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Toxics, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2021) – 41 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): One factor contributing to the prevalence of e-cigarette usage in the United States is the availability of multiple flavors. Studies in the past have shown that reactive oxidative species (ROS) content within the aerosols generated by e-cigarettes varyies among different flavors. Exposure to exogenous ROS via e-cigarette aerosols can induce damage in pulmonary cells. Through conducting comparative analyses of ROS from aerosols generated from vape bars of different flavors and nicotine concentrations, we believe the results of our study will better elucidate how flavoring agents used in vape bars of various different nicotine concentrations induce differential oxidative- stress-mediated toxicological effects. View this paper
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Review
The Effects of Essential and Non-Essential Metal Toxicity in the Drosophila melanogaster Insect Model: A Review
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 269; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100269 - 16 Oct 2021
Viewed by 437
Abstract
The biological effects of environmental metal contamination are important issues in an industrialized, resource-dependent world. Different metals have different roles in biology and can be classified as essential if they are required by a living organism (e.g., as cofactors), or as non-essential metals [...] Read more.
The biological effects of environmental metal contamination are important issues in an industrialized, resource-dependent world. Different metals have different roles in biology and can be classified as essential if they are required by a living organism (e.g., as cofactors), or as non-essential metals if they are not. While essential metal ions have been well studied in many eukaryotic species, less is known about the effects of non-essential metals, even though essential and non-essential metals are often chemically similar and can bind to the same biological ligands. Insects are often exposed to a variety of contaminated environments and associated essential and non-essential metal toxicity, but many questions regarding their response to toxicity remain unanswered. Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent insect model species in which to study the effects of toxic metal due to the extensive experimental and genetic resources available for this species. Here, we review the current understanding of the impact of a suite of essential and non-essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Hg, Pb, Cd, and Ni) on the D. melanogaster metal response system, highlighting the knowledge gaps between essential and non-essential metals in D. melanogaster. This review emphasizes the need to use multiple metals, multiple genetic backgrounds, and both sexes in future studies to help guide future research towards better understanding the effects of metal contamination in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Exposure and Gene Expression)
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Article
Biochar Amendment Reduces the Availability of Pb in the Soil and Its Uptake in Lettuce
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 268; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100268 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 257
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of biochar amendment to reduce the availability of Pb in the soil and its uptake in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. adela). Seedlings of lettuce were cultivated in Pb-contaminated soils, both [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of biochar amendment to reduce the availability of Pb in the soil and its uptake in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. adela). Seedlings of lettuce were cultivated in Pb-contaminated soils, both with and without 5% biochar (w/w), as well as in a simplified soilless system (hydroponics) at the ecologically relevant Pb concentration of 100 µM, both with and without 1% biochar. Soils amended with biochar resulted in a ca. 50% reduction of the extractable (bioavailable) fraction of Pb, limiting the accumulation of this toxic element in the leaves of lettuce by ca. 50%. A similar behavior was observed for lettuce plants grown hydroponically, even with a much higher reduction of Pb uptake (ca. 80%). Increased cation exchange capacity and pH were likely the main factors limiting the bioavailability of Pb in the soil. Complexation with functional groups and precipitation/co-precipitation both on the biochar surface and in soil aggregates were likely the main mechanisms immobilizing this element. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Toxicity Effects on Plants)
Article
Epidemiology of Animal Poisonings in the Canary Islands (Spain) during the Period 2014–2021
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 267; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100267 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Animal poisoning is one of the greatest conservation threats facing wildlife. In a preliminary study in the oceanic archipelago of the Canary Islands, we showed that the degree of threat from this circumstance was very high-even higher than that reported in other regions [...] Read more.
Animal poisoning is one of the greatest conservation threats facing wildlife. In a preliminary study in the oceanic archipelago of the Canary Islands, we showed that the degree of threat from this circumstance was very high-even higher than that reported in other regions of continental Europe. Consequently, a legal framework for the effective prosecution of the crime of wildlife poisoning came into force in 2014 in this region. We present the results of the investigation of 961 animals and 84 baits sent to our laboratory for the diagnosis of animal poisonings during the period 2014–2021. We were able to identify poison as the cause of death in 251 animals and 61 baits. Carbofuran stands out as the main agent used in this archipelago. We have also detected an increasing tendency to use mixtures of several pesticides in the preparation of baits. The entry into operation of two canine patrols has led to the detection of more dead animals in the wild and a greater number of poisoned animals. The percentage of poison positives is significantly higher in areas with lower population density, corresponding to rural environments, as well as in areas with greater agricultural and livestock activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Toxicology and Wildlife Health)
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Article
Removal of Antimony(V) from Drinking Water Using nZVI/AC: Optimization of Batch and Fix Bed Conditions
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 266; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100266 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Antimony (Sb) traces in water pose a serious threat to human health due to their negative effects. In this work, nanoscale zero-valent iron (Fe0) supported on activated carbon (nZVI) was employed for eliminating Sb(V) from the drinking water. To better understand [...] Read more.
Antimony (Sb) traces in water pose a serious threat to human health due to their negative effects. In this work, nanoscale zero-valent iron (Fe0) supported on activated carbon (nZVI) was employed for eliminating Sb(V) from the drinking water. To better understand the overall process, the effects of several experimental variables, including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), coexisting ions, and adsorption kinetics on the removal of Sb(V) from the SW were investigated by employing fixed-bed column runs or batch-adsorption methods. A pH of 4.5 and 72 h of equilibrium time were found to be the ideal conditions for drinking water. The presence of phosphate (PO43), silicate (SiO42), chromate (CrO42) and arsenate (AsO43) significantly decreased the rate of Sb(V) removal, while humic acid and other anions exhibited a negligible effect. The capacity for Sb(V) uptake decreased from 6.665 to 2.433 mg when the flow rate was increased from 5 to 10 mL·min−1. The dynamic adsorption penetration curves of Sb(V) were 116.4% and 144.1% with the weak magnetic field (WMF) in fixed-bed column runs. Considering the removal rate of Sb(V), reusability, operability, no release of Sb(V) after being incorporated into the iron (hydr)oxides structure, it can be concluded that WMF coupled with ZVI would be an effective Sb(V) immobilization technology for drinking water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Powerful Adsorbents toward Toxic Substances)
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Article
Potential for Interspecies Toxicity Estimation in Soil Invertebrates
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 265; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100265 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models are linear regressions that predict toxicity to a species with few data using a known toxicity value in a surrogate species. ICE models are well established for estimating toxicity to fish and aquatic invertebrates but have not been [...] Read more.
Interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models are linear regressions that predict toxicity to a species with few data using a known toxicity value in a surrogate species. ICE models are well established for estimating toxicity to fish and aquatic invertebrates but have not been generally developed or applied to soil organisms. To facilitate the development of ICE models for soil invertebrates, a database of single chemical toxicity values was compiled from knowledgebases and reports that included 853 records encompassing 192 chemicals and 12 species. Most toxicity data for single chemicals tested in soil media were for species of earthworms, with only limited data for other species and taxa. ICE models were developed for eleven separate species pairs as least squares log-linear regressions of acute toxicity values of the same chemicals tested in both the surrogate and predicted species of soil organisms. Model uncertainty was assessed using leave one out cross-validation as the fold difference between a predicted and measured toxicity value. ICE models showed high accuracy within order (e.g., earthworm to earthworm), but less prediction accuracy in the two across-taxa models (Arthropoda to Annelida and the inverse). This study provides a proof-of-concept demonstration that ICE models can be developed for soil invertebrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Developments in Soil Ecotoxicology)
Article
Insights into Elemental Composition and Sources of Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter in Dense Traffic Areas in Toronto and Vancouver, Canada
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 264; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100264 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Traffic is a significant pollution source in cities and has caused various health and environmental concerns worldwide. Therefore, an improved understanding of traffic impacts on particle concentrations and their components could help mitigate air pollution. In this study, the characteristics and sources of [...] Read more.
Traffic is a significant pollution source in cities and has caused various health and environmental concerns worldwide. Therefore, an improved understanding of traffic impacts on particle concentrations and their components could help mitigate air pollution. In this study, the characteristics and sources of trace elements in PM2.5 (fine), and PM10-2.5 (coarse), were investigated in dense traffic areas in Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, from 2015–2017. At nearby urban background sites, 24-h integrated PM samples were also concurrently collected. The PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 masses, and a number of elements (i.e., Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Zn, Cr), showed clear increases at each near-road site, related to the traffic emissions resulting from resuspension and/or abrasion sources. The trace elements showed a clear partitioning trend between PM2.5 and PM10-2.5, thus reflecting the origin of some of these elements. The application of positive matrix factorization (PMF) to the combined fine and coarse metal data (86 total), with 24 observations at each site, was used to determine the contribution of different sources to the total metal concentrations in fine and coarse PM. Four major sources were identified by the PMF model, including two traffic non-exhaust (crustal/road dust, brake/tire wear) sources, along with regional and local industrial sources. Source apportionment indicated that the resuspended crustal/road dust factor was the dominant contributor to the total coarse-bound trace element (i.e., Fe, Ti, Ba, Cu, Zn, Sb, Cr) concentrations produced by vehicular exhaust and non-exhaust traffic-related processes that have been deposited onto the surface. The second non-exhaust factor related to brake/tire wear abrasion accounted for a considerable portion of the fine and coarse elemental (i.e., Ba, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sb) mass at both near-road sites. Regional and local industry contributed mostly to the fine elemental (i.e., S, As, Se, Cd, Pb) concentrations. Overall, the results show that non-exhaust traffic-related processes were major contributors to the various redox-active metal species (i.e., Fe, Cu) in both PM fractions. In addition, a substantial proportion of these metals in PM2.5 was water-soluble, which is an important contributor to the formation of reactive oxygen species and, thus, may lead to oxidative damage to cells in the human body. It appears that controlling traffic non-exhaust-related metals emissions, in the absence of significant point sources in the area, could have a pronounced effect on the redox activity of PM, with broad implications for the protection of public health. Full article
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Article
Influence of Electronic Cigarettes on Antioxidant Capacity and Nucleotide Metabolites in Saliva
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 263; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100263 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
The balance between reactive oxygen species production and the activity of antioxidant systems present in saliva is an important element in maintaining oral environment homeostasis. E-cigarettes adversely affect the oral cavity and their cytotoxic effect is related to oxidative stress. The aim of [...] Read more.
The balance between reactive oxygen species production and the activity of antioxidant systems present in saliva is an important element in maintaining oral environment homeostasis. E-cigarettes adversely affect the oral cavity and their cytotoxic effect is related to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of using electronic cigarettes on antioxidant capacity of saliva. The study involved 110 subjects (35 e-cigarettes users, 33 traditional cigarettes smokers and 42 non-smokers). Laboratory analysis involved quantitation of uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine, TAOS (total antioxidant status) and TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) in saliva. Lower values for TAOS and TEAC were observed among e-cigarettes users and traditional cigarettes smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Uric acid concentration tended to be higher among e-cigarettes users while no differences in hypoxanthine and xanthine saliva concentrations were observed. Electronic cigarettes usage affects antioxidant capacity of saliva to the same extent as traditional cigarettes, when comparing smokers to non-smokers. Further longitudinal studies on a larger study group are needed to assess the effect of changes in antioxidant status on oral health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Cigarettes)
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Article
Prenatal Particulate Matter Exposure Is Associated with Saliva DNA Methylation at Age 15: Applying Cumulative DNA Methylation Scores as an Exposure Biomarker
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 262; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100262 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Exposure in utero to particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) is associated with maladaptive health outcomes. Although exposure to prenatal PM2.5 and PM10 has cord blood DNA methylation signatures at birth, signature persistence into childhood and saliva cross-tissue applicability has not been tested. In [...] Read more.
