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Logistics, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 22 articles

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Article
Digital Supply Chain Twins—Conceptual Clarification, Use Cases and Benefits
by , , and
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040086 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2021
Abstract
Background: Digital supply chain twins (DSCT) are gaining increased attention in academia and practice as they emerge as one of the most important trends in logistics and supply chain management (LSCM). Still, there seems to be no common understanding of the term [...] Read more.
Background: Digital supply chain twins (DSCT) are gaining increased attention in academia and practice as they emerge as one of the most important trends in logistics and supply chain management (LSCM). Still, there seems to be no common understanding of the term in scientific literature. Moreover, the broad field of LSCM allows for a multitude of feasible application areas and use cases, yet there exists no conclusive list of them as to date. Methods: This study builds upon a systematic literature review of 66 DSCT articles to identify application areas of DSCT in LSCM as well as specific use cases and their respective intended benefits. Results: To start with, the study derives a unified definition of DSCTs, including possible scopes of applications. Afterwards, five application areas of DSCT in LSCM are synthesized as well as 14 individual use cases and their respective intended benefits. Conclusions: The study leads towards a conceptual clarification of DSCT that is of importance for research and practice alike. For managers it additionally provides up-to-date use cases to guide DSCT applications in practice. Full article
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Article
Value Proposition Assessment of Blockchain Technology for Luxury, Food, and Healthcare Supply Chains
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040085 - 01 Dec 2021
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Background: In relevant research, blockchain technology (BCT) is credited with great potential for supply chain management (SCM). However, even after more than 10 years of the technology’s existence, it is barely used for any self-sustaining applications. This raises the question of why [...] Read more.
Background: In relevant research, blockchain technology (BCT) is credited with great potential for supply chain management (SCM). However, even after more than 10 years of the technology’s existence, it is barely used for any self-sustaining applications. This raises the question of why BC cannot prevail against its alternatives. With this paper we want to identify criteria by which the added value of BCT can be measured. Furthermore, we want to evaluate how well the different supply chains (SC) exploit the added values of BCT. Methods: For this, we identified real-world examples and case studies for luxury, food, and healthcare SCs. These examples are described in detail and then analyzed for their added value compared to possible alternatives. Results: The results show that in the clusters of food and healthcare SCs, no general added value of BC over current best-practice solutions could be verified. Luxury SCs manage valuable products that are typically traded in small quantities. It is within this cluster that the implementation of BC can be justified best. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study shows that the application of BCT is especially beneficial for goods with a high value and low trade volume. In addition, the interface between reality and the digital twin should be as secure as the database or BC solution itself. Furthermore, the demand for transparency and immutability of data should be more important than the need to protect sensitive data. Finally, SC participants, especially the end customer, must also be able to appreciate the advantages of BCT. Full article
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Review
Digital Twin Integrated Reinforced Learning in Supply Chain and Logistics
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040084 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Background: As the Internet of Things (IoT) has become more prevalent in recent years, digital twins have attracted a lot of attention. A digital twin is a virtual representation that replicates a physical object or process over a period of time. These [...] Read more.
Background: As the Internet of Things (IoT) has become more prevalent in recent years, digital twins have attracted a lot of attention. A digital twin is a virtual representation that replicates a physical object or process over a period of time. These tools directly assist in reducing the manufacturing and supply chain lead time to produce a lean, flexible, and smart production and supply chain setting. Recently, reinforced machine learning has been introduced in production and logistics systems to build prescriptive decision support platforms to create a combination of lean, smart, and agile production setup. Therefore, there is a need to cumulatively arrange and systematize the past research done in this area to get a better understanding of the current trend and future research directions from the perspective of Industry 4.0. Methods: Strict keyword selection, search strategy, and exclusion criteria were applied in the Scopus database (2010 to 2021) to systematize the literature. Results: The findings are snowballed as a systematic review and later the final data set has been conducted to understand the intensity and relevance of research work done in different subsections related to the context of the research agenda proposed. Conclusion: A framework for data-driven digital twin generation and reinforced learning has been proposed at the end of the paper along with a research paradigm. Full article
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Review
Food Supply Chain Transformation through Technology and Future Research Directions—A Systematic Review
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040083 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 231
Abstract
Background: Digital and smart supply chains are reforming the food chain to help eliminate waste, improve food safety, and reduce the possibility of a global food catastrophe. The globe currently faces numerous food-related issues, ranging from a lack of biodiversity to excessive [...] Read more.
