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Foods, Volume 11, Issue 10 (May-2 2022) – 157 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Proper nutrition during infancy and early childhood is crucial to support the growth, health, and development of children. Food preferences begin to take shape during fetal development and continue to change throughout life, influenced by biological, social, and environmental factors. In the first two years of life, the introduction of complementary food represents an opportunity for infants to achieve long-term healthy dietary patterns. Operationalizing the implementation of nutrient profile models in the assessment of baby foods is fundamental as a strategy to improve complementary feeding practices and assist parents with the correct information when selecting complementary and infant foods. View this paper
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Article
The Impact of Rice Lipid on In Vitro Rice Starch Digestibility
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1528; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101528 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 461
Abstract
The negative role of lipids in rice starch digestion is well-known; however, the effect of individual native lipids on starch digestibility has not been studied. In this study, native rice lipids, such as triacylglycerols (TAGs), diacylglycerols (DAGs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysophospholipids (LPLs), were [...] Read more.
The negative role of lipids in rice starch digestion is well-known; however, the effect of individual native lipids on starch digestibility has not been studied. In this study, native rice lipids, such as triacylglycerols (TAGs), diacylglycerols (DAGs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysophospholipids (LPLs), were analyzed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and correlated with in vitro rice starch digestibility. Most of the tested lipids exhibited a negative correlation with the in vitro starch digestibility with the correlations being more pronounced for LPLs. Removal of lipids from rice flour increased the in vitro starch digestibility. Conversely, a lipid extract addition to rice flour reduced the starch digestibility. Addition of 1% pure lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)16:0, TAG54:6, DAG36:4 or PC36:2 individually to rice flour reduced starch digestibility by different extents in the order of LPC16:0 > TAG54:6 > PC36:2 > DAG36:4. LPC16:0 was the most abundant lipid among all the assessed lipids in the white rice (milled rice), and addition of 1% LPC 16:0 to rice flour reduced glucose release following three hours of in vitro starch digestion by 7.4%. There may be a scope to breed rice with a lipid composition to reach a desired starch digestibility or simply through addition of certain lipids before cooking the rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Food and Human Digestion Health)
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Review
The Current Status of Analytical Methods Applied to the Determination of Polar Pesticides in Food of Animal Origin: A Brief Review
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1527; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101527 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 428
Abstract
The use of high polar pesticides such as glyphosate and metabolites has increased due to their low cost, low persistence in the environment and high effectiveness. The use of glyphosate is currently permitted in the European Union until 15 December 2022. However, the [...] Read more.
The use of high polar pesticides such as glyphosate and metabolites has increased due to their low cost, low persistence in the environment and high effectiveness. The use of glyphosate is currently permitted in the European Union until 15 December 2022. However, the possible toxic effects on human health and the environment are under debate. Their widespread application on various crops might lead to residues in food intended for animal consumption. For this reason, the Commission, implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/601, recommends the analyses of polar pesticides, not only in matrices of plant origin, but also in those of animal origin such as fat, liver, milk and eggs throughout the years 2022, 2023 and 2024. The determination of polar pesticides is hampered by their chemical nature, which poses challenges both in the instrumental detection (poor column retention, low molecular weight MS/MS fragments, etc.) and in the management of matrix effects, which may vary significantly from matrix to matrix within the same food commodity group. For these reasons, nowadays, there is a limited number of methods for the detection of polar pesticides in food of animal origin. This brief review discusses the different approaches for the simultaneous determination of polar pesticides in food of animal origin using both chromatographic and non-chromatographic techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Assessment of Quality Indices and Their Influence on the Texture Profile in the Dry-Aging Process of Beef
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1526; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101526 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 490
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the dry-aging method on the sensory properties, chemical composition, and profile parameters of the texture of beef obtained from local farms. The qualitative characteristics of the beef were investigated for five samples, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the dry-aging method on the sensory properties, chemical composition, and profile parameters of the texture of beef obtained from local farms. The qualitative characteristics of the beef were investigated for five samples, respectively, fresh meat, and dry-aged beef for 14, 21, 28, and 35 days, in aging rooms with controlled parameters: temperature (1 ± 1 °C), relative humidity (80 ± 5%), and air circulation speed (0.5–2 m/s). During the dry-aging period, there was a decrease in humidity by about 6.5% in the first 21 days, which allowed the concentration of fat, protein, and total collagen content. The dry-aging process considerably influenced the pH value of the meat, which, in the second part of the dry-aging process (14–35 days), increased from 5.49 to 5.66. These values favored the increase by 37.33% of the water retention capacity and the activation of the meat’s own enzymes (calpain, cathepsin, collagenase). This influenced the solubilization process of proteins and collagen, thus contributing to the improvement of the texture profile. Because variations in organoleptic and physicochemical parameters occurred simultaneously during dry-aging and storage, the method of analyzing the information was applied. Mutual information on the influence of physicochemical indicators on the texture profile parameters was followed, a factor of major importance in the consumer’s perception. The degree of influence of soluble proteins, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins, fats, and soluble collagen content on the texture profile parameters (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness) of the dry-aged beef for 35 days was established. These investigations allowed the optimization of the beef dry-aging technological process in order to obtain a product with a sensory profile preferred by the consumer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Quality Assessments of Foods of Animal Origin)
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Article
Development in Maillard Reaction and Dehydroalanine Pathway Markers during Storage of UHT Milk Representing Differences in Casein Micelle Size and Sedimentation
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1525; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101525 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 729
Abstract
Ultra-high temperature (UHT) processing of milk can result in protein changes during storage; however, the progress of dehydroalanine (DHA) mediated protein cross-linking and Maillard reactions in relation to the sediment formation have not been investigated previously. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, based on multiple reaction [...] Read more.