Exposure in utero to particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) is associated with maladaptive health outcomes. Although exposure to prenatal PM2.5 and PM10 has cord blood DNA methylation signatures at birth, signature persistence into childhood and saliva cross-tissue applicability has not been tested. In the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a United States 20-city birth cohort, average residential PM2.5 and PM10 during the three months prior to birth was estimated using air quality monitors with inverse distance weighting. Saliva DNA methylation at ages 9 (n = 749) and 15 (n = 793) was measured using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 k BeadArray. Cumulative DNA methylation scores for particulate matter were estimated by weighting participant DNA methylation at each site by independent meta-analysis effect estimates and standardizing the sums. Using a mixed-effects regression analysis, we tested the associations between cumulative DNA methylation scores at ages 9 and 15 and PM exposure during pregnancy, adjusted for child sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal income-to-needs ratio, nonmartial birth status, and saliva cell-type proportions. Our study sample was 50.5% male, 56.3% non-Hispanic Black, and 19.8% Hispanic, with a median income-to-needs ratio of 1.4. Mean exposure levels for PM2.5 were 27.9 μg/m3/day (standard deviation: 7.0; 23.7% of observations exceeded safety standards) and for PM10 were 15.0 μg/m3/day (standard deviation: 3.1). An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 exposure (10.73 μg/m3/day) was associated with a −0.0287 standard deviation lower cumulative DNA methylation score for PM2.5 (95% CI: −0.0732, 0.0158, p = 0.20) across all participants. An interquartile range increase in PM10 exposure (3.20 μg/m3/day) was associated with a −0.1472 standard deviation lower cumulative DNA methylation score for PM10 (95% CI: −0.3038, 0.0095, p = 0.06) across all participants. The PM10 findings were driven by the age 15 subset where an interquartile range increase in PM10 exposure was associated with a −0.024 standard deviation lower cumulative DNA methylation score for PM10 (95% CI: −0.043, −0.005, p = 0.012). Findings were robust to adjustment for PM exposure at ages 1 and 3. In utero PM10-associated DNA methylation differences were identified at age 15 in saliva. Benchmarking the timing and cell-type generalizability is critical for epigenetic exposure biomarker assessment. Full article
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Article
Environmental Risk Assessment of Vehicle Exhaust Particles on Aquatic Organisms of Different Trophic Levels
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 261; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100261 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Vehicle emission particles (VEPs) represent a significant part of air pollution in urban areas. However, the toxicity of this category of particles in different aquatic organisms is still unexplored. This work aimed to extend the understanding of the toxicity of the vehicle exhaust [...] Read more.
Vehicle emission particles (VEPs) represent a significant part of air pollution in urban areas. However, the toxicity of this category of particles in different aquatic organisms is still unexplored. This work aimed to extend the understanding of the toxicity of the vehicle exhaust particles in two species of marine diatomic microalgae, the planktonic crustacean Artemia salina, and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. These aquatic species were applied for the first time in the risk assessment of VEPs. Our results demonstrated that the samples obtained from diesel-powered vehicles completely prevented egg fertilization of the sea urchin S. intermedius and caused pronounced membrane depolarization in the cells of both tested microalgae species at concentrations between 10 and 100 mg/L. The sample with the highest proportion of submicron particles and the highest content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) had the highest growth rate inhibition in both microalgae species and caused high toxicity to the crustacean. The toxicity level of the other samples varied among the species. We can conclude that metal content and the difference in the concentrations of PAHs by itself did not directly reflect the toxic level of VEPs, but the combination of both a high number of submicron particles and high PAH concentrations had the highest toxic effect on all the tested species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Contaminants on Aquatic Organisms)
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Article
Assessment of Environmental Pollution and Human Exposure to Pesticides by Wastewater Analysis in a Seven-Year Study in Athens, Greece
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 260; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100260 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Pesticides have been used in large amounts around the world for decades and are responsible for environmental pollution and various adverse effects on human health. Analysis of untreated wastewater can deliver useful information on pesticides’ use in a particular area and allow the [...] Read more.
Pesticides have been used in large amounts around the world for decades and are responsible for environmental pollution and various adverse effects on human health. Analysis of untreated wastewater can deliver useful information on pesticides’ use in a particular area and allow the assessment of human exposure to certain substances. A wide-scope screening method, based on liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, was applied, using both target and suspect screening methodologies. Daily composite influent wastewater samples were collected for seven or eight consecutive days in Athens between 2014 and 2020 and analyzed for 756 pesticides, their environmental transformation products and their human metabolites. Forty pesticides were quantified at mean concentrations up to 4.9 µg/L (tralkoxydim). The most abundant class was fungicides followed by herbicides, insect repellents, insecticides and plant growth regulators. In addition, pesticide transformation products and/or metabolites were detected with high frequency, indicating that research should be focused on them. Human exposure was evaluated using the wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach and 3-ethyl-carbamoyl benzoic acid and cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide were proposed as potential WBE biomarkers. Wastewater analysis revealed the presence of unapproved pesticides and indicated that there is an urgent need to include more transformation products in target databases. Full article
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Review
Influence of Dietary Compounds on Arsenic Metabolism and Toxicity. Part II—Human Studies
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 259; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100259 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Exposure to various forms of arsenic (As), the source of which may be environmental as well as occupational exposure, is associated with many adverse health effects. Therefore, methods to reduce the adverse effects of As on the human body are being sought. Research [...] Read more.
Exposure to various forms of arsenic (As), the source of which may be environmental as well as occupational exposure, is associated with many adverse health effects. Therefore, methods to reduce the adverse effects of As on the human body are being sought. Research in this area focuses, among other topics, on the dietary compounds that are involved in the metabolism of this element. Therefore, the aim of this review was to analyze the influence of methionine, betaine, choline, folic acid, vitamin B2, B6, B12 and zinc on the efficiency of inorganic As (iAs) metabolism and the reduction in the severity of the whole spectrum of disorders related to As exposure. In this review, which included 62 original papers (human studies) we present the current knowledge in the area. In human studies, these compounds (methionine, choline, folic acid, vitamin B2, B6, B12 and zinc) may increase iAs metabolism and reduce toxicity, whereas their deficiency may impair iAs metabolism and increase As toxicity. Taking into account the results of studies conducted in populations exposed to As, it is reasonable to carry out prophylactic activities. In particular nutritional education seems to be important and should be focused on informing people that an adequate intake of those dietary compounds potentially has a modulating effect on iAs metabolism, thus, reducing its adverse effects on the body. Full article
Review
Influence of Dietary Compounds on Arsenic Metabolism and Toxicity. Part I—Animal Model Studies
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 258; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100258 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Population and laboratory studies indicate that exposure to various forms of arsenic (As) is associated with many adverse health effects; therefore, methods are being sought out to reduce them. Numerous studies focus on the effects of nutrients on inorganic As (iAs) metabolism and [...] Read more.
Population and laboratory studies indicate that exposure to various forms of arsenic (As) is associated with many adverse health effects; therefore, methods are being sought out to reduce them. Numerous studies focus on the effects of nutrients on inorganic As (iAs) metabolism and toxicity, mainly in animal models. Therefore, the aim of this review was to analyze the influence of methionine, betaine, choline, folic acid, vitamin B2, B6, B12 and zinc on the efficiency of iAs metabolism and the reduction of the severity of the whole spectrum of disorders related to iAs exposure. In this review, which includes 58 (in vivo and in vitro studies) original papers, we present the current knowledge in the area. In vitro and in vivo animal studies showed that methionine, choline, folic acid, vitamin B2, B12 and zinc reduced the adverse effects of exposure to iAs in the gastrointestinal, urinary, lymphatic, circulatory, nervous, and reproductive systems. On the other hand, it was observed that these compounds (methionine, choline, folic acid, vitamin B2, B12 and zinc) may increase iAs metabolism and reduce toxicity, whereas their deficiency or excess may impair iAs metabolism and increase iAs toxicity. Promising results of in vivo and in vitro on animal model studies show the possibility of using these nutrients in populations particularly exposed to As. Full article
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Review
Pharmaceutical Compounds in Aquatic Environments—Occurrence, Fate and Bioremediation Prospective
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 257; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100257 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Various contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) have been detected in different ecosystems, posing a threat to living organisms and the environment. Pharmaceuticals are among the many CECs that enter the environment through different pathways, with wastewater treatment plants being the main input of [...] Read more.
