of high-temperature GC–MS/FID techniques. On the other hand, for the identification and quantification of thermolabile lipids, LC–MS techniques are suitable for the separation and identification of major lipid classes. Generically, its composition includes terpenes, phytosterols, tocopherol, free fatty acids, fatty alcohols, wax esters, triglycerides, diglycerides and monoglycerides. These compounds are already known for their interesting application in various fields such as pharma and cosmetics due to their anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-hyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Bioactive Lipids Research in Health and Disease)
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Review
Alimentary and Pharmaceutical Approach to Natural Antimicrobials against Clostridioides difficile Gastrointestinal Infection
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051124 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Incidence of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) has been increasing in recent decades due to different factors, namely (i) extended use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, (ii) transmission within asymptomatic and susceptible patients, and (iii) unbalanced gastrointestinal microbiome and collateral diseases that favor C. difficile gastrointestinal [...] Read more.
Incidence of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) has been increasing in recent decades due to different factors, namely (i) extended use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, (ii) transmission within asymptomatic and susceptible patients, and (iii) unbalanced gastrointestinal microbiome and collateral diseases that favor C. difficile gastrointestinal domination and toxin production. Although antibiotic therapies have resulted in successful control of CDI in the last 20 years, the development of novel strategies is urged in order to combat the capability of C. difficile to generate and acquire resistance to conventional treatments and its consequent proliferation. In this regard, vegetable and marine bioactives have emerged as alternative and effective molecules to fight against this concerning pathogen. The present review examines the effectiveness of natural antimicrobials from vegetable and algae origin that have been used experimentally in in vitro and in vivo settings to prevent and combat CDI. The aim of the present work is to contribute to accurately describe the prospective use of emerging antimicrobials as future nutraceuticals and preventive therapies, namely (i) as dietary supplement to prevent CDI and reduce CDI recurrence by means of microbiota modulation and (ii) administering them complementarily to other treatments requiring antibiotics to prevent C. difficile gut invasion and infection progression. Full article
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Article
Discrimination Ability of Assessors in Check-All-That-Apply Tests: Method and Product Development
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051123 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Binary similarity measures have been used in several research fields, but their application in sensory data analysis is limited as of yet. Since check-all-that-apply (CATA) data consist of binary answers from the participants, binary similarity measures seem to be a natural choice for [...] Read more.
Binary similarity measures have been used in several research fields, but their application in sensory data analysis is limited as of yet. Since check-all-that-apply (CATA) data consist of binary answers from the participants, binary similarity measures seem to be a natural choice for their evaluation. This work aims to define the discrimination ability of CATA participants by calculating the consensus values of 44 binary similarity measures. The proposed methodology consists of three steps: (i) calculating the binary similarity values of the assessors, sample pair-wise; (ii) clustering participants into good and poor discriminators based on their binary similarity values; (iii) performing correspondence analysis on the CATA data of the two clusters. Results of three case studies are presented, highlighting that a simple clustering based on the computed binary similarity measures results in higher quality correspondence analysis with more significant attributes, as well as better sample discrimination (even according to overall liking). Full article
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Article
Ca and Mg Concentrations in Spices and Growth of Commonly Sporulated and Non-Sporulated Food-Borne Microorganisms According to Marketing Systems
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051122 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Ca and Mg levels were determined in five spices according to marketing system (in bulk or commercialized in glass or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers) and correlated with microbial growth of commonly sporulated (Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus) and non-sporulated (Listeria [...] Read more.
Ca and Mg levels were determined in five spices according to marketing system (in bulk or commercialized in glass or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers) and correlated with microbial growth of commonly sporulated (Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus) and non-sporulated (Listeria monocytogenes, psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, and yeasts and molds) food-borne pathogens present in them, when they were previously added to the microbial culture media. The basil had the highest mean Ca and Mg level and showed the highest microbial growth in the food-borne pathogenic microorganisms studied (p < 0.001). For Ca, the lowest levels were measured in cloves (p < 0.001), which had the lowest capacity for microbial contamination. Ca and Mg contents in spices correlated linear and positively (p < 0.05). Ca concentrations weakly and positively correlated (p < 0.05) with microbial counts for almost all studied microorganisms, and Mg levels for B. cereus, C. perfringens, and mesophilic bacteria (p < 0.05), possibly acting as a growing factor for some sporulated and non-sporulated foodborne pathogens. These relationships are especially significant when PET vs. glass was used as a packaging material for spices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Development of a Simplified Portion Size Selection Task
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051121 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Portion size is an important determinant of energy intake and the development of easy to use and valid tools for measuring portion size are required. Standard measures, such as ad libitum designs and currently available computerized portion selection tasks (PSTs), have several limitations [...] Read more.
Portion size is an important determinant of energy intake and the development of easy to use and valid tools for measuring portion size are required. Standard measures, such as ad libitum designs and currently available computerized portion selection tasks (PSTs), have several limitations including only being able to capture responses to a limited number of foods, requiring participants’ physical presence and logistical/technical demands. The objective of the current study was to develop and test robust and valid measures of portion size that can be readily prepared by researchers and be reliably utilized for remote online data collection. We developed and tested two simplified PSTs that could be utilized online: (1) portion size images presented simultaneously along a horizontal continuum slider and (2) multiple-choice images presented vertically. One hundred and fifty participants (M = 21.35 years old) completed both simplified PSTs, a standard computerized PST and a series of questionnaires of variables associated with portion size (e.g., hunger, food item characteristics, Three Factor Eating Questionnaire). We found average liking of foods was a significant predictor of all three tasks and cognitive restraint also predicted the two simplified PSTs. We also found significant agreement between the standard PST and estimated portion sizes derived from the simplified PSTs when accounting for average liking. Overall, we show that simplified versions of the standard PST can be used online as an analogue of estimating ideal portion size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction via Sonotrode of Phenolic Compounds from Orange By-Products
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051120 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Orange peel is the main by-product from orange juice industry. It is a known source of bioactive compounds, mostly phenolic compounds, and it has been widely studied for its healthy activities. Thus, this research focuses on the establishment of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic [...] Read more.
Orange peel is the main by-product from orange juice industry. It is a known source of bioactive compounds, mostly phenolic compounds, and it has been widely studied for its healthy activities. Thus, this research focuses on the establishment of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds in orange peel using a sonotrode. For this purpose, a Box–Behnken design of 27 experiments was carried out with four independent factors—ratio ethanol/water (v/v), time (min), amplitude (%), and pulse (%). Quantitative analyses of phenolic compounds were performed and the antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS and DPPH methods. The validity of the experimental design was confirmed by ANOVA and the optimal sonotrode extraction conditions were obtained by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracts obtained in the established conditions were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometer detector and 74 polar compounds were identified. The highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity were obtained using 45/55 ethanol/water (v/v), 35 min, amplitude 90% (110 W), and pulse 100%. The established method allows an increment of phenolics recovery up to 60% higher than a conventional extraction. Moreover, the effect of drying on phenolic content was also evaluated. Full article
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