Ultra-high temperature (UHT) processing of milk can result in protein changes during storage; however, the progress of dehydroalanine (DHA) mediated protein cross-linking and Maillard reactions in relation to the sediment formation have not been investigated previously. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), was used to absolutely quantify concentrations of furosine, N-ε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), N-ε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), lanthionine (LAN) and lysinoalanine (LAL) in skim milk and sediment of UHT milk produced from raw milk with either small or large casein micelles. The results showed a higher molar proportion of the advanced stage Maillard reaction products CEL and CML in the sediment, compared to early stage Maillard reaction product furosine, whereas furosine was predominant in the skim milk. Both LAL and LAN increased during storage in the skim milk phase, however only LAL was identified in the sediment. The milk pool with large native casein micelles, known to have a higher percentage of sedimentation, contained higher proportions of furosine, CEL, CML and LAL in the sediment compared to milk with smaller native casein micelles. The study demonstrates the potential contribution of processing-induced protein-protein interactions to sedimentation in UHT milk during storage. Full article
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Article
Combination of Chitosan, Tea Polyphenols, and Nisin on the Bacterial Inhibition and Quality Maintenance of Plant-Based Meat
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1524; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101524 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Plant-based meat products have gained attention in the food industry and with consumers. Plant-based meat products primarily comprise plant proteins and are rich in nutrients. However, the products are highly susceptible to bacterial contamination during storage. Biological preservatives are easily degradable alternatives to [...] Read more.
Plant-based meat products have gained attention in the food industry and with consumers. Plant-based meat products primarily comprise plant proteins and are rich in nutrients. However, the products are highly susceptible to bacterial contamination during storage. Biological preservatives are easily degradable alternatives to chemical preservatives and can preserve different kinds of food. In order to investigate the preservation properties of chitosan (CS), tea polyphenols (TPs), and nisin treatments on plant-based meats, the sensory evaluation, color difference, pH, TBARS, and the total plate count of E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella, indicators of the biological preservative-treated plant-based meat, were determined in this study. The experiment involved blank control- and biological preservative-treated samples. We found that the total microbial count exceeded the national standard provisions in the control samples stored for 14 days. The colors, tissue structures, and flavors of plant-based meat have gradually deteriorated, with the sensory score dropping from 90 to 52. The sample had a loose tissue structure and an obvious sour taste. However, the shelf life of the plant-based meat samples treated with different combinations of the biological preservatives increased compared to the shelf life of the control samples. After 56 d of storage, 1% chitosan, 2.5% tea polyphenols, and 0.04% nisin sensory reduction to 56, the total number of colonies and S. aureus were 4.91 and 2.95 lg CFU/g, approaching the national standard threshold; E. coli was 2 lg CFU/g, reaching the national standard threshold. Thus, the samples treated with 1% chitosan, 2.5% tea polyphenols, and 0.04% nisin had the longest shelf life (56 days) among all experimental groups. Hence, this study reveals that a combination of biological preservatives may be a non-toxic alternative for the efficient preservation of plant-based meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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Article
Microbiological and Physicochemical Composition of Various Types of Homemade Kombucha Beverages Using Alternative Kinds of Sugars
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1523; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101523 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 463
Abstract
Kombucha is a beverage made by fermenting sweetened tea with a symbiotic culture of yeast and bacteria. Literature data indicate that the kombucha beverage shows many health-promoting properties such as detoxification, chemo-preventive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, and general strengthening. The research conducted focuses on [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a beverage made by fermenting sweetened tea with a symbiotic culture of yeast and bacteria. Literature data indicate that the kombucha beverage shows many health-promoting properties such as detoxification, chemo-preventive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, and general strengthening. The research conducted focuses on the analysis of polyphenolic compounds formed in the fermentation process using ultra-efficient liquid chromatography, as well as on checking the antimicrobial properties of kombucha against pathogenic bacteria and yeasts found in food. Analysis of the composition of the tea mushroom (SCOBY) microflora using the MALDI TOF MS Biotyper mass spectrometer showed 8 species of bacteria and 7 species of yeasts. In vitro studies confirm the bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties of fermented kombucha beverages, with white and green tea beverages showing the highest antibacterial activity. The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and yeast Candida albicans were the most sensitive to the effects of kombucha tea beverages. UPLC chromatographic analysis confirmed the presence of 17 bioactive compounds in kombucha beverages that can affect human health. The analyses conducted were aimed at indicating the best recipe and conditions to prepare a kombucha beverage, which allowed the selection of the version with the best health-promoting properties. Fermented kombucha teas contain many elements such as aluminium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, and sulphur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
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Article
Acceptable Inclusion Levels for Selected Brown and Red Irish Seaweed Species in Pork Sausages
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1522; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101522 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Commercially available Irish edible brown (Himanthalia elongata—sea spaghetti (SS), Alaria esculenta—Irish wakame (IW)) and red (Palmaria palmata—dulse (PP), Porphyra umbilicalis—nori) seaweeds were incorporated into pork sausages at 1%, 2.5%, and 5%. Proximate composition, salt, water-holding (WHC), cook [...] Read more.