Various contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) have been detected in different ecosystems, posing a threat to living organisms and the environment. Pharmaceuticals are among the many CECs that enter the environment through different pathways, with wastewater treatment plants being the main input of these pollutants. Several technologies for the removal of these pollutants have been developed through the years, but there is still a lack of sustainable technologies suitable for being applied in natural environments. In this regard, solutions based on natural biological processes are attractive for the recovery of contaminated environments. Bioremediation is one of these natural-based solutions and takes advantage of the capacity of microorganisms to degrade different organic pollutants. Degradation of pollutants by native microorganisms is already known to be an important detoxification mechanism that is involved in natural attenuation processes that occur in the environment. Thus, bioremediation technologies based on the selection of natural degrading bacteria seem to be a promising clean-up technology suitable for application in natural environments. In this review, an overview of the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals is carried out, in which bioremediation tools are explored for the removal of these pollutants from impacted environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbially Mediated Fate of Emerging Environmental Contaminants)
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Article
Lethal and Sublethal Responses of Hydropsyche pellucidula (Insecta, Trichoptera) to Commercial Polypropylene Microplastics after Different Preconditioning Treatments
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 256; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100256 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Microplastics (MPs) pose biological and chemical hazards in aquatic and terrestrial food webs across the globe. Research on microplastic contamination has long focused on marine ecosystems, whereas the toxicological impact on freshwater organisms is still little explored. In this study, the lethal and [...] Read more.
Microplastics (MPs) pose biological and chemical hazards in aquatic and terrestrial food webs across the globe. Research on microplastic contamination has long focused on marine ecosystems, whereas the toxicological impact on freshwater organisms is still little explored. In this study, the lethal and sublethal response of the freshwater macroinvertebrate Hydropsyche pellucidula exposed to polypropylene MPs after different pre-conditioning treatments was assessed. Field samples were collected in a riverine system (Vipacco river; northeast Italy) to assess the characteristics of the MPs in the aquatic environment Both water and sediment were contaminated by MPs (3.73 ± 2.11 items m−3 per min and 3.33 ± 4.16 items dm−3, respectively). The chemical MPs composition included polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyurethane, polyamide, polypropylene, and polyethylene. Polypropylene (PP), although not the most abundant polymer recorded in the study area, was preferred over the other types according to its abundance in freshwater and H. pellucidula feeding behavior. A housing test was performed to recreate the natural conditions of larvae sampled for a reliable response to the ecotoxicological tests. The microplastics underwent either preconditioning with Vipacco River water (PP-river) and surfactant Triton X-100 (PP-sf) or no pre-treatment (PP). Submersion of microplastics in 10 µg L−1 of surfactant solution for 24 h was sufficient to induce consistent spectral changes and modify the chemical profile of the plastic surface. Mortality rate differed according to treatment: PP and PP-river > positive control > PP-sf > negative control. Integrated biomarker response (IBRv2) and analysis of oxidative stress biomarker levels showed a greater response of superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) in larvae treated with PP conditioned in surfactant. Our findings enhance knowledge on the toxicity of PP and conditioning phases on H. pellucidula larvae. Full article
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Article
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Mediation by the Disruptive Activity of Environmental Toxicants on Sex Hormone Receptors: In Silico Evaluation
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 255; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100255 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 462
Abstract
This study investigates the disruptive activity of environmental toxicants on sex hormone receptors mediating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Toxicokinetics, gene target prediction, molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and gene network analysis were applied in silico techniques. From the results, permethrin, perfluorooctanoic acid, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, [...] Read more.
This study investigates the disruptive activity of environmental toxicants on sex hormone receptors mediating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Toxicokinetics, gene target prediction, molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and gene network analysis were applied in silico techniques. From the results, permethrin, perfluorooctanoic acid, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, O-phenylphenol, bisphenol A, and diethylstilbestrol were the active toxic compounds that could modulate androgen (AR) and estrogen-α and –β receptors (ER) to induce T2DM. Early growth response 1 (EGR1), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), and tumour protein 63 (TP63) were the major transcription factors, while mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) were the major kinases upregulated by these toxicants via interactions with intermediary proteins such as PTEN, AKT1, NfKβ1, SMAD3 and others in the gene network analysis to mediate T2DM. These toxicants pose a major challenge to public health; hence, monitoring their manufacture, use, and disposal should be enforced. This would ensure reduced interaction between people and these toxic chemicals, thereby reducing the incidence and prevalence of T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasticizer Exposure: Harmful Impact on Human Health)
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Article
Application of ZnO-Nd Nano-Photocatalyst for the Reactive Red 198 Dye Decolorization in the Falling-Film Photocatalytic Reactor
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 254; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100254 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 362
Abstract
A large amount of Reactive red 198 (RR198) is released yearly into the environment. RR198 is toxic for human and aquatic creatures; therefore, it should be removed from wastewater before releasing into the environment. In this study, the nano ZnO-Nd -photo-catalyst for the [...] Read more.
