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Toxics, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2021) – 28 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Mercury (Hg) is associated with human health problems due to high toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation in the aquatic food chain. It is considered a pollutant of global concern, and it is globally transported through the atmosphere as gaseous elemental mercury (GEM). We present the first evidence of atmospheric GEM concentration and its deposition in areas surrounding a chlor-alkali plant located near the Toce River in the Ossola Valley (Italian Central Alps). The study area suffers from a high level of Hg contamination due to a Hg cell chlor-alkali plant operating from 1915 to the end of 2017. We show how an integrated investigation of airborne Hg analytical measurements and biomonitoring can be employed to locate Hg emission sources and to identify areas where Hg inhalation exposure may be of concern. View this paper.
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Article
An Integrated Investigation of Atmospheric Gaseous Elemental Mercury Transport and Dispersion Around a Chlor-Alkali Plant in the Ossola Valley (Italian Central Alps)
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070172 - 18 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 680
Abstract
We present the first assessment of atmospheric pollution by mercury (Hg) in an industrialized area located in the Ossola Valley (Italian Central Alps), in close proximity to the Toce River. The study area suffers from a level of Hg contamination due to a [...] Read more.
We present the first assessment of atmospheric pollution by mercury (Hg) in an industrialized area located in the Ossola Valley (Italian Central Alps), in close proximity to the Toce River. The study area suffers from a level of Hg contamination due to a Hg cell chlor-alkali plant operating from 1915 to the end of 2017. We measured gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) levels by means of a portable Hg analyzer during car surveys between autumn 2018 and summer 2020. Moreover, we assessed the long-term dispersion pattern of atmospheric Hg by analyzing the total Hg concentration in samples of lichens collected in the Ossola Valley. High values of GEM concentrations (1112 ng m−3) up to three orders of magnitude higher than the typical terrestrial background concentration in the northern hemisphere were measured in the proximity of the chlor-alkali plant. Hg concentrations in lichens ranged from 142 ng g−1 at sampling sites located north of the chlor-alkali plant to 624 ng g−1 in lichens collected south of the chlor-alkali plant. A north-south gradient of Hg accumulation in lichens along the Ossola Valley channel was observed, highlighting that the area located south of the chlor-alkali plant is more exposed to the dispersion of Hg emitted into the atmosphere from the industrial site. Long-term studies on Hg emission and dispersion in the Ossola Valley are needed to better assess potential impact on ecosystems and human health. Full article
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Article
Biochemical Responses of Medicinal Plant Tussilago farfara L. to Elevated Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils of Urban Areas
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070171 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 565
Abstract
This study was conducted in Tyumen (Russian Federation) to establish the effects of heavy metals’ (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Cd) accumulation in soil and coltsfoot, as well as plants’ biochemical responses to such an accumulation. The mobile and acid-soluble heavy metal [...] Read more.
This study was conducted in Tyumen (Russian Federation) to establish the effects of heavy metals’ (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Cd) accumulation in soil and coltsfoot, as well as plants’ biochemical responses to such an accumulation. The mobile and acid-soluble heavy metal fractions in soils, and the heavy metal contents in plants, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, and Pb concentrations in soils exceeded background values. Pb content at the battery manufacturing plant was above the maximum permitted concentration. The percentages of the mobile heavy metal fractions decreased in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Fe. The greatest heavy metal accumulation in soils and plants was found at the battery manufacturing and metallurgical plants examined in our study. Heavy metals’ accumulation in the aboveground part of Tussilago farfara decreased in the following order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. The accumulation of heavy metals stimulated the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments by 6–30%. Heavy metals provoked oxidative stress in cells, increasing the concentration of lipid peroxidation in products by up to 80%. Plant phenolics and flavonoids in the urban area of our study decreased compared to those in the control by 1.05, reaching up to 6.5 times. The change in coltsfoot catalase activity both increased and declined. Biochemical responses and heavy metal accumulation in coltsfoot from urban areas limit its use for medicinal purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
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Case Report
Identification of 2C-B in Hair by UHPLC-HRMS/MS. A Real Forensic Case
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 170; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070170 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 722
Abstract
The analysis of drugs of abuse in hair and other biological matrices of forensic interest requires great selectivity and sensitivity. This has been traditionally achieved through target analysis, using one or more analytical methods that include different preanalytical stages, and more complex procedures [...] Read more.