Commercially available Irish edible brown (Himanthalia elongata—sea spaghetti (SS), Alaria esculenta—Irish wakame (IW)) and red (Palmaria palmata—dulse (PP), Porphyra umbilicalis—nori) seaweeds were incorporated into pork sausages at 1%, 2.5%, and 5%. Proximate composition, salt, water-holding (WHC), cook loss, instrumental colour analysis, texture profile analysis (TPA), and sensory analysis were examined. Protein (13.14–15.60%), moisture (52.81–55.71%), and fat (18.79–20.02%) contents of fresh pork sausages were not influenced (p > 0.05) by seaweed type or addition level. The ash content of pork sausages containing PP, SS, and IW at 2.5% and 5%, and nori at 5%, were higher (p < 0.05) than the control sample. In comparison to the control, sausages containing nori, SS, and IW at 5% displayed higher (p < 0.05) WHC. Cook loss was unaffected (p > 0.05) by the addition of seaweeds into sausage formulations, compared to the control and within each seaweed. The addition of seaweeds into sausages had an impact on the surface colour (L* a* b*) and texture profile analysis (TPA) at different inclusion levels. Overall, hedonic sensory acceptability decreased (p < 0.05) in cooked sausages containing PP at 2.5% and 5%, and SS and IW at 5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Nutritional Quality of Fresh Meat and Meat Products)
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Article
Dietary Supplements Use among Athletes in Lebanon: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and Correlates
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1521; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101521 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Athletes are under the utmost pressure to reach excellence in their performance and achieve the desired outcomes in competitions, prompting them to use dietary supplements. Given the threats to both health and eligibility, it is crucial to observe the prevalence, sources of information, [...] Read more.
Athletes are under the utmost pressure to reach excellence in their performance and achieve the desired outcomes in competitions, prompting them to use dietary supplements. Given the threats to both health and eligibility, it is crucial to observe the prevalence, sources of information, knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) among Lebanese athletes practicing their sports for at least two years. In the present paper, a cross-sectional study is performed using the snowball sampling method, in which a self-administered KAP questionnaire is used to collect data from 455 athletes (mean age: 27.4 ± 7.9 years; men: 73.1%) participating in four sports categories (ball games, combat sports, endurance sports, and weightlifting). Among the Lebanese athletes, the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use was 74%, where half of them had predominately used sports supplements. Athletes in Lebanon heavily rely on coaches (74%) and online sources, including webpages and social media (64%), as key information sources for DSs. The findings suggest that significant proportions of athletes show knowledge deficits and unsatisfactory attitudes towards multiple aspects related to supplementation. Moreover, education and sports type modulate the use of DSs among athletes. Furthermore, 34% reported using supplements without a recommendation from specialists, and 69% admitted to not reading the supplement’s nutrition facts. This study urges the need for the regulation of concerned authorities and education programs to help overcome the existing challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements’ Quality and Their Role in Health and Disease)
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Editorial
New Research in Food Allergen Detection
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1520; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101520 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Food allergy is a worldwide health problem that concerns all ages from infants to adults [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Researches in Food Allergen Detection)
Article
Assessing and Quantifying the Surface Texture of Milk Powder Using Image Processing
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1519; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101519 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 366
Abstract
Milk powders produced from similar spray dryers have different visual appearances, while the surface appearance of the powder is a key quality attribute because the smoothness of the milk powder also affects flowability and handling properties. Traditionally quantifying this nuanced visual metric was [...] Read more.
Milk powders produced from similar spray dryers have different visual appearances, while the surface appearance of the powder is a key quality attribute because the smoothness of the milk powder also affects flowability and handling properties. Traditionally quantifying this nuanced visual metric was undertaken using sensory panelists, which is both subjective and time consuming. Therefore, it is advantageous to develop an on-line quick and robust appearance assessment tool. The aim of this work is to develop a classification model which can classify the milk powder samples into different surface smoothness groups. This work proposes a strategy for quantifying the relative roughness of commercial milk powder from 3D images. Photogrammetry equipment together with the software RealityCapture were used to build 3D models of milk powder samples, and a surface normal analysis which compares the area of the triangle formed by the 3 adjacent surface normals or compares the angle between the adjacent surface normals was used to quantify the surface smoothness of the milk powder samples. It was found that the area of the triangle of the smooth-surface milk powder cone is smaller than the area of the triangle of the rough-surface milk powder cone, and the angle between the adjacent surface normals of the rough-surface milk powder cone is larger than the angle between the adjacent surface normals of the smooth-surface milk powder cone, which proved that the proposed area metrics and angle metrics can be used as tools to quantify the smoothness of milk powder samples. Finally, the result of the support vector machine (SVM) classifier proved that image processing can be used as a preliminary tool for classifying milk powder into different surface texture groups. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Four Oil Extraction Methods for Sinami Fruit (Oenocarpus mapora H. Karst): Evaluating Quality, Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1518; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101518 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 408
Abstract
The sinami palm (Oenocarpus mapora H. Karst) is a plant from the South American Amazonia that has great potential for industrial applications in the development of functional foods, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. In this manuscript, the physicochemical properties, total polyphenol content and antioxidant [...] Read more.
The sinami palm (Oenocarpus mapora H. Karst) is a plant from the South American Amazonia that has great potential for industrial applications in the development of functional foods, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. In this manuscript, the physicochemical properties, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of sinami oil that was obtained using four extraction systems, namely expeller press extraction (EPE), cold press extraction (CPE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), were studied and compared. The oxidative stability (OSI) was statistically non-significant in EPE and SFE. The chromatic properties (CIELab) were influenced by the extraction methods and SFE presented high values of L* and a lower content of plant pigments. Ultrasound-assisted extraction showed a higher content of polyphenols and higher antioxidant activity. Different analyses for the evaluation of the physicochemical properties, the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were used to classify sinami oil according to chemometrics using principal component analysis (PCA). For example, the sinami oil that was obtained using each extraction method was in a different part of the plot. In summary, sinami oil is an excellent resource for plant pigments. Additionally, the information that was obtained on the quality parameters in this study provided a good foundation for further studies on the characterization of major and minor compounds. Full article
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Article
Chemosensitization Effect of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Pulp Oil via Autophagy and Senescence in NSCLC Cells
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1517; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101517 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 590
Abstract
The research has demonstrated a synergistic anticancer effect of Seabuckthorn pulp oil (SBO) and the standard chemotherapy regimen Docetaxel (DTX) against two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines: A549 and H23. The synergizing effect of an SBO and DTX combination was detected [...] Read more.