A large amount of Reactive red 198 (RR198) is released yearly into the environment. RR198 is toxic for human and aquatic creatures; therefore, it should be removed from wastewater before releasing into the environment. In this study, the nano ZnO-Nd -photo-catalyst for the first time was synthesized by the combustion method. First, the physical characteristics of the generated nano photocatalyst were evaluated using FESEM, XRD, Bandgap calculation, and FTIR analysis. Then, the ZnO-Nd nano-photocatalyst was suspended into the contaminated water with RR198 dye in a falling-film photocatalytic reactor. The effects of parameters such as the amount of H2O2, catalyst dose, pH, and initial concentration of dye were investigated during the experiments. Finally, the decolorization process with the falling-film photocatalytic reactor was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The physical characteristics showed that the average particle size of the synthesized ZnO-Nd was 40 nm. Doping ZnO with Nd reduced the photocatalyst energy bandgap by 14%. The results indicated that the optimum amount of catalyst dose and pH level was 0.1 g/L and 5, respectively. The simultaneous usage of H2O2 and ZnO-Nd with an H2O2/dye ratio of two increased dye removal performance by 90%. The results demonstrated that the developed equations can be applied to predict the performance of the falling-film photoreactor. This study showed that using the nano ZnO-Nd photocatalyst in a falling-film photocatalytic reactor under optimum operating conditions is an appropriate way to remove RR198 from water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies to Decontaminate Pollutants in Water)
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Article
Transcriptomic Analysis of Polyhexamethyleneguanidine-Induced Lung Injury in Mice after a Long-Term Recovery
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 253; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100253 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 385
Abstract
Polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate (PHMG-P) is one of the causative agents of humidifier disinfectant-induced lung injury. Direct exposure of the lungs to PHMG-P causes interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis. Epidemiological studies showed that patients with humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injuries have suffered from restrictive lung function five [...] Read more.
Polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate (PHMG-P) is one of the causative agents of humidifier disinfectant-induced lung injury. Direct exposure of the lungs to PHMG-P causes interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis. Epidemiological studies showed that patients with humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injuries have suffered from restrictive lung function five years after the onset of the lung injuries. We investigated whether lung damage was sustained after repeated exposure to PHMG-P followed by a long-term recovery and evaluated the adverse effects of PHMG-P on mice lungs. Mice were intranasally instilled with 0.3 mg/kg PHMG-P six times at two weeks intervals, followed by a recovery period of 292 days. Histopathological examination of the lungs showed the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the accumulation of extracellular matrix in the lung parenchyma, proteinaceous substances in the alveoli and bronchiolar–alveolar hyperplasia. From RNA-seq, the gene expression levels associated with the inflammatory response, leukocyte chemotaxis and fibrosis were significantly upregulated, whereas genes associated with epithelial/endothelial cells development, angiogenesis and smooth muscle contraction were markedly decreased. These results imply that persistent inflammation and fibrotic changes caused by repeated exposure to PHMG-P led to the downregulation of muscle and vascular development and lung dysfunction. Most importantly, this pathological structural remodeling induced by PHMG-P was not reversed even after long-term recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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Article
Mercury Chloride Impacts on the Development of Erythrocytes and Megakaryocytes in Mice
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 252; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100252 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Inorganic mercury (Hg2+) is a highly toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Hg2+ on the development of erythrocytes and megakaryocytes. B10.S mice (H-2s) and DBA/2 mice (H-2d) were [...] Read more.
Inorganic mercury (Hg2+) is a highly toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Hg2+ on the development of erythrocytes and megakaryocytes. B10.S mice (H-2s) and DBA/2 mice (H-2d) were administrated with 10 μM HgCl2 or 50 μM HgCl2 via drinking water for four weeks, and erythro-megakaryopoiesis was evaluated thereafter. The administration of 50 μM HgCl2 increased the number of erythrocytes and platelets in B10.S mice, which was not due to a reduced clearance for mature erythrocytes. The administration of 50 μM HgCl2, but not 10 μM HgCl2, increased the number of progenitors for erythrocytes and megakaryocytes in the bone marrow (BM) of B10.S mice, including erythroid-megakaryocyte progenitors (EMPs), burst-forming unit-erythroid progenitors (BFU-Es), colony-forming unit-erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es), and megakaryocyte progenitors (MkPs). Moreover, 50 μM HgCl2 caused EMPs to be more proliferative and possess an increased potential for differentiation into committed progenies in B10.S mice. Mechanistically, 50 μM HgCl2 increased the expression of the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) in EMPs, thus enhancing the Jak2/STAT5 signaling pathway to promote erythro-megakaryopoiesis in B10.S mice. Conversely, 50 μM HgCl2 did not impact erythro-megakaryopoiesis in DBA/2 mice. This study may extend our current understanding for hematopoietic toxicology of Hg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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Article
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta Agonist (PPAR- δ) and Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) Abuse: Clinical, Analytical and Biological Data in a Case Involving a Poisonous Combination of GW1516 (Cardarine) and MK2866 (Ostarine)
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 251; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100251 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 617
Abstract
A 43-year-old male, sport coach, presented him-self at the Emergency unit of a local hospital for epigastric pain, myalgia pain and severe headache. He claimed having used for some days a combination of GW1516 (cardarine), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta agonist (PPAR- δ) [...] Read more.
A 43-year-old male, sport coach, presented him-self at the Emergency unit of a local hospital for epigastric pain, myalgia pain and severe headache. He claimed having used for some days a combination of GW1516 (cardarine), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta agonist (PPAR- δ) and MK2866 (ostarine), a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) to gain skeletal muscles. Cytolysis with marked increase of alanine aminotransferase or ALT (up to 922 UI/L) and aspartate aminotransferase or AST (up to 2558 UI/L) and massive rhabdomyolysis with elevated creatine phosphokinase or CPK (up to 86435 UI/L) were the main unusual biochemistry parameters. Using a specific liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method, cardarine and ostarine tested positive in blood at 403 and 1 ng/mL, respectively. In urine, due to extensive metabolism, the parent GW1516 was not identified, while ostarine was at 88 ng/mL. Finally, both drugs were identified in hair (2 cm in length, brown in colour), at 146 and 1105 pg/mg for cardarine and ostarine, respectively. This clearly demonstrates repetitive abuse over the last 2 months. Asthenia was persistent for 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the admission, the subject fully recovered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poisoning Caused by Medicines and Drugs of Abuse)
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Article
Exploring Neurobehaviour in Zebrafish Embryos as a Screening Model for Addictiveness of Substances
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 250; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100250 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide and is highly addictive. Nicotine is the main addictive compound in tobacco, but less is known about other components and additives that may contribute to tobacco addiction. The zebrafish embryo (ZFE) has been [...] Read more.