The analysis of drugs of abuse in hair and other biological matrices of forensic interest requires great selectivity and sensitivity. This has been traditionally achieved through target analysis, using one or more analytical methods that include different preanalytical stages, and more complex procedures followed by toxicological laboratories. There is no exception with 2C-series drugs, such as 2C-B, a new psychoactive substance (NPS), which use has emerged and significantly increased, year by year, in the last decades. Continuously new analytical methods are required to selectively detect and identify these new marketed substances at very low concentrations. In this case report, one former case of a polydrug consumer (charged of a crime against public health in Spain) was reanalyzed in hair matrix. In this reanalysis, 2C-B has been positively detected and identified using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS). The most selective analytical UHPLC-HRMS/MS method alongside a universal and simpler pretreatment methodology has opened up more possibilities for the detection of substances of different chemical structure and optimization of different HRMS/MS detection approaches allowing the identification of 2-CB in the hair of a real forensic case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Studies on Toxic Chemicals: Properties and Characteristics)
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Article
Prenatal Household Air Pollution Exposure, Cord Blood Mononuclear Cell Telomere Length and Age Four Blood Pressure: Evidence from a Ghanaian Pregnancy Cohort
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 169; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070169 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 631
Abstract
Associations between prenatal household air pollution exposure (HAP), newborn telomere length and early childhood blood pressure are unknown. Methods: Pregnant women were randomized to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove, improved biomass stove or control (traditional, open fire cook stove). HAP was measured by [...] Read more.
Associations between prenatal household air pollution exposure (HAP), newborn telomere length and early childhood blood pressure are unknown. Methods: Pregnant women were randomized to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove, improved biomass stove or control (traditional, open fire cook stove). HAP was measured by personal carbon monoxide (CO) (n = 97) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) (n = 60). At birth, cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) were collected for telomere length (TL) analyses. At child age four years, we measured resting blood pressure (BP) (n = 97). We employed multivariable linear regression to determine associations between prenatal HAP and cookstove arm and assessed CBMC relative to TL separately. We then examined associations between CBMC TL and resting BP. Results: Higher prenatal PM2.5 exposure was associated with reduced TL (β = −4.9% (95% CI −8.6, −0.4), p = 0.03, per 10 ug/m3 increase in PM2.5). Infants born to mothers randomized to the LPG cookstove had longer TL (β = 55.3% (95% CI 16.2, 109.6), p < 0.01)) compared with control. In all children, shorter TL was associated with higher systolic BP (SBP) (β = 0.35 mmHg (95% CI 0.001, 0.71), p = 0.05, per 10% decrease in TL). Increased prenatal HAP exposure is associated with shorter TL at birth. Shorter TL at birth is associated with higher age four BP, suggesting that TL at birth may be a biomarker of HAP-associated disease risk. Full article
Article
Placental Transfer and Composition of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs): A Korean Birth Panel of Parent-Infant Triads
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 168; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070168 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is of public concern due to their persistent exposure and adverse health effects. Placental transfer of PFASs is an important excretion pathway of these chemicals in pregnant women and exposure route in fetuses. We measured PFAS concentrations in [...] Read more.
Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is of public concern due to their persistent exposure and adverse health effects. Placental transfer of PFASs is an important excretion pathway of these chemicals in pregnant women and exposure route in fetuses. We measured PFAS concentrations in maternal, paternal, and umbilical cord serum collected from 62 pregnant Korean women and matched biological fathers of the fetuses. Placental transfer rates (cord to maternal serum ratio) of PFASs were also calculated. Demographics and pregnancy-related factors determining the placental transfer rates were identified using linear regression models. Maternal, paternal, and cord serum showed different PFASs compositions. Among the PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) showed the highest concentrations in maternal and paternal serum, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) showed the highest concentration in cord serum. There was a higher proportion of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 9–12 carbon chains than those with 13–14 carbon chains in maternal and paternal serum, but this proportion was in the opposite direction in cord serum. PFOA and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) had higher placental transfer rates (means of 0.32 and 0.36, respectively) than PFOS (mean of 0.12), which is in line with the results of previous studies. Gestational age and birth weight were positively associated with placental transfer rate of PFOA, PFHxS, and PFOS, while pre-pregnant BMI and weight were inversely associated with PFOS. This study showed that placental transfer of PFASs differs by compounds and is associated with pregnancy-related factors. Further studies on novel PFASs are warranted for Korean pregnant women. Full article
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Article
Comparative Cytotoxicity Study of PM2.5 and TSP Collected from Urban Areas
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070167 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Ambient particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and total suspended particles (TSPs) are common airborne pollutants that cause respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the differences of cytotoxicity and mechanism between PM2.5 and TSP activity in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Atmospheric samples from the [...] Read more.