Background: Digital and smart supply chains are reforming the food chain to help eliminate waste, improve food safety, and reduce the possibility of a global food catastrophe. The globe currently faces numerous food-related issues, ranging from a lack of biodiversity to excessive waste, and from ill health caused by excessive consumption to widespread food insecurity. It is time to look back at how technology has tackled food supply-chain challenges related to quality, safety, and sustainability over the last decade. Moreover, continuous transformations of the food supply chain into a more sustainable business model with utmost resilience is the need of the hour due to COVID-19 disruptions. Method: This study aimed to systematize literature (2010–2021) in the described context and propose a future research direction, with the assistance of a systematic review and bibliometric analysis on the research agenda proposed above. Results: The findings reveal that technological Industry 4.0 (IR 4.0) tools face specific barriers due to the scope and objective of the application. Conclusion: The Internet of Things has received more attention than any other IR 4.0 tool. More integration between the specialized tools is needed to address this issue. Furthermore, the authors have proposed a food supply chain-based operational framework on technological inclusion to facilitate the roadmap for food supply chain 4.0 for more resilience and food supply chain viability. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Collaboration-Based and Non-Collaboration-Based Logistics Risks with Plithogenic SWARA Method
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040082 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 195
Abstract
Background: Uncertainty is the major source of hazards, and it is present in a wide range of business activities. Due to the high level of unpredictability in logistics operations, the logistics sector has traditionally operated in a high-risk environment. These risks have [...] Read more.
Background: Uncertainty is the major source of hazards, and it is present in a wide range of business activities. Due to the high level of unpredictability in logistics operations, the logistics sector has traditionally operated in a high-risk environment. These risks have become considerably more complicated as the corporate environment has changed in recent years, such through globalization, environmental concerns, and changes in demand. As a result, in order for a logistics firm to thrive, it is necessary to evaluate and assess the risks associated with logistics. Methods: The Plithogenic Stepwise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis (SWARA) has been used in this study to assess the logistics risks. The logistics risk considered in this study are transportation-related risks, purchasing-related risks, inventory-related risks, information-related risks, packaging-related risks, operational-related risks, geographical location-related risks, natural disaster-related risks, and organization-related risks. Results: The most significant logistics risks are found to be Inventory-Related Risks, while the least significant are Geographical Location-Related Risks. When compared to the standard SWARA approach, the Plithogenic SWARA method may be employed in group decision-making issues without losing information. Conclusions: The proposed technique will help logistics professionals make informed decisions and manage and analyze risks more efficiently. This study will also contribute to the literature as it is the first time that logistical risks have been addressed by utilizing the Plithogenic SWARA technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Logistics Cooperation: Integrated Logistics Services)
Review
Sustainable Supply Chain Management in the Route for a Circular Economy: An Integrative Literature Review
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040081 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) considers social, environmental, and economic dimensions of sustainability. In the context of the pandemic, organizations must face consequences striking the wider dimensions of sustainability. Thus, after the COVID-19 pandemic, how will the value chains collaborate for the transition [...] Read more.
Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) considers social, environmental, and economic dimensions of sustainability. In the context of the pandemic, organizations must face consequences striking the wider dimensions of sustainability. Thus, after the COVID-19 pandemic, how will the value chains collaborate for the transition from a traditional (linear) to a Circular Economy? From this question, in this paper, we analyze the international papers that connect sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) with circular economy (CE). We conducted an Integrative Literature Review based on the Web of Science and Scopus databases from 2010 to 2020, using the Methodi Ordinatio protocol to classify the papers. The 37 best-ranked papers were analyzed thoroughly. The results show the prominent authors, institutions, the network relationship between authors, the evolution of publications, and the leading journals. The content of these articles was categorized and discussed about the changes in the way products are manufactured, distributed, consumed, and recovered. The integration of CE principles in SSCM has been evaluated as having potential utility for industries, cities, and businesses in general. Finally, an agenda was identified with suggestions for further research, which can aid researchers and practitioners acting in this field. Managers can obtain insights to improve supply chain sustainability and consequently respond to the challenges imposed by the current pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Logistics in the New Era)
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Article
Assessment of the Benefits of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Adoption on Downstream Supply Chain Performance of the Retail Industry
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040080 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic-driven supply chain disruptions have pushed supply chain decision-makers in the retail industry to implement information and communication technologies (ICT) to improve the efficiency and resiliency of their supply chain. However, they need some guidance to identify the functional [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic-driven supply chain disruptions have pushed supply chain decision-makers in the retail industry to implement information and communication technologies (ICT) to improve the efficiency and resiliency of their supply chain. However, they need some guidance to identify the functional elements of the supply chain for ICT adoption and the benefits of implementing ICT on their supply chain performance. Methods: We conducted an empirical study that provides guidance on the performance benefits of ICT adoption specifically for the downstream supply chain of the retail industry. This study employed the feature engineering technique to prioritize the functional elements of the supply chain to maximize the benefits of ICT adoption on supply chain performance. Results: ICT adoption benefits the retail industry’s overall downstream supply chain performance in the range of 9–41%. Moreover, the study discovered the key functional elements of the supply chain for ICT adoption that significantly improve the overall supply chain performance. Conclusions: The study presents a definite view of the quantitative benefits of ICT adoption to the supply chain decision-makers of the retail industry and aids them in selecting appropriate functional elements for ICT adoption to maximize their supply chain performance. Full article
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Article
Civil-Military Cooperation: Integrated Logistics in Response to the COVID-19 Crisis
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040079 - 04 Nov 2021
Viewed by 327
Abstract
Background: This article addresses the civil-military cooperation in response to the COVID-19 crisis. In early 2021, the number of daily infections and the growing number of COVID-19 hospitalizations in Portugal were dramatic, reaching the highest rates in the world. In response, the [...] Read more.
Background: This article addresses the civil-military cooperation in response to the COVID-19 crisis. In early 2021, the number of daily infections and the growing number of COVID-19 hospitalizations in Portugal were dramatic, reaching the highest rates in the world. In response, the Armed Forces were engaged and played a significant role in helping the National Health Service (NHS). The NHS is just one of many existing examples which demonstrate the relevance of logistical support from the Armed Forces so that civil institutions can return to a sustainable and autonomous situation. Methods: In order to understand and describe this real-life phenomenon, a qualitative and exploratory case study was conducted. Several sources of data collection were used for triangulation and corroboration. Results: The results suggest that, in emergency situations, logistical operations of the Armed Forces in support of civil society are divided into four major areas: planning and organizational activities; priority setting; combat service support; and training and self-reliance. Conclusions: Once the four areas of action of the Armed Forces were identified, the response to the COVID-19 crisis became more evident, as civil entities were able to make requests suited to military capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Logistics Cooperation: Integrated Logistics Services)
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Article
Supply Chain Resilience Roadmaps for Major Disruptions
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040078 - 04 Nov 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Background: Unexpected events or major supply chain disruptions have demonstrated the vulnerability in which supply chains operate. While supply chains are usually prepared for operational disruptions, unexpected or black swan events are widely disregarded, as there is no reliable way to forecast them. [...] Read more.
Background: Unexpected events or major supply chain disruptions have demonstrated the vulnerability in which supply chains operate. While supply chains are usually prepared for operational disruptions, unexpected or black swan events are widely disregarded, as there is no reliable way to forecast them. However, this kind of event could rapidly and seriously deteriorate supply chain performance, and ignoring that possibility could lead to devastating consequences. Methods: In this paper, definitions of major disruptions and the methods to cope with them are studied. Additionally, a methodology to develop supply chain resilience roadmaps is conceptualised by analysing existing literature to help plan for unexpected events. Results: The methodology is introduced to create roadmaps comprises several stages, including supply chain exploration, scenario planning, system analysis, definition of strategies, and signal monitoring. Each roadmap contains the description of a plausible future in terms of supply chain disruptions and the strategies to implement to help mitigate negative impacts. Conclusions: The creation of roadmaps calls for an anticipatory mindset from all members along the supply chain. The roadmaps development establishes the foundations for a holistic supply chain disruption preparation and analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Supply Chain Challenges under COVID-19)
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Article
The Role of Logistics in Food Waste Reduction in Wholesalers and Small Retailers of Fruits and Vegetables: A Multiple Case Study
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040077 - 04 Nov 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Background: There is a lack of studies on the waste of fruits and vegetables covering both distributors and the retail sector. Our study advances from previous ones by proposing the analysis of local retailers of different sizes and wholesalers. Our objective was to [...] Read more.
