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Article

Phytochemical and Safety Evaluations of Zingiber ottensii Valeton Essential Oil in Zebrafish Embryos and Rats

1
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
2
Graduate School, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
3
Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
4
Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
5
Department of Food Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
6
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Aleksandra Zielinska
Received: 18 March 2021 / Revised: 16 April 2021 / Accepted: 27 April 2021 / Published: 3 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research on the Cytotoxicity of Drugs to Humans and Animals)
Zingiber ottensii Valeton (ZO) exhibits pharmacological activity and has long been used in traditional medicine. However, reports about its safety profiles are limited. The present study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical profile and the toxic effects of ZO essential oil on the development of zebrafish and acute oral toxicity in rats. The essential oil was isolated from ZO rhizomes, and phytochemicals were analyzed using a gas chromatography–mass spectrometer (GC–MS). The embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of ZO essential oil were evaluated in zebrafish embryos and larvae and the acute oral toxicity was determined in rats. GC–MS results showed the essential oil contained zerumbone as a major phytoconstituent (24.73%). The zebrafish embryotoxicity of ZO essential oil appeared to be concentration- and time-dependent manner, with a moderate LC50 (1.003 µg/mL). Teratogenicity in zebrafish embryos also included morphological defects, decreased hatchability, and reduced heart rate. In rats, ZO essential oil (2000 mg/kg, p.o.) resulted in no mortality or significant toxicities. These findings suggest that ZO has embryotoxic and teratogenic effects in zebrafish embryos but does not result in death or acute oral toxicity in rats. Further long-term toxicity studies are needed to confirm the safety of products developed from ZO essential oil. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zingiber ottensii Valeton; zebrafish; embryotoxicity; teratogenicity; rats; acute oral toxicity Zingiber ottensii Valeton; zebrafish; embryotoxicity; teratogenicity; rats; acute oral toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thitinarongwate, W.; Mektrirat, R.; Nimlamool, W.; Khonsung, P.; Pikulkaew, S.; Okonogi, S.; Kunanusorn, P. Phytochemical and Safety Evaluations of Zingiber ottensii Valeton Essential Oil in Zebrafish Embryos and Rats. Toxics 2021, 9, 102. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9050102

AMA Style

Thitinarongwate W, Mektrirat R, Nimlamool W, Khonsung P, Pikulkaew S, Okonogi S, Kunanusorn P. Phytochemical and Safety Evaluations of Zingiber ottensii Valeton Essential Oil in Zebrafish Embryos and Rats. Toxics. 2021; 9(5):102. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9050102

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thitinarongwate, Wisit, Raktham Mektrirat, Wutigri Nimlamool, Parirat Khonsung, Surachai Pikulkaew, Siriporn Okonogi, and Puongtip Kunanusorn. 2021. "Phytochemical and Safety Evaluations of Zingiber ottensii Valeton Essential Oil in Zebrafish Embryos and Rats" Toxics 9, no. 5: 102. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9050102

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