Ambient particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and total suspended particles (TSPs) are common airborne pollutants that cause respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the differences of cytotoxicity and mechanism between PM2.5 and TSP activity in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Atmospheric samples from the central district of Seoul were collected and their chemical compositions were analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. PM2.5 and TSP contained high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb). The most abundant ions in PM2.5 were SO42−, NH4+, and NO3. A549 cells were exposed to PM2.5 and TSP (25–200 µg/mL) for 24 h. TSP was more cytotoxic than PM2.5 per unit mass. PM2.5 induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by increased levels of a glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier, whereas low-concentration TSP increased hemeoxygenase-1 levels. PM2.5 and TSP did not affect c-Jun N-terminal kinase expression. The levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in PM2.5- and TSP-treated cells decreased significantly in the cytosol and increased in the nucleus. Thus, Nrf2 may be a key transcription factor for detoxifying environmental airborne particles in A549 cells. TSP and PM2.5 could activate the protective Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1/Nrf2 pathway in A549 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Basis of Air-Pollution-Induced Disease Risk)
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Article
The Potential Risk of Electronic Waste Disposal into Aquatic Media: The Case of Personal Computer Motherboards
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 166; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070166 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
Considering that electronic wastes (e-wastes) have been recently recognized as a potent environmental and human threat, the present study aimed to assess the potential risk of personal computer motherboards (PCMBs) leaching into aquatic media, following a real-life scenario. Specifically, PCMBs were submerged for [...] Read more.
Considering that electronic wastes (e-wastes) have been recently recognized as a potent environmental and human threat, the present study aimed to assess the potential risk of personal computer motherboards (PCMBs) leaching into aquatic media, following a real-life scenario. Specifically, PCMBs were submerged for 30 days in both distilled water (DW) and artificial seawater (ASW). Afterwards, PCMBs leachates were chemically characterized (i.e., total organic carbon, ions, and trace elements) and finally used (a) for culturing freshwater (Chlorococcum sp. and Scenedesmus rubescens) and saltwater (Dunaliella tertiolecta and Tisochrysis lutea) microalgae for 10 days (240 h), (b) as the exposure medium for mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (96 h exposure), and (c) for performing the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus (CBMN) assay in human lymphocytes cultures. According to the results, PCMBs could mediate both fresh- and marine algae growth rates over time, thus enhancing the cytotoxic, oxidative, and genotoxic effects in the hemocytes of mussels (in terms of lysosomal membrane impairment, lipid peroxidation, and NO content and micronuclei formation, respectively), as well as human lymphocytes (in terms of MN formation and CBPI values, respectively). The current findings clearly revealed that PCMBs leaching into the aquatic media could pose detrimental effects on both aquatic organisms and human cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Contaminants on Aquatic Organisms)
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Article
Wild Zebrafish Sentinels: Biological Monitoring of Site Differences Using Behavior and Morphology
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 165; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070165 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Environmental change poses a devastating risk to human and environmental health. Rapid assessment of water conditions is necessary for monitoring, evaluating, and addressing this global health danger. Sentinels or biological monitors can be deployed in the field using minimal resources to detect water [...] Read more.
Environmental change poses a devastating risk to human and environmental health. Rapid assessment of water conditions is necessary for monitoring, evaluating, and addressing this global health danger. Sentinels or biological monitors can be deployed in the field using minimal resources to detect water quality changes in real time, quickly and cheaply. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are ideal sentinels for detecting environmental changes due to their biomedical tool kit, widespread geographic distribution, and well-characterized phenotypic responses to environmental disturbances. Here, we demonstrate the utility of zebrafish sentinels by characterizing phenotypic differences in wild zebrafish between two field sites in India. Site 1 was a rural environment with flowing water, low-hypoxic conditions, minimal human-made debris, and high iron and lead concentrations. Site 2 was an urban environment with still water, hypoxic conditions, plastic pollution, and high arsenic, iron, and chromium concentrations. We found that zebrafish from Site 2 were smaller, more cohesive, and less active than Site 1 fish. We also found sexually dimorphic body shapes within the Site 2, but not the Site 1, population. Advancing zebrafish sentinel research and development will enable rapid detection, evaluation, and response to emerging global health threats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Zebrafish Model for Environmental Health Sciences Research)
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Article
A Multidisciplinary Approach for the Assessment of Origin, Fate and Ecotoxicity of Metal(loid)s from Legacy Coal Mine Tailings
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070164 - 10 Jul 2021
Viewed by 561
Abstract
Over the course of history, the development of human societies implied the exploitation of mineral resources which generated huge amounts of mining wastes leading to substantial environmental contamination by various metal(loid)s. This is especially the case of coal mine tailings which, subjected to [...] Read more.