Background: There is a lack of studies on the waste of fruits and vegetables covering both distributors and the retail sector. Our study advances from previous ones by proposing the analysis of local retailers of different sizes and wholesalers. Our objective was to analyze the logistical practices to reduce the waste of fruits and vegetables in wholesalers and small retailers in Federal District, Brazil. Methods: A multiple case study was conducted with 19 retailers and eight wholesalers. We administered semi-structured interviews and performed documental analysis and direct observation. Results: The findings demonstrated the leading logistical practices of handling, conservation, management and control, and consumer awareness about food waste. The type of retailer was limited to grocery stores and fruit shops, and the type of food covered only fruits and vegetables. Furthermore, we considered the food waste generated in the logistics processes and not that after consumption. Conclusions: More than a third of the food produced worldwide is lost or wasted. A considerable part of the food waste is associated with the lack of an adequate structure of the logistical processes. The results may contribute to the adoption of practices related to reducing food waste by retailers and wholesalers. Full article
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Article
A Puzzle-Based Sequencing System for Logistics Items
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040076 - 28 Oct 2021
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Background: The new demands of the current market including for space should be satisfied by designing modern material flow systems. Designing warehouses using effective material handling equipment significantly supports cost reduction and efficient space utilization. Sequencing of items is an important process that [...] Read more.
Background: The new demands of the current market including for space should be satisfied by designing modern material flow systems. Designing warehouses using effective material handling equipment significantly supports cost reduction and efficient space utilization. Sequencing of items is an important process that leads to enhanced logistics operations. Current approaches are not capable of fully fulfilling dynamic changes. Methods: In this paper, a puzzle-based sequencing system with a high density and highly efficient floor space utilization was successfully developed. Accordingly, two solving methods were investigated: game tree and pathfinding algorithms. A-star was chosen based on pathfinding algorithms in order to find the shortest solution of the puzzle in which the sequencing time was decreased. The pre-sorting strategy was proposed to overcome the unsolvable configuration issue that cannot be solved by the aforementioned methods. Moreover, the shape of the puzzle was considered. Results: Based on numerical calculations, we found that a square shape was better than a rectangle in terms of solution steps, and we confirmed the direct relationship between the aspect ratio and rectilinear distance, which directly affects the pre-sorting steps. Conclusion: Our results prove that the puzzle-based sequencing system should be highly preferred for effective floor space utilization compared to the current systems. Full article
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Article
How Useful Is a Distributed Ledger for Tracking and Tracing in Supply Chains? A Systems Thinking Approach
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040075 - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Background: The use of blockchain technology for tracking and tracing (T&T) in supply chains is the subject of lively debate in scientific literature. However, distributed ledger technology (DLT) does not have to have the characteristic blockchain structure and often performs better without [...] Read more.
Background: The use of blockchain technology for tracking and tracing (T&T) in supply chains is the subject of lively debate in scientific literature. However, distributed ledger technology (DLT) does not have to have the characteristic blockchain structure and often performs better without such a structure. Generalized DLT for T&T in supply chains has rarely been discussed in the existing literature. Methods: This article presents an exploratory case study research of eight companies to identify the main goals, and problems that the companies have when they engage in T&T. This practical perspective is complemented by a theoretical systems thinking perspective. Based on these two foundations, we discuss the usefulness of blockchain technology and, more generally, DLT for T&T in supply chains. Results: Based on our analysis, DLT is only necessary in special cases, e.g., when the owners of the data have an interest in deleting the data, but the data stakeholders do not. In the other cases examined, DLT competes with other technologies, such as conventional, centralized databases in combination with digital signatures. Furthermore, it became evident that DLT can only be useful for supply chain tracing. The technological features of DLT do not provide any benefit for supply chain tracking, i.e., the timely communication of the status of a physical good. Conclusions: Distributed ledgers often have a disadvantage in that they are very complex and, therefore, expensive. DLT should preferably only be used when it is technologically necessary or the simplest/cheapest choice, which is probably not all that often. Finally, the usefulness of distributed ledger technology and its integrated smart contract technology is highly dependent on how easy it is to link the real physical world to a digital record/contract in an error-free and tamper-proof way. Currently, such a definite link exists only in very few cases and is often impossible. Full article
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Article
An Integrated Approach for Evaluating Lean Innovation Practices in the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040074 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 417
Abstract
Backgroung: Lean innovation focuses on minimizing waste in the product development stages in order to increase productivity by obtaining customer feedback more quickly and efficiently. The usage of lean innovation practices in product development stages in the pharmaceutical supply chain is the topic [...] Read more.