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide and is highly addictive. Nicotine is the main addictive compound in tobacco, but less is known about other components and additives that may contribute to tobacco addiction. The zebrafish embryo (ZFE) has been shown to be a good model to study the toxic effects of chemicals on the neurological system and thus may be a promising model to study behavioral markers of nicotine effects, which may be predictive for addictiveness. We aimed to develop a testing protocol to study nicotine tolerance in ZFE using a locomotion test with light-dark transitions as behavioral trigger. Behavioral experiments were conducted using three exposure paradigms: (1) Acute exposure to determine nicotine’s effect and potency. (2) Pre-treatment with nicotine dose range followed by a single dose of nicotine, to determine which pre-treatment dose is sufficient to affect the potency of acute nicotine. (3) Pre-treatment with a single dose combined with acute exposure to a dose range to confirm the hypothesized decreased potency of the acute nicotine exposure. These exposure paradigms showed that (1) acute nicotine exposure decreased ZFE activity in response to dark conditions in a dose-dependent fashion; (2) pre-treatment with increasing concentrations dose-dependently reversed the effect of acute nicotine exposure; and (3) a fixed pre-treatment dose of nicotine induced a decreased potency of the acute nicotine exposure. This effect supported the induction of tolerance to nicotine by the pre-treatment, likely through neuroadaptation. The interpretation of these effects, particularly in view of prediction of dependence and addictiveness, and suitability of the ZFE model to test for such effects of other compounds than nicotine, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Models for Human Toxicology)
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Article
Analysis of Multi-Pesticide Residues and Dietary Risk Assessment in Fresh Tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) from Local Supermarkets of the Metropolitan Region, Chile
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 249; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100249 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 594
Abstract
In recent years, the official authorities in Chile have reported transgressions in the maximum residue levels of pesticides in fresh vegetables. There is no official information about traceability, pesticide levels, and potential health risks. The aim of this study was to analyse pesticide [...] Read more.
In recent years, the official authorities in Chile have reported transgressions in the maximum residue levels of pesticides in fresh vegetables. There is no official information about traceability, pesticide levels, and potential health risks. The aim of this study was to analyse pesticide residues and their corresponding dietary risk assessments in tomatoes from supermarkets in the Metropolitan Region. Pesticides were extracted using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe, QuEChERS method, and their concentrations were determined by using chromatography with HPLC-FL/UV and GC-MS/ECD/NPD, following the Analytical Quality Control and Method Validation Procedures for Pesticides Residues Analysis in Food and Feed, SANTE guide and ISO 17025:2017 standard. In addition, a dietary risk assessment was carried out by comparing Chilean data to international references. The results reported that 9% of the samples had pesticide residue levels above the maximum residue levels permitted in Chile. All the scenarios evaluated revealed the highest estimated daily intake and hazard quotients for methamidophos and chlorpyrifos. Both the active substances used were acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and were neurotoxic under chronic risk assessment. The results showed the highest chronic hazard index in the Chilean scenario for all age groups and genders. The evidence obtained revealed that methamidophos, methomyl, and chlorpyrifos should be restricted for their use in Chilean agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Food Contaminants on Human Health)
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Article
Solid-Phase Partitioning and Leaching Behavior of Pb and Zn from Playground Soils in Kabwe, Zambia
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 248; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100248 - 04 Oct 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
Zambia’s Kabwe mine wastes (KMWs) are responsible for contaminating the surrounding soil and dust in the Kabwe district. Unfortunately, these wastes arise from the historical mining activities of lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn), which lacked adequate waste management strategies. As a result, potentially [...] Read more.
Zambia’s Kabwe mine wastes (KMWs) are responsible for contaminating the surrounding soil and dust in the Kabwe district. Unfortunately, these wastes arise from the historical mining activities of lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn), which lacked adequate waste management strategies. As a result, potentially toxic elements (PTEs) (Pb and Zn) spread across the Kabwe district. To assess the soil pollution derived from previous mining activities, we studied topsoil samples (n = 8) from the school playground soils (SPs). In this study, the degree of contamination, geochemical partitioning, and leachability, coupled with the release and retention of Pb and Zn, were studied. The SPs were classified as extremely enriched (EF > 40) and contaminated with Pb (Igeo > 5). On average, Pb (up to 89%) and Zn (up to 69%) were bound with exchangeable, weak acid-soluble, reducible and oxidizable phases, which are considered as ’geochemically mobile’ phases in the environment. The leachates from the soils (n = 5) exceeded the Zambian standard (ZS: 190:2010) for Pb in potable drinking water (Pb < 0.01 mg/L). Furthermore, the spatial distribution of Pb and Zn showed a significant reduction in contents of Pb and Zn with the distance from the mine area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Metal and Trace Element Contamination in Soil)
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Article
Quantitative NanoLC/NSI+-HRMS Method for 1,3-Butadiene Induced bis-N7-guanine DNA-DNA Cross-Links in Urine
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 247; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100247 - 02 Oct 2021
Viewed by 563
Abstract
1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a common environmental and industrial chemical widely used in plastic and rubber manufacturing and also present in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. BD is classified as a known human carcinogen based on evidence of carcinogenicity in laboratory animals treated with [...] Read more.
1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a common environmental and industrial chemical widely used in plastic and rubber manufacturing and also present in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. BD is classified as a known human carcinogen based on evidence of carcinogenicity in laboratory animals treated with BD by inhalation and epidemiological studies revealing an increased risk of leukemia and lymphohematopoietic cancers in workers occupationally exposed to BD. Upon exposure via inhalation, BD is bioactivated to several toxic epoxides including 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), 3,4-epoxy-1,2-butanediol (EBD), and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB); these are conjugated with glutathione and excreted as 2-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1-hydroxybut-3-ene/1-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-2-hydroxybut-3-ene (MHBMA), 4-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1,2-dihydroxybutane (DHBMA), and 1,4-bis-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)butane-2,3-diol (bis-BDMA). Exposure to DEB generates monoalkylated DNA adducts, DNA-DNA crosslinks, and DNA-protein crosslinks, which can cause base substitutions, genomic rearrangements, and large genomic deletions. In this study, we developed a quantitative nanoLC/NSI+-HRMS methodology for 1,4-bis-(gua-7-yl)-2,3-butanediol (bis-N7G-BD) adducts in urine (LOD: 0.1 fmol/mL urine, LOQ: 1.0 fmol/mL urine). This novel method was used to quantify bis-N7G-BD in urine of mice treated with 590 ± 150 ppm BD for 2 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). Bis-N7G-BD was detected in urine of male and female BD-exposed mice (574.6 ± 206.0 and 571.1 ± 163.4 pg/mg of creatinine, respectively). In addition, major urinary metabolites of BD, bis-BDMA, MHBMA and DHBMA, were measured in the same samples. Urinary bis-N7G-BD adduct levels correlated with DEB-derived metabolite bis-BDMA (r = 0.80, Pearson correlation), but not with the EB-derived DNA adducts (EB-GII) or EB-derived metabolites MHBMA and DHBMA (r = 0.24, r = 0.14, r = 0.18, respectively, Pearson correlations). Urinary bis-N7G-BD could be employed as a novel non-invasive biomarker of exposure to BD and bioactivation to its most mutagenic metabolite, DEB. This method will be useful for future studies of 1,3-butadiene exposure and metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Adducts for Characterization of Exposure)
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Article
Levels of Phthalates, Bisphenol-A, Nonylphenol, and Microplastics in Fish in the Estuaries of Northern Taiwan and the Impact on Human Health
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 246; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100246 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Due to the sparsity in knowledge, we investigated the presence of various estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EEDCs), including phthalates (PAEs), bisphenol-A (BPA), and nonylphenol (NP), as well as microplastics (MPs) in samples of the most widely consumed fish collected from different estuaries in northern [...] Read more.