Over the course of history, the development of human societies implied the exploitation of mineral resources which generated huge amounts of mining wastes leading to substantial environmental contamination by various metal(loid)s. This is especially the case of coal mine tailings which, subjected to weathering reactions, produce acid mine drainage (AMD), a recurring ecological issue related to current and past mining activities. In this study, we aimed to determine the origin, the fate and the ecotoxicity of metal(loid)s leached from a historical coal tailing heap to the Beuveroux river (Franche-Comté, France) using a combination of mineralogical, chemical and biological approaches. In the constitutive materials of the tailings, we identified galena, tetrahedrite and bournonite as metal-rich minerals and their weathering has led to massive contamination of the water and suspended particles of the river bordering the heap. The ecotoxicity of the AMD has been assessed using Chironomus riparius larvae encaged in the field during a one-month biomonitoring campaign. The larvae showed lethal and sub-lethal (growth and emergence inhibition and delay) impairments at the AMD tributary and near downstream stations. Metal bioaccumulation and subcellular fractionation in the larvae tissues revealed a strong bioavailability of, notably, As, Pb and Tl explaining the observed biological responses. Thus, more than 70 years after the end of mining operations, the coal tailings remain a chronic source of contamination and environmental risks in AMD effluent receiving waters. Full article
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Article
Conditions Affecting the Release of Heavy and Rare Earth Metals from the Mine Tailings Kola Subarctic
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070163 - 09 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 520
Abstract
In the Kola Subarctic, a mining industry has developed, which is a source of environmental pollution with heavy metals. The objects of study were the tailings of three large mining enterprises in the region: apatite-nepheline, complex and loparite ores. The geotechnical characteristics were [...] Read more.
In the Kola Subarctic, a mining industry has developed, which is a source of environmental pollution with heavy metals. The objects of study were the tailings of three large mining enterprises in the region: apatite-nepheline, complex and loparite ores. The geotechnical characteristics were studied, and the granulometric composition of the samples was established. The main minerals that make up the material of ore dressing tailings have been determined. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the content of trace elements, in particular heavy metals and rare earth elements, has been established. The enrichment factor, the geoaccumulation indexes, the potential ecological risk index factor and the potential environmental hazard index have been calculated. Priority pollutants characteristics for specific objects have been identified. It is noted that the finely dispersed material of the tailings of loparite and complex ores is 1.5–3 times enriched in heavy and rare earth metals in comparison with the total material of the tailings. In laboratory conditions, experiments were carried out to simulate the process of interaction of dust particles with soil solutions containing different amounts of dissolved organic matter and at average seasonal temperatures. It was found that a decrease in the pH of the solution and an increase in the amount of organic carbon and temperature lead to the mobilization of heavy and rare earth metals from the tailings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Metal and Trace Element Contamination in Soil)
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Article
Design of Bio-Absorbent Systems for the Removal of Hydrocarbons from Industrial Wastewater: Pilot-Plant Scale
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070162 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 577
Abstract
The objective of this study was the development and design of a treatment system at a pilot-plant scale for the remediation of hydrocarbons in industrial wastewater. The treatment consists of a combined approach of absorption and biodegradation to obtain treated water with sufficient [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was the development and design of a treatment system at a pilot-plant scale for the remediation of hydrocarbons in industrial wastewater. The treatment consists of a combined approach of absorption and biodegradation to obtain treated water with sufficient quality to be reused in fire defense systems (FDSs). The plant consists of four vertical flow columns (bioreactors) made of stainless steel (ATEX Standard) with dimensions of 1.65 × 0.5 m and water volumes of 192.4 L. Each bioreactor includes a holder to contain the absorbent material (Pad Sentec polypropylene). The effectiveness of the treatment system has been studied in wastewater with high and low pollutant loads (concentrations higher than 60,000 mg L−1 of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and lower than 500 mg L−1 of TPHs, respectively). The pilot-plant design can function at two different flow rates, Q1 (180 L h−1) and Q2 (780 L h−1), with or without additional aeration. The results obtained for strongly polluted wastewaters showed that, at low flow rates, additional aeration enhanced hydrocarbon removal, while aeration was unnecessary at high flow rates. For wastewater with a low pollutant load, we selected a flow rate of 780 L h−1 without aeration. Different recirculation times were also tested along with the application of a post-treatment lasting 7 days inside the bioreactor without recirculation. The microbial diversity studies showed similar populations of bacteria and fungi in the inlet and outlet wastewater. Likewise, high similarity indices were observed between the adhered and suspended biomass within the bioreactors. The results showed that the setup and optimization of the reactor represent a step forward in the application of bioremediation processes at an industrial/large scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies to Remove Toxic Compounds in Wastewater)
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Article
Toxicological Effects of Roundup® on Drosophila melanogaster Reproduction
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070161 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 944
Abstract
Herbicide use has increased dramatically since 2001, particularly Roundup®. Effective in agricultural practice, Roundup® adversely affects non-target organisms, including reproductive and endocrine systems. We exposed fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, to either Roundup® Ready to Use, containing pelargonic acid [...] Read more.