Backgroung: Lean innovation focuses on minimizing waste in the product development stages in order to increase productivity by obtaining customer feedback more quickly and efficiently. The usage of lean innovation practices in product development stages in the pharmaceutical supply chain is the topic of an increasing amount of research on the critical question of how lean innovation practices can be implemented in a pharmaceutical supply chain or logistic sector. To answer this question, we first identified lean innovation practices by reviewing the literature. Methods: the identified practices were screened using the fuzzy Delphi method (FDM). The expert panel included eight persons working in pharmaceutical supply chain fields. In the next step, the causal relationships between practices were analyzed using the Gray DEMATEL (GDEMATEL) technique. Results: show that technological knowledge was the most crucial factor in lean innovation practices in the pharmaceutical supply chain. Conclusions: Actualizing lean innovation in the supply chain is more than just utilizing the correct strategies and instruments. To execute lean innovation effectively, a reevaluation must be accomplished: A culture that recognizes requirements for change and is set up for consistent change is essential. Methodological strategies such as the value system cannot be set up as a one-time strategy. To execute lean innovation on a long-haul premise, members must be included and become acclimated to a proceeding with the progress process. Changes in forms are frequently used because of an absence of association of suppliers, regardless of whether measures are sensible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Logistics Cooperation: Integrated Logistics Services)
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Article
E-Business Strategy for Logistics Companies: Achieving Success through Information Systems Planning
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040073 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Background: E-business and Information Technology (IT) are critical components in the improvement of logistics functions. As logistics contributes to the entire strategic planning of a firm, e-business and IT applications support the implementation of strategic planning in a more efficient and effective [...] Read more.
Background: E-business and Information Technology (IT) are critical components in the improvement of logistics functions. As logistics contributes to the entire strategic planning of a firm, e-business and IT applications support the implementation of strategic planning in a more efficient and effective manner. According to this view, previous scholars have ignored the importance of Information Systems (IS) planning in the selection and implementation of appropriate IS as per situation. This paper explores the Information Systems Planning (ISP) phases that influence the success of the process. Methods: Data were collected and analyzed using Regression Analysis by 73 IT managers for Greek Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the logistics sector. Results: The outcomes of the analysis show that executives ought to be informed about the strategic utilization of IS planning in order to improve competitive advantage. Furthermore, managers must also select the suitable IT facilities to align business strategy with the business structure. Conclusions: The outcomes support managers to focus on logistics functions and realize the importance of such ISP in logistics. As a result, selecting appropriate IS leads to increased competitive advantage, faster communication, support for the storage and retrieval of more accurate data, cost reduction and increased customer value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Last Mile, E-Commerce and Sales Logistics)
Article
Blockchain Technologies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management: A Bibliometric Review
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040072 - 07 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1238
Abstract
The emergence of blockchain technology has sparked significant attention from the supply chain management (SCM) and logistics communities. In this paper, we present the results from a thorough bibliometric review that analytically and objectively identifies the intellectual structure of this field, the seminal [...] Read more.
The emergence of blockchain technology has sparked significant attention from the supply chain management (SCM) and logistics communities. In this paper, we present the results from a thorough bibliometric review that analytically and objectively identifies the intellectual structure of this field, the seminal papers, and the most influential scholars. We employ a knowledge domain visualization technique to generate insights that go beyond other review studies on blockchain research within logistics and SCM. The analysis starts with selecting a total of 628 papers from Scopus and the Web of Science that were published during 2016–2020. The bibliometric analysis output demonstrates that the number of blockchain papers has rapidly increased since 2017. The most productive researchers are from the USA, China, and India. The top academic institutions contributing to the literature are also identified. Based on network analyses, we found that the literature concentrates mainly on the conceptualization of blockchain; its potentials for supply chain sustainability; its adoption triggers and barriers; and its role in supporting supply chain agility, trust, protection of intellectual property, and food/perishable supply chains. Besides systematically mapping the literature, we identify several research gaps and propose numerous actionable research directions for the future. This study enriches the extant blockchain literature, provides a timely snapshot of the current state of research, and examines the knowledge structure of blockchain research in logistics and SCM with the help of evidence-based scientometric methods. Full article
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Article
An Integrated Fuzzy Model for Selecting Resilient Suppliers in Electronics Industry of Iran
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040071 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Selecting appropriate and resilient suppliers is an important issue in supply chain management (SCM) literature. Making an effective decision on this issue can decrease external risks and disruptions, purchase costs, and delay times and also guarantees business continuity in the event of disruptions [...] Read more.