The research has demonstrated a synergistic anticancer effect of Seabuckthorn pulp oil (SBO) and the standard chemotherapy regimen Docetaxel (DTX) against two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines: A549 and H23. The synergizing effect of an SBO and DTX combination was detected utilizing SRB assay and combination index (CI) approaches. Flow cytometry was carried out using fluorescent probes to measure cell cycle analysis by DNA content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Further, we demonstrated that the synergistic anticancer activity of SBO merged with DTX was achieved by caspase-independent autophagy and senescence induction. These changes were concomitant with increased generation of ROS production and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) protein expression, G1-phase arrest, and enhanced senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining activity. Our data also demonstrated that SBO or DTX treatment groups solely upregulated the phosphorylation of ERK, which coincided with the induction of autophagy vacuoles and was functionally associated with ROS activation. Moreover, endogenous LC3 puncta staining was performed and monitored by confocal microscopy. Overall, these results suggest new mechanisms for the antitumor activity of SBO co-treated with DTX through triggering autophagic cell death and senescence against cancer cells as a result of sustained ERK phosphorylation and intracellular ROS production in NSCLC. In addition, we also highlight SBO as an alternative therapeutic option or adjunct therapeutic strategy in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in lung cancer therapy management. Full article
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Article
Amylose Inter-Chain Entanglement and Inter-Chain Overlap Impact Rice Quality
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1516; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101516 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Retrogradation of cooked rice happens in two ways: one is by the formation of ordered structures, and the other is through intra- and inter-chain entanglement and inter-chain overlap, which in turn are affected by the amylose chain-length distribution. Both entanglement and overlap could [...] Read more.
Retrogradation of cooked rice happens in two ways: one is by the formation of ordered structures, and the other is through intra- and inter-chain entanglement and inter-chain overlap, which in turn are affected by the amylose chain-length distribution. Both entanglement and overlap could affect rice texture. Here, four amylose samples were isolated from starch by precipitation from a dimethyl sulfoxide solution with butan-1-ol and isoamyl alcohol. Following enzymatic debranching, they were then characterized using size-exclusion chromatography. Amylose solutions (10%, m/v) were made by dissolving amylose in 90% (v/v) DMSO. Amylose gels (10%, w/v) were made by dissolving amylose powders into hot water, followed by cooling. The rigidity of the amylose gels and the structural order were measured using a texture analyzer and X-ray diffractometer, respectively. In the amylose solution, for a given mass of polymer in a fixed amount of solvent, the total occupied volume was reduced when the polymer molecular weight was smaller, resulting in less inter-chain overlap and a lower viscosity of the amylose solution. The overall mobility and diffusion of the molecules were inversely related to the square of the molecular weight until the gelation concentration. Thus, amylose gels in which amylose had a lower molecular weight had a greater chance to permeate into other molecules, which counterintuitively led to more inter-chain entanglement and more rigid amylose gels during retrogradation. This information could help rice breeders improve rice quality by using the molecular structure of starch as a guide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Article
Enhanced Soluble Expression of Linoleic Acid Isomerase by Coordinated Regulation of Promoter and Fusion Tag in Escherichia coli
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1515; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101515 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 315
Abstract
PAI is a linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes and is the key enzyme in the synthesis of trans10, cis12-conjugated linoleic acid. However, the majority of the expressed PAI in Escherichia coli occurs in its nonfunctional form in inclusion bodies, limiting [...] Read more.
PAI is a linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes and is the key enzyme in the synthesis of trans10, cis12-conjugated linoleic acid. However, the majority of the expressed PAI in Escherichia coli occurs in its nonfunctional form in inclusion bodies, limiting the biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid. In an attempt to improve the solubility of recombinant PAI in Escherichia coli, three promoters representing different transcriptional strengths (T7, CspA, and Trc), paired with three fusion tags, (His6, MBP, and Fh8), respectively, were investigated in this study. Among the nine recombinant strains, Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) (pET24a-Mpai), containing the T7 promoter and MBP fusion tag, led to a considerable increase in PAI solubility to 86.2%. MBP-PAI was purified 41-fold using affinity column chromatography. The optimum catalytical conditions of MBP-PAI were 37 °C and pH 7.5 with the addition of 1 mmol/L Tween-20. Most of the tested metal ions inhibited MBP-PAI activity. The apparent kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) were measured with linoleic acid concentrations ranging from 71 μM to 1428 μM. The substrate linoleic acid did not exert any inhibitory effect on MBP-PAI. The Km of MBP-PAI was 253.9 μmol/L, and the Vmax was 2253 nmol/min/mg. This study provided a new method for improving the solubility of the recombinant linoleic acid isomerase in Escherichia coli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Enzyme Engineering in Food)
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Article
Seaweed Value Chain Stakeholder Perspectives for Food and Environmental Safety Hazards
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1514; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101514 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 699
Abstract
With a world population estimated at 10 billion people by 2050, the challenge to secure healthy and safe food is evident. Seaweed is a potential answer to this challenge. Expanding the use of seaweed in food systems requires an emphasis on safe practices [...] Read more.