Herbicide use has increased dramatically since 2001, particularly Roundup®. Effective in agricultural practice, Roundup® adversely affects non-target organisms, including reproductive and endocrine systems. We exposed fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, to either Roundup® Ready to Use, containing pelargonic acid and glyphosate, or Roundup® Super Concentrate, that includes glyphosate and POEA, at sublethal concentrations. Both Roundup® formulations reduced ovary volume with fewer mature oocytes, most adversely at the highest concentration tested. Flies exposed within 2 h of eclosion were affected more than at 4 h, suggesting a critical period of increased ovarian sensitivity. These results support multi-species evidence that glyphosate-based herbicides interfere with normal development of the reproductive systems of non-target organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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Article
Use of Plant Protection Products in Lombardy, Italy and the Health Risk for the Ingestion of Contaminated Water
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070160 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Pesticides used to protect agricultural crops may contaminate groundwater. This work aimed to identify the pesticides used in Lombardy, Italy, in 2016, their concentration in the groundwater and the risk for health associated with the intake of drinkable water in the adult population. [...] Read more.
Pesticides used to protect agricultural crops may contaminate groundwater. This work aimed to identify the pesticides used in Lombardy, Italy, in 2016, their concentration in the groundwater and the risk for health associated with the intake of drinkable water in the adult population. The risk was evaluated for the presence of single and multiple active substances in the groundwater, calculating the hazard quotient (HQ) and the hazard index (HI), respectively. Lombardy utilises an agricultural area of 980,112 h, which is mainly cultivated with cereals (74%). Approximately 2354 pesticides (about 1.3 × 107 kg), containing 410 active substances (about 4.5 × 106 kg) were sold. There were groundwater contamination measurements in 158 monitoring points, which were investigated twice a year for 31 active substances, and a total of 9152 determinations. Only 17 currently used active substance were measured in the groundwater, among which three belonged to the 10 best-sold pesticides. The exceedance of the environmental quality standard was observed for about 1.5% determinations. The intake of contaminated water in the adult population resulted in a HQ typically ranging between 10−3 and 10−4 and a HI of about 10−3. Although the number of pesticides sold in 2016 in Lombardy was big, only a small fraction of active substances was monitored in the groundwater. Considering these monitored substances, the intake of contaminated groundwater in the adult general population posed an irrelevant risk for health. Full article
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Article
Paternal Fenitrothion Exposures in Rats Causes Sperm DNA Fragmentation in F0 and Histomorphometric Changes in Selected Organs of F1 Generation
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070159 - 05 Jul 2021
Viewed by 637
Abstract
The adverse effects of maternal pesticides exposure on the progeny is very well established. However, the impact of paternal exposure to pesticides such as Fenitrothion (FNT) on the histomorphometry of progeny’s organs in unexposed mothers are much less well studied. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
The adverse effects of maternal pesticides exposure on the progeny is very well established. However, the impact of paternal exposure to pesticides such as Fenitrothion (FNT) on the histomorphometry of progeny’s organs in unexposed mothers are much less well studied. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effects of paternal FNT exposure on the sperm quality of the parent rat and its effects on the histomorphometry of the progeny’s organs. Randomly, male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 24) categorized as F0 were distributed equally into three groups namely Control, FNT-10, and FNT-20. Control received 1 mL/kg corn oil while FNT-10 and FNT-20 received 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg of FNT, respectively, via oral force feeding for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the study, male rats were mated with unexposed female rats and the male rats were sacrificed to obtain sperm for sperm characterization and DNA damage evaluation. Meanwhile, the rats’ progeny (F1) namely pControl, pFNT-10, and pFNT-20 were left to grow until postnatal day 70 before being sacrificed to obtain the matured organs for histology and morphometric analysis. Our results showed that both doses of FNT reduced sperm quality and caused DNA fragmentation in F0 rats compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The number of Leydig cells as well as the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and glomerulus of the pFNT-20 group had significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with the pControl group. The Bowman’s space of the pFNT-20 group had significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared with the pFNT-10 and pControl groups. Therefore, paternal exposure to FNT reduced the sperm quality and increased sperm DNA fragmentation in F0 male Sprague Dawley rats and altered the histology and morphometry of the selected organs in the F1 progeny. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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Article
Defective Bismuth Oxide as Effective Adsorbent for Arsenic Removal from Water and Wastewater
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070158 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 665
Abstract
In this work, we report solid-state synthetized defective Bi2O3 containing Bi(V) sites as effective and recyclable arsenic adsorbent materials. Bi2O3 was extensively characterized, and structure-related adsorption processes are reported. Both As(V) and As(III) species-adsorption processes were investigated [...] Read more.