Selecting appropriate and resilient suppliers is an important issue in supply chain management (SCM) literature. Making an effective decision on this issue can decrease external risks and disruptions, purchase costs, and delay times and also guarantees business continuity in the event of disruptions and, consequently, increases company competitiveness and customer satisfaction. This paper aims to provide a model based on identifying and investigating related criteria to evaluate suppliers’ resilience and select the most resilient suppliers in Iran’s electronic industry. To this purpose, the screening technique, the best-worst methodology (BWM), and goal programming (GP) have been applied in the fuzzy environment. The proposed model has been implemented and demonstrated by a case study of the electronic industry, as a real-life example. The results show that agility (0.227), compatibility (0.153), and vulnerability (0.102) are the most important factors for a resilient supplier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Logistics Cooperation: Integrated Logistics Services)
Article
Exploring Progress with Supply Chain Risk Management during the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040070 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Background: In response to calls for actionable research that considers ongoing pandemic risk dynamics, we explore how risks experienced and risk mitigation techniques used have changed during the first year of the pandemic. Methods: We used a survey and studied six cases; data [...] Read more.
Background: In response to calls for actionable research that considers ongoing pandemic risk dynamics, we explore how risks experienced and risk mitigation techniques used have changed during the first year of the pandemic. Methods: We used a survey and studied six cases; data were collected both at the start of the pandemic and one year into the pandemic. This paper offers the first empirical exploration of the first full year of the pandemic and provides data points from both early and one year into the pandemic. Results: Our findings indicate that not only are pandemic risks far from mitigated, several types of risks have also increased in severity. Multifaceted and multidirectional approaches have been adopted, going well beyond demand and supply risks (the risks most widely considered in the literature) and much more work remains for supply chain managers to mitigate risks and improve supply chain resilience. Conclusions: We find that in addition to the risk management techniques, considering behavioral aspects is key for navigating a pathway towards risk mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Supply Chain Challenges under COVID-19)
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Article
Using a Modified SERVQUAL Approach to Assess the Quality of Supply Chain Services in Greek Online Supermarkets
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040069 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this paper is to study customer satisfaction concerning orders from online supermarkets, which have recently boomed to fulfil the increased needs of customers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The service quality, as well as aspects of the logistics efficiency, are [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this paper is to study customer satisfaction concerning orders from online supermarkets, which have recently boomed to fulfil the increased needs of customers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The service quality, as well as aspects of the logistics efficiency, are being examined, and the gaps between the expectations of people using these services and their perceptions about the received services are being evaluated. Methods: A modified approach of the well-known model SERVQUAL is suggested and used in the case of Greek online supermarkets. Thus, an initial contribution of this paper is the formulation of a framework which can be used to assess the quality of B2C logistics services. Results: The results show that customers’ expectations are exceeding their experiential perceptions in all the examined fields, and therefore there is room for substantial improvement. The study identified areas in which supermarkets’ online shops are close to meeting customer expectations and areas in which they fall far short. Conclusions: Competition is expected to become more intense and efficient supply chains that provide services of high quality will have a determinant role to play. Moreover, online supermarkets will have to rethink of their omni-channel structures to maintain and increase their market share. This is of particular importance during turbulent times such as the ones we are experiencing now. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Last Mile, E-Commerce and Sales Logistics)
Article
Measuring the Total Logistics Costs at the Macro Level: A Study of Indonesia
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040068 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Background: Efforts made to calculate the logistics costs in Indonesia, at the macro level, are facing various problems, due to the fact that there have been no national agreements—to any models employed—to calculate those costs. Moreover, limited data and information due to [...] Read more.