With a world population estimated at 10 billion people by 2050, the challenge to secure healthy and safe food is evident. Seaweed is a potential answer to this challenge. Expanding the use of seaweed in food systems requires an emphasis on safe practices to avoid adverse human health effects after consumption and irreversible damage to marine ecosystems. This study aims to evaluate relevant food safety and environmental safety hazards, monitoring measures, and mitigation strategies in the seaweed sector. For this study, a literature review, survey (n = 36), and interviews (n = 12) were conducted to identify hazards. The review and interviews aimed at pinpointing monitoring measures and mitigation strategies applied, while the survey revealed data gaps and further actions needed for the sector. Relevant food safety hazards include (inorganic) arsenic, iodine, and heavy metals, among others, such as pathogenic bacteria, while environmental hazards include environmental pathogens and parasites introduced into the ecosystem by domesticated seaweed, among others. Measures applied aim at preventing or mitigating hazards through good hygienic or manufacturing practices, food safety procedures or protocols, or pre-site farm selection. Although the future needs of the seaweed sector vary, for some, harmonized advice and protocols that align with a changing food system and hazard knowledge development as well as information on the benefits of seaweed and regulating climate and water quality may help. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valorization and Use of Seaweeds in the Food Sector)
Article
Effects of Xanthan Gum, Lambda-Carrageenan and Psyllium Husk on the Physical Characteristics and Glycaemic Potency of White Bread
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1513; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101513 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 649
Abstract
White bread contains a high proportion of easily digestible starch, which contributes to an undesirable rapid increase in blood glucose concentration. This study investigated the effects of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) -xanthan gum, lambda-carrageenan and psyllium husk on the physical functionality and glycaemic potency [...] Read more.
White bread contains a high proportion of easily digestible starch, which contributes to an undesirable rapid increase in blood glucose concentration. This study investigated the effects of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) -xanthan gum, lambda-carrageenan and psyllium husk on the physical functionality and glycaemic potency of white bread. The amount of water for each formulation was adjusted based on DoughLab set at a target torque value of ~500 FU for sufficient dough development. Adding NSP generally resulted in significantly increased loaf volumes and decreased hardness. The glycaemic potency (glycaemic glucose equivalents (GGE) g) of bread was found to be reduced with the addition of NSP at all levels (1, 3 and 5% w/w based on flour weight). Increasing the concentration of xanthan gum and lambda-carrageenan did not show any further decrease in the glycaemic potency. Notably, adding 5% w/w psyllium husk significantly reduced the glycaemic potency from ~49 GGE/100 g in the reference bread to 32 GGE/100 g. The reduction in the glycaemic potency was attributed to viscosity effects (for xanthan) and starch–NSP interactions (for psyllium husk). Overall, the 5% w/w psyllium husk bread sample was most promising in terms of both physical characteristics and its effect on in vitro glucose release. Full article
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Editorial
Novel Analytical Methods in Food Analysis
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1512; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101512 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Food analysis is a discipline with a huge impact on both economical and medical aspects of modern societies, meaning that it is at the cornerstone between industrial, medical, and regulatory needs [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Analytical Methods in Food Analysis)
Article
Microbial Diversity and Quality-Related Physicochemical Properties of Spicy Cabbage in Northeastern China and Their Correlation Analysis
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1511; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101511 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Chinese spicy cabbage (CSC) is a popular special fermented food in Northeast China. The bacterial community and quality of CSC from different regions of northeastern China (Group_J: Jilin province, Group_L: Liaoning province, Group_H: Heilongjiang province) at retail (Group_P) and home-made (Group_C) were investigated [...] Read more.
Chinese spicy cabbage (CSC) is a popular special fermented food in Northeast China. The bacterial community and quality of CSC from different regions of northeastern China (Group_J: Jilin province, Group_L: Liaoning province, Group_H: Heilongjiang province) at retail (Group_P) and home-made (Group_C) were investigated in this study. The determination of the microbial community was achieved using high-throughput sequencing and the quality-related physicochemical characteristics included pH, salinity, total acid (TA), amino acid nitrogen (AAN), reducing sugar (RS), nitrite, and biogenic amines (BAs). Based on OPLS-DA analysis, there was a difference between the quality of Group_C and Group_P. No significant difference was observed in province grouping. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla, and the dominant genera were Lactobacillus, Pantoea, Weissella, and Pseudomonas. All groups had significant differences in community structure (p < 0.05). Compared with Group_C, the relative abundance of opportunistic pathogens (Pseudomonas and Serratia) in Group_P was lower. Pseudomonas and Serratia were the biomarkers in Group_H. At the genus level, Lactobacilluss and Weissella had a positive correlation with pH, Cadaverrine, and salinity (p < 0.05), however, they were negatively related to tryptamine. Pseudomonas was negatively correlated with salinity (p < 0.05). Bacterial community and physicochemical parameters of CSC, as well as the correlation between them, were discussed in this study, providing a reference for future studies on CSC inoculation and fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Article
The Efficiency of Lemon Essential Oil-Based Nanoemulsions on the Inhibition of Phomopsis sp. and Reduction of Postharvest Decay of Kiwifruit
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1510; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101510 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) have excellent antibacterial activity and are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in food preservatives. However, the application of EOs is limited because of their strong volatility and easily oxidized. Encapsulation of EOs into nanoemulsions could effectively prevent oxidative [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) have excellent antibacterial activity and are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in food preservatives. However, the application of EOs is limited because of their strong volatility and easily oxidized. Encapsulation of EOs into nanoemulsions could effectively prevent oxidative deterioration. In this study, lemon essential oil-based nanoemulsion (LEO/NE) was prepared by high-pressure homogenization. FT-IR and encapsulation efficiency analysis indicated that LEO was effectively encapsulated in the nanoemulsion. The results of zeta potential changes after 35 d storage indicated that LEO/NE exhibits good stability at room temperature. The effect of LEO/NE on the main soft rot pathogens of kiwifruit Phomopsis sp. was investigated, and the results showed that LEO/NE significantly inhibited spore germination and mycelia growth of Phomopsis sp. by promoting ROS accumulation, intracellular antioxidant enzyme activities, and cell apoptosis. The preservation experiment was carried out by inoculating Phomopsis sp. spores into fresh kiwifruit, and the LEO/NE effectively inhibited soft rot development in kiwifruit in a LEO dose dependent manner. LEO/NE with 1% LEO loading amount has a good effect on preventing postharvest decay of kiwifruit caused by Phomopsis sp. Full article
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Article
Fatty Acids Profile and Healthy Lipids Indices of Native Mexican Guajolote Meat Treated to Two Heat Treatments
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1509; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101509 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Meat is a complex food with a structured nutritional composition that makes it an essential component of the human diet. In particular, the meat of native guajolote that is traditionally raised in natural conditions is an important dietary source of proteins of high [...] Read more.