In this work, we report solid-state synthetized defective Bi2O3 containing Bi(V) sites as effective and recyclable arsenic adsorbent materials. Bi2O3 was extensively characterized, and structure-related adsorption processes are reported. Both As(V) and As(III) species-adsorption processes were investigated in a wide range of concentrations, pH values, and times. The effect of several competing ions was also tested together with the adsorbent recyclability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies to Decontaminate Pollutants in Water)
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Review
Comprehensive Insight from Phthalates Occurrence: From Health Outcomes to Emerging Analytical Approaches
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070157 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 626
Abstract
Phthalates are a group of chemicals used in a multitude of important industrial products (e.g., medical devices, children’s toys, and food packages), mainly as plasticizers to improve mechanical properties such as flexibility, transparency, durability, and longevity of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The wide occurrence [...] Read more.
Phthalates are a group of chemicals used in a multitude of important industrial products (e.g., medical devices, children’s toys, and food packages), mainly as plasticizers to improve mechanical properties such as flexibility, transparency, durability, and longevity of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The wide occurrence of phthalates in many consumer products, including foods (e.g., bottled water, soft drinks, wine, milk, and meat) brings that most people are exposed to phthalates every day, which raises some concerns. Adverse health outcomes from phthalates exposure have been associated with endocrine disruption, deformities in the human reproductive system, increased risk of preterm birth, carcinogen exposure, among others. Apprehension related to the health risks and ubiquitous incidence of phthalates in foods inspires the development of reliable analytical approaches that allow their detection and quantification at trace levels. The purpose of the current review is to provide information related to the presence of phthalates in the food chain, highlighting the health risks associated with their exposure. Moreover, an overview of emerging extraction procedures and high-resolution analytical approaches for a comprehensive quantification of phthalates is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phthalate Exposure: From Quantification to Risk Assessment)
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Article
Thermal (In)stability of Atropine and Scopolamine in the GC-MS Inlet
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070156 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 547
Abstract
The intoxication due to unintentional or intentional ingestion of plant material containing tropane alkaloids is quite frequent. GC-MS method is still widely used for the identification of these toxicologically important substances in human specimen. During general unknown analysis, high temperature of inlet, at [...] Read more.
The intoxication due to unintentional or intentional ingestion of plant material containing tropane alkaloids is quite frequent. GC-MS method is still widely used for the identification of these toxicologically important substances in human specimen. During general unknown analysis, high temperature of inlet, at least 270 °C, is commonly used for less volatile substances. Unfortunately, both tropanes are thermally unstable and could be overlooked due to their degradation. The temperature-related degradation of tropanes atropine and scopolamine was systematically studied in the inlet of a GC-MS instrument in the range 110–250 °C by increments of 20 °C, additionally also at 275 °C, and in different solvents. At inlet temperatures not higher than 250 °C, the degradation products were formed by elimination of water and cleavage of atropine’s ester bond. At higher temperatures, elimination of formaldehyde became predominant. These phenomena were less pronounced when ethyl acetate was used instead of methanol, while n-hexane proved unsuitable for several reasons. At an inlet temperature of 275 °C, tropanes were barely detectable. During systematic toxicological analysis, any tropanes’ degradation products should indicate the possible presence of atropine and/or scopolamine in the sample. It is not necessary to prepare thermally stable derivatives for confirmation. Instead, the inlet temperature can be decreased to 250 °C, which diminishes their degradation to a level where their detection and identification are possible. This was demonstrated in several case studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Identification of Drug Abuse)
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Review
A Review of Dietary Intake of Acrylamide in Humans
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070155 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 656
Abstract
The dietary intake of acrylamide (AA) is a health concern, and food is being monitored worldwide, but the extent of AA exposure from the diet is uncertain. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of estimated dietary intake. We performed [...] Read more.
