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Article

Chemical Markers to Distinguish the Homo- and Heterozygous Bitter Genotype in Sweet Almond Kernels

1
Departament de Nutrició, Ciències de l’Alimentació i Gastronomia, Campus De l’Alimentació de Torribera, Facultat de Farmàcia i Ciències de l’Alimentació, Universitat de Barcelona, 08921 Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain
2
Institut de Recerca en Nutrició i Seguretat Alimentària (INSA-UB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), 08921 Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain
3
Instituto de Biología Agrícola de Mendoza (IBAM-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 5505 Mendoza, Argentina
4
Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology (IRTA)-Mas Bové Ctra. Reus-El Morell km 3.8, 43120 Constanti, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2020 / Revised: 29 May 2020 / Accepted: 1 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
Bitterness in almonds is controlled by a single gene (Sk dominant for sweet kernel, sk recessive for bitter kernel) and the proportions of the offspring genotypes (SkSk, Sksk, sksk) depend on the progenitors’ genotype. Currently, the latter is deduced after crossing by recording the phenotype of their descendants through kernel tasting. Chemical markers to early identify parental genotypes related to bitter traits can significantly enhance the efficiency of almond breeding programs. On this basis, volatile metabolites related to almond bitterness were investigated by Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry coupled to univariate and multivariate statistics on 244 homo- and heterozygous samples from 42 different cultivars. This study evidenced the association between sweet almonds’ genotype and some volatile metabolites, in particular benzaldehyde, and provided for the first time chemical markers to discriminate between homo- and heterozygous sweet almond genotypes. Furthermore, a multivariate approach based on independent variables was developed to increase the reliability of almond classification. The Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis classification model built with selected volatile metabolites that showed discrimination capacity allowed a 98.0% correct classification. The metabolites identified, in particular benzaldehyde, become suitable markers for the early genotype identification in almonds, while a DNA molecular marker is not yet available. View Full-Text
Keywords: Prunus dulcis; Prunus amygdalus; breeding; almond kernel; bitterness; genotype; benzaldehyde; chemical marker Prunus dulcis; Prunus amygdalus; breeding; almond kernel; bitterness; genotype; benzaldehyde; chemical marker
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vichi, S.; Mayer, M.N.; León-Cárdenas, M.G.; Quintanilla-Casas, B.; Tres, A.; Guardiola, F.; Batlle, I.; Romero, A. Chemical Markers to Distinguish the Homo- and Heterozygous Bitter Genotype in Sweet Almond Kernels. Foods 2020, 9, 747. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9060747

AMA Style

Vichi S, Mayer MN, León-Cárdenas MG, Quintanilla-Casas B, Tres A, Guardiola F, Batlle I, Romero A. Chemical Markers to Distinguish the Homo- and Heterozygous Bitter Genotype in Sweet Almond Kernels. Foods. 2020; 9(6):747. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9060747

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vichi, Stefania, Morgana N. Mayer, Maria G. León-Cárdenas, Beatriz Quintanilla-Casas, Alba Tres, Francesc Guardiola, Ignasi Batlle, and Agustí Romero. 2020. "Chemical Markers to Distinguish the Homo- and Heterozygous Bitter Genotype in Sweet Almond Kernels" Foods 9, no. 6: 747. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9060747

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