Meat is a complex food with a structured nutritional composition that makes it an essential component of the human diet. In particular, the meat of native guajolote that is traditionally raised in natural conditions is an important dietary source of proteins of high biological value for the rural population of Mexico. The study aimed to evaluate fatty acids (FAs) profile and nutritional indices of breast and leg meat of native guajolote subjected to two heat treatments. For the study, a total of sixty muscle samples (30 breast meat and 30 leg meat) from adult male native guajolotes were used. The FA profile and nutritional indices were evaluated in raw meat (control) and meat subjected to two heat treatments (boiled and baked). The heat treatments, independently of the type of muscle, increased (p ≤ 0.05) the concentration of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA); in contrast, polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) decreased. Likewise, the dietary FA index, which has a negative hypercholesterolemic effect, and the atherogenic index increased in guajolote meat from the effect of the heat treatments, while the essential and undesirable hypercholesterolemic FA indices decreased. In conclusion, heat treatments increase the content of SFA and MUFAs in breast and leg meat of native guajolote. Boiling or baking the meat deteriorates PUFAs but increases the nutritional indices. The present investigation would provide valuable information for the guajolote meat product processing. Full article
Article
Analysis of Related Metabolites Affecting Taste Values in Rice under Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Amounts and Planting Densities
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1508; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101508 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 441
Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the differences in metabolites related to rice quality formation under different nitrogen (N) fertilizers and planting densities. In this study, Yangnongxiang 28 was used as the experimental material with the following conditions: high nitrogen and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to explore the differences in metabolites related to rice quality formation under different nitrogen (N) fertilizers and planting densities. In this study, Yangnongxiang 28 was used as the experimental material with the following conditions: high nitrogen and low density (HNLD; high nitrogen: 360 kg·hm−2, low density: the row spacing of rice plants was 16 cm × 30 cm), medium nitrogen and medium density (MNMD; medium nitrogen: 270 kg·hm−2, medium density: the row spacing of rice plants was 13 cm × 30 cm), and low nitrogen and high density (LNHD; low nitrogen: 270 kg·hm−2, high density: the row spacing of rice plants was 10 cm × 30 cm). The rice quality indexes, including the processing quality, amylose content, and taste value, were compared under different treatments, and we analyzed their relationship with the metabolites. The results show that the milled rice rate of HNLD was 13.85% and was 1.89% higher than that of LNHD and MNMD, respectively. The head milled rice rate of HNLD was 32.45% and 6.39% higher than that of LNHD and MNMD, respectively. The milled rice rate and head milled rice rate of HNLD and MNMD were significantly higher than those of LNHD. This study identified 22 differential metabolites (DMs) in HNLD and LNHD, 38 DMs in HNLD and MNMD, and 23 DMs in LNHD and MNMD. Most of the identified differential metabolites were lipid metabolites, which were mainly enriched in the lipid metabolic pathways and amino acid metabolic pathways. The correlation analysis showed that the lipid metabolite physapubescin was significantly negatively correlated with the taste value. The lipid metabolites 2-undecen-1-ol, lucidenic acid F, and 8-deoxy-11,13-dihydroxygrosheimin were significantly positively correlated with the taste value. Lipids may be important substances that lead to differences in taste under different nitrogen fertilizer and density treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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Communication
Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Followed by HS-SPME for the Determination of Flavor Enhancers in Seafood Using GC-MS
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1507; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101507 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 482
Abstract
The determination of flavor compounds using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can be severely interfered with by complex food matrices in food systems, especially solid samples. In this study, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was applied prior to HS-SPME [...] Read more.
The determination of flavor compounds using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can be severely interfered with by complex food matrices in food systems, especially solid samples. In this study, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was applied prior to HS-SPME to efficiently reduce the matrix effect in solid seafood samples. The method had high sensitivity (the quantification limits of maltol and ethyl maltol were 15 and 5 μg/kg, respectively), an excellent linear relationship (R2 ≥ 0.996), and the sample recovery rate was 89.0–118.6%. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) values for maltol and ethyl maltol were lower than 10%. Maltol (from 0.7 to 2.2 μg/g) and ethyl maltol (from 0.9 to 34.7 μg/g) in seafood were detected in the selected samples by the developed method. Finally, DLLME coupled with HS-SPME effectively removed the influence of sample matrix and improved the sensitivity of the method. The developed method was applicable in the analysis of flavor enhancers in complex matrix foods. Full article
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Article
Discrimination of Stressed and Non-Stressed Food-Related Bacteria Using Raman-Microspectroscopy
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1506; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101506 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 419
Abstract
As the identification of microorganisms becomes more significant in industry, so does the utilization of microspectroscopy and the development of effective chemometric models for data analysis and classification. Since only microorganisms cultivated under laboratory conditions can be identified, but they are exposed to [...] Read more.