The dietary intake of acrylamide (AA) is a health concern, and food is being monitored worldwide, but the extent of AA exposure from the diet is uncertain. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of estimated dietary intake. We performed a PubMed search identifying studies that used dietary questionnaires and recalls to estimate total dietary AA intake. A total of 101 studies were included, corresponding to 68 original study populations from 26 countries. Questionnaires were used in 57 studies, dietary recalls were used in 33 studies, and 11 studies used both methods. The estimated median AA intake ranged from 0.02 to 1.53 μg/kg body weight/day between studies. Children were represented in 25 studies, and the body-weight-adjusted estimated AA intake was up to three times higher for children than adults. The majority of studies were from Europe (n = 65), Asia (n = 17), and the USA (n = 12). Studies from Asia generally estimated lower intakes than studies from Europe and the USA. Differences in methods undermine direct comparison across studies. The assessment of AA intake through dietary questionnaires and recalls has limitations. The integration of these methods with the analysis of validated biomarkers of exposure/internal dose would improve the accuracy of dietary AA intake exposure estimation. This overview shows that AA exposure is widespread and the large variation across and within populations shows a potential for reduced intake among those with the highest exposure. Full article
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Article
Intravesical Instillation of Norketamine, a Ketamine Metabolite, and Induced Bladder Functional Changes in Rats
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070154 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 516
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the mechanism of ketamine-induced cystitis without metabolism. A total of 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into control, ketamine, and norketamine groups. To induce cystitis, rats in the ketamine and norketamine groups were treated with intravesical instillation [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the mechanism of ketamine-induced cystitis without metabolism. A total of 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into control, ketamine, and norketamine groups. To induce cystitis, rats in the ketamine and norketamine groups were treated with intravesical instillation of ketamine and norketamine by mini-osmotic pump, which was placed in subcutaneous space, daily for 24 h for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, all rats were subjected to bladder functional tests. The bladders were collected for histological and pathological evaluation. Compared to control, ketamine treatment demonstrated an increase in the bladder weight, high bladder/body coefficient, contractive pressure, voiding volume, collagen deposition, reduced smooth muscle content, damaged glycosaminoglycan layer, and low bladder compliance. Compared to ketamine, norketamine treatment showed more severe collagen deposition, smooth muscle loss, damaged glycosaminoglycan layer, and increased residual urine. Intravesical administration of ketamine and norketamine induced cystitis with different urodynamic characteristics. Norketamine treatment caused more severe bladder dysfunction than ketamine treatment. Direct treatment of the bladder with norketamine induced symptoms more consistent with those of bladder outlet obstruction than ketamine cystitis. Detailed studies of cellular mechanisms are required to determine the pathogenesis of ketamine cystitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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Article
Acute Toxic and Genotoxic Effects of Aluminum and Manganese Using In Vitro Models
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070153 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 628
Abstract
The objective of this study was to use the same concentrations of aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) detected previously in groundwater above those permitted by Brazilian law and assess their cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in hamster ovary cell lines and their mutagenic effects [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to use the same concentrations of aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) detected previously in groundwater above those permitted by Brazilian law and assess their cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in hamster ovary cell lines and their mutagenic effects through the Salmonella microsome assay. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and CHO-XRS5 cells were treated with different concentrations of Al and Mn (0.2 to 2.0 mg/L and 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, respectively). The Ames test was used to analyze the concentrations of Al and Mn ranging from 0.025 to 1.0 mg/L and 0.0125 to 1.5 mg/L, respectively. Both metals showed cytotoxic effects on both cell lines and two bacterial strains (TA98 and TA100). The genotoxic effects of the highest concentrations of Al and Mn in cell lines showed nuclear buds, micronuclei, and DNA damage; however, none of the concentrations showed a positive mutagenic response in the Ames test. This is one of the few studies to demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of Al and Mn through the Ames test. In addition, the metals caused genomic instability in cell lines. Therefore, this study may help hasten the review of established regulatory standards for human consumption of groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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Article
Direct Comparison of the Lowest Effect Concentrations of Mutagenic Reference Substances in Two Ames Test Formats
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070152 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
The Ames assay is the standard assay for identifying DNA-reactive genotoxic substances. Multiple formats are available and the correct choice of an assay protocol is essential for achieving optimal performance, including fit for purpose detection limits and required screening capacity. In the present [...] Read more.