Due to the sparsity in knowledge, we investigated the presence of various estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EEDCs), including phthalates (PAEs), bisphenol-A (BPA), and nonylphenol (NP), as well as microplastics (MPs) in samples of the most widely consumed fish collected from different estuaries in northern Taiwan. We then proceeded to determine the likely contribution that this exposure has on the potential for health impacts in humans following consumption of the fish. Six hundred fish caught from five river estuaries (producing 130 pooled samples) were analyzed to determine how different factors (such as the river, benthic, pelagic, and migratory species) influence EEDCs’ contamination and the possible impacts on human health following typical consumption patterns. The predominant EEDCs was diethyl phthalates (DEP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalates (DEHP), and di-iso-nonylphthalate (DINP) in fish, present at 52.9 ± 77.3, 45.3 ± 79.8, and 42.5 ± 79.3 ng/g dry weight (d.w.), respectively. Residual levels of NP, BPA, and MPs in the fish were 17.4 ± 29.1 and 1.50 ± 2.20 ng/g d.w. and 0.185 ± 0.338 mg/g d.w., respectively. EEDCs and MPs levels varied widely among the five river estuaries sampled due, in part, to differences in habitat types and the associated diversity of fish species sampled. For DEP, the Lao-Jie River and pelagic environments produced the most severely contaminated fish species, respectively. DEP residues were also associated with the burden of MPs in the fish. Based on our analysis, we predict no substantial direct human health risk by EEDCs based on typical consumption rates of estuarine fish by the Taiwanese people. However, other sources of EEDC exposure cannot be ignored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasticizer Exposure: Harmful Impact on Human Health)
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Article
Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites Are Associated with Biomarkers of Chronic Endocrine Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Adolescents: FLEHS-4 (2016–2020)
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 245; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100245 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants of public health concern. Multiple biological mechanisms have been hypothesized to contribute to PAHs-associated adverse health effects. Little is known about the impact of PAHs on endocrine stress and inflammation in adolescence. We examined 393 Flemish [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants of public health concern. Multiple biological mechanisms have been hypothesized to contribute to PAHs-associated adverse health effects. Little is known about the impact of PAHs on endocrine stress and inflammation in adolescence. We examined 393 Flemish adolescents (14–15 years) cross-sectionally, measured urinary concentrations of hydroxylated naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites, and calculated the sum of all measured metabolites. We determined hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as endocrine stress biomarker, leucocyte counts and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in peripheral blood as inflammatory biomarkers, and urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) concentration as oxidative stress biomarker. Exposure–response associations were analyzed by multiple regression, adjusted for a priori selected covariates. A doubling of 1-hydroxypyrene concentration was associated with a factor of 1.13 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.24) increase in HCC and a factor of 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.13) increase in 8-oxodG. Doublings of 2- and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene concentrations were associated with a factor of 1.08 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.14) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.12) increase in 8-oxodG, respectively. Doubling of 2-hydroxyphenanthrene and of the sum of 2- and 3-hydroxyfluorene was associated with, respectively, a factor of 1.08 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.14) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.13) increase in NLR. Our results indicate the glucocorticoid pathway as a potential target for PAH exposure in adolescents and suggest oxidative stress, endocrine stress, and inflammation in adolescence as underlying mechanisms and early markers for PAH-related adverse health effects. Full article
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Article
Transfer of Pollutants from Macrocystis pyrifera to Tetrapygus niger in a Highly Impacted Coastal Zone of Chile
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 244; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100244 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
PAHs and heavy metals are characteristic pollutants in urbanized coastal areas, especially those with industrial activity. Given this context and the ability of Macrocystis pyrifera to drift when detached and provide trophic subsidy in coastal systems, we analyzed the potential transfer of pollutants [...] Read more.
PAHs and heavy metals are characteristic pollutants in urbanized coastal areas, especially those with industrial activity. Given this context and the ability of Macrocystis pyrifera to drift when detached and provide trophic subsidy in coastal systems, we analyzed the potential transfer of pollutants to the herbivore Tetrapygus niger, through diet, in an industrialized coastal zone in Central Chile (Caleta Horcón) and characterized the impacted zone using diverse polluted ecotoxicological indices. For this purpose, a culture experiment was conducted where M. pyrifera individuals from Algarrobo (control site) were cultivated in Caleta Horcón and then used as food for T. niger. The contents of both PAHs and heavy metal contents were subsequently determined in algal tissue and sea urchin gonads as well as in the seawater. The results show that algae cultivated in Caleta Horcón had higher concentrations of naphthalene (NAF) compared to those from a low industrial impact zone (Algarrobo) (2.5 and 1.8 mg kg−1, respectively). The concentrations of Cu, As, and Cd were higher in Caleta Horcón than in Algarrobo in both M. pyrifera and T. niger. For all metals, including Pb, higher concentrations were present in T. niger than in M. pyrifera (between 5 and 798 times higher). Additionally, as indicated by the toxicological indices MPI (0.00804) and PLI (10.89), Caleta Horcón is highly contaminated with metals compared to Algarrobo (0.0006 and 0.015, respectively). Finally, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and trophic transfer factor (TTF) values were greater than one in most cases, with values in Caleta Horcón exceeding those in Algarrobo by one or two orders of magnitude. This study provides evidence that Caleta Horcón is a highly impacted zone (HIZ) compared to Algarrobo, in addition to evidence that the biomagnification of certain pollutants, including the possible responses to contaminants, are apparently not exclusively transferred to T. niger through diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Chemistry)
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Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the Adrenal Gland: From Toxicity to Endocrine Disruption
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 243; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100243 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Endocrine disruptors are exogenous compounds that pollute the environment and have effects similar to hormones when inside the body. One of the most widespread endocrine disruptors in the wild is the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Toxic doses of DDT are known to cause cell [...] Read more.