As the identification of microorganisms becomes more significant in industry, so does the utilization of microspectroscopy and the development of effective chemometric models for data analysis and classification. Since only microorganisms cultivated under laboratory conditions can be identified, but they are exposed to a variety of stress factors, such as temperature differences, there is a demand for a method that can take these stress factors and the associated reactions of the bacteria into account. Therefore, bacterial stress reactions to lifetime conditions (regular treatment, 25 °C, HCl, 2-propanol, NaOH) and sampling conditions (cold sampling, desiccation, heat drying) were induced to explore the effects on Raman spectra in order to improve the chemometric models. As a result, in this study nine food-relevant bacteria were exposed to seven stress conditions in addition to routine cultivation as a control. Spectral alterations in lipids, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins were observed when compared to normal growth circumstances without stresses. Regardless of the involvement of several stress factors and storage times, a model for differentiating the analyzed microorganisms from genus down to strain level was developed. Classification of the independent training dataset at genus and species level for Escherichia coli and at strain level for the other food relevant microorganisms showed a classification rate of 97.6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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Article
Astragalin and Isoquercitrin Isolated from Aster scaber Suppress LPS-Induced Neuroinflammatory Responses in Microglia and Mice
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1505; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101505 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 428
Abstract
The current study investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and mechanisms of astragalin (Ast) and isoquercitrin (Que) isolated from chamchwi (Aster scaber Thunb.) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia and hippocampus of LPS induced mice. LPS induced increased cytotoxicity, nitric oxide (NO) production, antioxidant activity, [...] Read more.
The current study investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and mechanisms of astragalin (Ast) and isoquercitrin (Que) isolated from chamchwi (Aster scaber Thunb.) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia and hippocampus of LPS induced mice. LPS induced increased cytotoxicity, nitric oxide (NO) production, antioxidant activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, protein kinase B phosphorylation, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) phosphorylation in LPS-treated microglial cells. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS also induced neuroinflammatory effects in the murine hippocampus. Ast and Que significantly reduced LPS-induced production of NO, iNOS, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the microglia and hippocampus of mice. Therefore, anti-inflammatory effects on MAPK signaling pathways mediate microglial cell and hippocampus inflammation. In LPS-activated microglia and hippocampus of LPS-induced mice, Ast or Que inhibited MAPK kinase phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 signaling proteins. Ast and Que inhibited LPS-induced ROS generation in microglia and increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging. In addition, LPS treatment increased the heme oxygenase-1 level, which was further elevated after Ast or Que treatments. Ast and Que exert anti-neuroinflammatory activity by down-regulation of MAPKs signaling pathways in LPS-activated microglia and hippocampus of mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Food and Bioactive Food Components)
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Article
Effects of Soybean Oil Body as a Milk Fat Substitute on Ice Cream: Physicochemical, Sensory and Digestive Properties
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1504; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101504 - 22 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 453
Abstract
Soybean oil body (SOB) has potential as a milk fat substitute due to its ideal emulsification, stability and potential biological activity. In this study, SOB was used as a milk fat substitute to prepare ice cream, expecting to reduce the content of saturated [...] Read more.
Soybean oil body (SOB) has potential as a milk fat substitute due to its ideal emulsification, stability and potential biological activity. In this study, SOB was used as a milk fat substitute to prepare ice cream, expecting to reduce the content of saturated fatty acid and improve the quality defects of ice cream products caused by the poor stability of milk fat at low temperatures. This study investigated the effect of SOB as a milk fat substitute (the substitution amount was 10–50%) on ice cream through apparent viscosity, particle size, overrun, melting, texture, sensory and digestive properties. The results show SOB substitution for milk fat significantly increased the apparent viscosity and droplet uniformity and decreased the particle size of the ice cream mixes, indicating that there were lots of intermolecular interactions to improve ice cream stability. In addition, ice cream with 30% to 50% SOB substitution had better melting properties and texture characteristics. The ice cream with 40% SOB substitution had the highest overall acceptability. Furthermore, SOB substitution for milk fat increased unsaturated fatty acid content in ice cream and fatty acid release during digestion, which had potential health benefits for consumers. Therefore, SOB as a milk fat substitute may be an effective way to improve the nutritional value and quality characteristics of dairy products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Delivery System and Functional Food)
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Article
The Response and Survival Mechanisms of Staphylococcus aureus under High Salinity Stress in Salted Foods
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1503; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101503 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has a strong tolerance to high salt stress. It is a major reason as to why the contamination of S. aureus in salted food cannot be eradicated. To elucidate its response and survival mechanisms, changes in the [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has a strong tolerance to high salt stress. It is a major reason as to why the contamination of S. aureus in salted food cannot be eradicated. To elucidate its response and survival mechanisms, changes in the morphology, biofilm formation, virulence, transcriptome, and metabolome of S. aureus were investigated. IsaA positively regulates and participates in the formation of biofilm. Virulence was downregulated to reduce the depletion of nonessential cellular functions. Inositol phosphate metabolism was downregulated to reduce the conversion of functional molecules. The MtsABC transport system was downregulated to reduce ion transport and signaling. Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis was upregulated to improve cellular homeostasis. The betaine biosynthesis pathway was upregulated to protect the active structure of proteins and nucleic acids. Within a 10% NaCl concentration, the L-proline content was upregulated to increase osmotic stability. In addition, 20 hub genes were identified through an interaction analysis. The findings provide theoretical support for the prevention and control of salt-tolerant bacteria in salted foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Article
Effects of Orientations and Regions on Performance of Online Soluble Solids Content Prediction Models Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Peaches
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1502; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101502 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Predicting the soluble solid content (SSC) of peaches based on visible/near infrared spectroscopy has attracted widespread attention. Due to the anisotropic structure of peach fruit, spectra collected from different orientations and regions of peach fruit will bring variations in the performance of SSC [...] Read more.