Background: Efforts made to calculate the logistics costs in Indonesia, at the macro level, are facing various problems, due to the fact that there have been no national agreements—to any models employed—to calculate those costs. Moreover, limited data and information due to the lack of use of such integrated information technology to reduce the information asymmetry on the logistics processes and activities have created some additional problems. Objective: This study is aimed at reviewing the measurement model, of the logistics costs used in Indonesia, at the macro level. Method: It provides a potential measurement approach proposed by several previous studies as an alternative option that may help develop the existing models by elaborating on their limitations. Results: The results of this study emphasize the recognition of the components of the logistics costs and the formulation of a more accurate, transparent, and comprehensive measurement framework to improve the standard used to assess the logistics costs. Conclusion: Thus, the calculation output of the logistics costs is expected to be able to provide stakeholders with reliable information to develop an efficient logistics system. Furthermore, logistics costs will be more controllable, allowing Indonesia to achieve such comparative advantages. Full article
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Article
A Fuzzy Logic-Based Algorithm to Solve the Slot Planning Problem in Container Vessels
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040067 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Background: The slot planning problem is a container allocation problem within a certain location on a vessel. It is considered a sub-problem of a successful decomposition approach for the container vessel stowage planning problem. This decision has a direct effect on container handling [...] Read more.
Background: The slot planning problem is a container allocation problem within a certain location on a vessel. It is considered a sub-problem of a successful decomposition approach for the container vessel stowage planning problem. This decision has a direct effect on container handling operations and the vessel berthing time, which are key indicators for the container terminal efficiency. Methods: In this paper, an approach combining a rule-based fuzzy logic algorithm with a rule-based search algorithm is developed to solve the slot planning problem. The rules in the proposed fuzzy logic algorithm aim at improving the objective function and minimizing/eliminating constraint violation. Results: The computational results of 236 slot planning instances illustrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions: The results show that the proposed approach is fast and can produce optimal or near-optimal solutions for a comprehensive industrial set of instances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Management in Maritime Transportation)
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Review
Sustainable Innovations in the Food Industry through Artificial Intelligence and Big Data Analytics
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040066 - 27 Sep 2021
Viewed by 728
Abstract
The agri-food sector is an endless source of expansion for nourishing a vast population, but there is a considerable need to develop high-standard procedures through intelligent and innovative technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI) and big data. This paper addresses the research concerning [...] Read more.
The agri-food sector is an endless source of expansion for nourishing a vast population, but there is a considerable need to develop high-standard procedures through intelligent and innovative technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI) and big data. This paper addresses the research concerning AI and big data analytics in the food industry, including machine learning, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and various algorithms. Logistics, supply chain, marketing, and production patterns are covered along with food sub-sector applications for artificial intelligence techniques. It is found that utilization of AI techniques and the intelligent optimization algorithm also leads to significant process and production management. Thus, digital technologies are a boon for the food industry, where AI and big data have enabled us to achieve optimum results in realtime. Full article
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Article
Construction Site Layout Planning Using a Simulation-Based Decision Support Tool
Logistics 2021, 5(4), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/logistics5040065 - 22 Sep 2021
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Background: A site layout plan is one of the important decisions to be made in the planning phase of each construction project as it can significantly impact on-site transportation, construction logistics, and safety. This decision could be complicated owing to the uncertainties [...] Read more.
Background: A site layout plan is one of the important decisions to be made in the planning phase of each construction project as it can significantly impact on-site transportation, construction logistics, and safety. This decision could be complicated owing to the uncertainties inherent in construction projects and the complex relationships between the influencing factors and decision variables. Methods: To improve site layout planning, this study aims to develop a simulation-based decision support tool (DST) that enables planners to consider the following: (1) construction uncertainties, (2) construction resources (i.e., material, equipment, and workers), (3) site layout constraints, and (4) mutual impacts between site layout and construction plan variables, for site layout planning of construction projects. Results: The developed DST visualizes the site layout plan within a simulation environment and provides seamless interactions between the site layout model and the simulation model. These capabilities facilitate planning construction site layout using simulation by establishing two-way information flows between the site layout and simulation components, which can further promote application of simulation in construction site layout planning. Usefulness and practicality of the proposed DST is demonstrated in site layout planning of a steel erection project. Conclusions: Using this DST can reduce some common wastes in construction projects and the cost associated with them, including on-site transportation, material handling and storage, and waiting time for the material arrival. Full article
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