Endocrine disruptors are exogenous compounds that pollute the environment and have effects similar to hormones when inside the body. One of the most widespread endocrine disruptors in the wild is the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Toxic doses of DDT are known to cause cell atrophy and degeneration in the adrenal zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. Daily exposure in a developing organism to supposedly non-toxic doses of DDT have been found to impair the morphogenesis of both the cortex and the medulla of the adrenal glands, as well as disturbing the secretion of hormones in cortical and chromaffin cells. Comparison of high and very low levels of DDT exposure revealed drastic differences in the morphological and functional changes in the adrenal cortex. Moreover, the three adrenocortical zones have different levels of sensitivity to the disruptive actions of DDT. The zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis demonstrate sensitivity to both high and very low levels of DDT in prenatal and postnatal periods. In contrast, the zona fasciculata is less damaged by low (supposedly non-toxic) exposure to DDT and its metabolites but is affected by toxic levels of exposure; thus, DDT exerts both toxic and disruptive effects on the adrenal glands, and sensitivity to these two types of action varies in adrenocortical zones. Disruptive low-dose exposure leads to more severe affection of the adrenal function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Effects of Endocrine Disrupters)
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Article
Association between Blood Mercury Concentration and Prevalence of Borderline Hypercholesterolemia among Adolescents: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2013 and 2016
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 242; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100242 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 328
Abstract
There is limited evidence on the association between blood mercury (Hg) concentration and the risk of borderline dyslipidemia in adolescents. Here, we investigated the association between blood Hg concentration and the prevalence of borderline dyslipidemia among Korean adolescents. A total of 1559 participants [...] Read more.
There is limited evidence on the association between blood mercury (Hg) concentration and the risk of borderline dyslipidemia in adolescents. Here, we investigated the association between blood Hg concentration and the prevalence of borderline dyslipidemia among Korean adolescents. A total of 1559 participants (806 boys and 753 girls) aged 10–18 years who cross-sectionally enrolled in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2013 and 2016 were included in this study. Hg concentrations (µg/L) in whole blood samples were measured. The geometric mean (GM) of the blood Hg concentration was 1.88 µg/L. It showed a 63% higher prevalence of borderline hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol (TC) 170–199 mg/dL) per unit of natural log-transformed blood Hg concentration in boys (95% CI = 1.10–2.41), but not in girls. When a categorical model was applied, the positive association with the prevalence of borderline hypercholesterolemia was also persistant in boys (OR (95% CI) for 2nd and 3rd tertiles (Hg concentration 1.532–11.761 µg/L) vs. 1st tertile (Hg concentration 0.192–1.531 µg/L): 1.92 (1.19–3.10)), but not in girls. This finding suggests that blood Hg concentration might result in a higher prevalence of borderline hypercholesterolemia among adolescents and more stringent public health actions should be taken for the reduction of Hg exposure to prevent dyslipidemia from early-childhood, despite the need of further study to evaluate a causal relationship between blood Hg concentration and the risk of dyslipidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Epidemiology)
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Article
Bioaccumulation of PCBs and PBDEs in Fish from a Tropical Lake Chapala, Mexico
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 241; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100241 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 467
Abstract
Lake Chapala is the largest natural freshwater reservoir in Mexico and the third largest lake in Latin America. Lakes are often considered the final deposit of polluting materials; they can be concentrated in the organisms that inhabit them, the water, and the sediments. [...] Read more.
Lake Chapala is the largest natural freshwater reservoir in Mexico and the third largest lake in Latin America. Lakes are often considered the final deposit of polluting materials; they can be concentrated in the organisms that inhabit them, the water, and the sediments. The PCBs and PBDEs are environmental pollutants highly studied for their known carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. PCB and PBDE bioaccumulation levels were determined in Chirostoma spp., Cyprinus carpio, and Oreochromis aureus. In addition, we monitored the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in sediment and water from Lake Chapala were monitored. Samples were collected during two periods, in October 2018 and May 2019. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Two bioaccumulation factors were determined in fish, one in relation to the concentration of PCBs and PBDEs in sediments and the other in relation to the concentration of PCBs and PBDEs in water. The PCB levels were 0.55–3.29 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediments, 1.43–2.98 ng/mL in water, 0.30–5.31 ng/g dw in Chirostoma spp., 1.06–6.07 ng/g dw in Cyprinus carpio, and 0.55–7.20 ng/g dw in Oreochromis aureus. The levels of PBDEs were 0.17–0.35 ng/g dw in sediments, 0.13–0.32 ng/mL in water, 0.01–0.23 ng/g dw in Chirostoma spp., 0–0.31 ng/g dw in Cyprinus carpio, and 0.1–0.22 ng/g dw in Oreochromis aureus. This study provides information for a better understanding of the movement, global distribution, and bioaccumulation of PCBs and PBDEs. The results show that the fish, water, and sediments of Lake Chapala are potential risks to the biota and the local human population. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Toxic Metals in Aerosols from Devices Associated with Electronic Cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use Associated Lung Injury
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 240; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9100240 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Research gaps exist in toxic metals characterization in e-cigarette, or vaping, products (EVPs) as these analytes typically have low concentrations and most standard aerosol trapping techniques have high metals background. An additional complication arises from differences in the EVP liquid formulations with nicotine [...] Read more.
Research gaps exist in toxic metals characterization in e-cigarette, or vaping, products (EVPs) as these analytes typically have low concentrations and most standard aerosol trapping techniques have high metals background. An additional complication arises from differences in the EVP liquid formulations with nicotine products having polar properties and non-nicotine products often being non-polar. Differences in polar and non-polar matrices and the subsequent aerosol chemistries from various EVPs required modifications of our previously reported nicotine-based EVP aerosol method. Validation and application of the expanded method, suitable for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic aerosols, are reported here. The metals analyzed for this study were Al, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Sn, Ba, and Pb. The method limits of detection for the modified method ranged from 0.120 ng/10 puffs for Cd to 29.3 ng/10 puffs for Al and were higher than reported for the previous method. Results of the analyses for metals in aerosols obtained from 50 EVP products are reported. Cannabinoid based EVP aerosols were below reportable levels, except for one sample with 16.08 ng/10 puffs for Cu. Nicotine-based EVP results ranged from 6.72 ng/10 puffs for Pb to 203 ng/10 puffs for Sn. Results of the analyses for these metals showed that aerosols from only 5 of the 50 devices tested had detectable metal concentrations. Concentrations of toxic elements in the aerosols for nicotine-based EVP aerosol metal concentration ranges were consistent with previously published results of aerosol analyses from this class of devices. Full article
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