Predicting the soluble solid content (SSC) of peaches based on visible/near infrared spectroscopy has attracted widespread attention. Due to the anisotropic structure of peach fruit, spectra collected from different orientations and regions of peach fruit will bring variations in the performance of SSC prediction models. In this study, the effects of spectra collection orientations and regions on online SSC prediction models for peaches were investigated. Full transmittance spectra were collected in two orientations: stem-calyx axis vertical (Orientation1) and stem-calyx axis horizontal (Orientation2). A partial least squares (PLS) method was used to evaluate the spectra collected in the two orientations. Then, each peach fruit was divided into three parts. PLS was used to evaluate the corresponding spectra of combinations of these three parts. Finally, effective wavelengths were selected using the successive projections algorithm (SPA) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS). Both orientations were ideal for spectra acquisition. Regions without peach pit were ideal for modeling, and the effective wavelengths selected by the SPA led to better performance. The correlation coefficient and root mean square error of validation of the optimal models were 0.90 and 0.65%, respectively, indicating that the optimal model has potential for online prediction of peach SSC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Article
Studies on Flavor Compounds and Free Amino Acid Dynamic Characteristics of Fermented Pork Loin Ham with a Complex Starter
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1501; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101501 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 415
Abstract
Staphylococcus simulans and Lactobacillus plantarum screened from Guizhou specialty food were used to prepare fermented pork loin ham. The sensory qualities and flavor profiles of fermented pork loin hams from 0 to 42 days were investigated in order to reveal the dynamics of [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus simulans and Lactobacillus plantarum screened from Guizhou specialty food were used to prepare fermented pork loin ham. The sensory qualities and flavor profiles of fermented pork loin hams from 0 to 42 days were investigated in order to reveal the dynamics of fermented pork loin ham. The results show that total free amino acids (TFAA) content reached the highest value on the 35th day, and the umami amino acids, including aspartic acid (ASP), glutamic acid (GLU), glycine (GLY), and alanine (ALA), were the main amino acids in all periods. Notably, the RV coefficient (0.875) indicates that free amino acids (FAA) are highly correlated with the sensory score of the E-tongue. In terms of the volatile compounds identified, the esters content gradually increased between 7 and 42 days, and ethyl octanoate was the most abundant compound during all periods. These esters imparted a characteristic aroma component to the fermented pork loin ham. The most important finding was that the increase in the content of esters represented by octanoic acid-ethyl ester might be related to the increase in the content of FAA with the increase in fermentation time. Both the E-nose and E-tongue showed good discrimination ability for fermented tenderloin ham with different fermentation times, which was crucial in cases with large clusters. In addition, the multiple factor analysis (MFA) indicated that the E-nose aroma value might be the key factor in distinguishing fermented pork loin ham with different fermentation times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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Review
Sentiment Analysis of Customer Reviews of Food Delivery Services Using Deep Learning and Explainable Artificial Intelligence: Systematic Review
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1500; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101500 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 670
Abstract
During the COVID-19 crisis, customers’ preference in having food delivered to their doorstep instead of waiting in a restaurant has propelled the growth of food delivery services (FDSs). With all restaurants going online and bringing FDSs onboard, such as UberEATS, Menulog or Deliveroo, [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 crisis, customers’ preference in having food delivered to their doorstep instead of waiting in a restaurant has propelled the growth of food delivery services (FDSs). With all restaurants going online and bringing FDSs onboard, such as UberEATS, Menulog or Deliveroo, customer reviews on online platforms have become an important source of information about the company’s performance. FDS organisations aim to gather complaints from customer feedback and effectively use the data to determine the areas for improvement to enhance customer satisfaction. This work aimed to review machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) models and explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) methods to predict customer sentiments in the FDS domain. A literature review revealed the wide usage of lexicon-based and ML techniques for predicting sentiments through customer reviews in FDS. However, limited studies applying DL techniques were found due to the lack of the model interpretability and explainability of the decisions made. The key findings of this systematic review are as follows: 77% of the models are non-interpretable in nature, and organisations can argue for the explainability and trust in the system. DL models in other domains perform well in terms of accuracy but lack explainability, which can be achieved with XAI implementation. Future research should focus on implementing DL models for sentiment analysis in the FDS domain and incorporating XAI techniques to bring out the explainability of the models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Consumption Behavior during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Freeze-Drying Processes Applied to Melon Peel: Assessment of Physicochemical Attributes and Intrinsic Microflora Survival during Storage
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1499; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods11101499 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Melon peel is recognized as a source of healthy nutrients and oxidant compounds. Being considered a non-edible part with no profit value, large amounts of melon rinds are discharged by fruit industries. Innovative food ingredients with potential health benefits may arise if these [...] Read more.
Melon peel is recognized as a source of healthy nutrients and oxidant compounds. Being considered a non-edible part with no profit value, large amounts of melon rinds are discharged by fruit industries. Innovative food ingredients with potential health benefits may arise if these parts were conveniently transformed. The objective was to freeze-dry small melon peel cubes to attain a potential edible matrix. An ozone pre-treatment was applied seeking decontamination purposes and quality retention. The effect of these processes was assessed in terms of physicochemical parameters (moisture content, water activity and color), bioactive compounds (total phenolics, vitamin C and chlorophylls) and antioxidant capacity, during 7 weeks of storage at room temperature. Intrinsic microflora (mesophylls, yeasts and molds) were also monitored. Results showed that the freeze-drying process allowed retention of the most bioactive compounds analyzed, except for total phenolic content. In this case, the ozone pre-treatment was important for phenolics preservation. During the storage period, ozonated samples presented a higher content of bioactive compounds. In terms of microflora, the ozone and freeze-drying effects were not significant. Freeze-drying proved to be a suitable preservation method for melon peel. The ozone impact was not relevant in terms of decontamination. Full article
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