The Ames assay is the standard assay for identifying DNA-reactive genotoxic substances. Multiple formats are available and the correct choice of an assay protocol is essential for achieving optimal performance, including fit for purpose detection limits and required screening capacity. In the present study, a comparison of those parameters between two commonly used formats, the standard pre-incubation Ames test and the liquid-based Ames MPF™, was performed. For that purpose, twenty-one substances with various modes of action were chosen and tested for their lowest effect concentrations (LEC) with both tests. In addition, two sources of rat liver homogenate S9 fraction, Aroclor 1254-induced and phenobarbital/β-naphthoflavone induced, were compared in the Ames MPF™. Overall, the standard pre-incubation Ames and the Ames MPF™ assay showed high concordance (>90%) for mutagenic vs. non-mutagenic compound classification. The LEC values of the Ames MPF™ format were lower for 17 of the 21 of the selected test substances. The S9 source had no impact on the test results. This leads to the conclusion that the liquid-based Ames MPF™ assay format provides screening advantages when low concentrations are relevant, such as in the testing of complex mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment of Food Contact Materials/Articles)
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Article
Effects of Polydopamine Microspheres Loaded with Silver Nanoparticles on Lolium multiflorum: Bigger Size, Less Toxic
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070151 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
The rapid development of nanotechnology and its widespread use have given rise to serious concerns over the potential adverse impacts of nanomaterials on the Earth’s ecosystems. Among all the nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most extensively used nanomaterials due to [...] Read more.
The rapid development of nanotechnology and its widespread use have given rise to serious concerns over the potential adverse impacts of nanomaterials on the Earth’s ecosystems. Among all the nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most extensively used nanomaterials due to their excellent antibacterial property. However, the toxic mechanism of AgNPs in nature is still unclear. One of the questions under debate is whether the toxicity is associated with the size of AgNPs or the silver ions released from AgNPs. In our previous study, a sub-micron hybrid sphere system with polydopamine-stabilized AgNPs ([email protected]) was synthesized through a facile and green method, exhibiting superior antibacterial properties. The current study aims to explore the unique toxicity profile of this hybrid sphere system by studying its effect on germination and early growth of Lolium multiflorum, with AgNO3 and 15 nm AgNPs as a comparison. The results showed the seed germination was insensitive/less sensitive to all three reagents; however, vegetative growth was more sensitive. Specifically, when the Ag concentration was lower than 40 mg/L, [email protected] almost had no adverse effects on the root and shoot growth of Lolium multiflorum seeds. By contrast, when treated with AgNO3 at a lower Ag concentration of 5 mg/L, the plant growth was inhibited significantly, and was reduced more in the case of AgNP treatment at the same Ag concentration. As the exposures of [email protected], AgNO3, and AgNPs increased, so did the Ag content in the root and shoot. In general, [email protected] was proven to be a potential useful hybrid material that retains antibacterial property with light phytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Environmental and Health Risks of Nanotechnology)
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Article
Whole Cigarette Smoke Condensates Induce Accumulation of Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein with Oxidative Stress in Murine Astrocytes
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070150 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Although cigarette smoking has been postulated to be a potential risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the toxic mechanism is still unclear. Additionally, astrocytes have been identified as a potential target, given they play multiple roles in maintaining normal brain function. In this [...] Read more.
Although cigarette smoking has been postulated to be a potential risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the toxic mechanism is still unclear. Additionally, astrocytes have been identified as a potential target, given they play multiple roles in maintaining normal brain function. In this study, we explored the toxic mechanism of whole cigarette smoke condensates (WCSC) using murine astrocytes. Cell proliferation, the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase, and LDH concentrations in the cell supernatants were all reduced in WCSC-treated cells. In addition, oxidative stress was induced, together with shortening of processes, structural damage of organelles, disturbances in mitochondrial function, blockage of autophagic signals, accumulation of amyloid β precursor protein, and loss of chemotactic functions. Based on these results, we hypothesize that dysfunction of astrocytes may contribute to the occurrence of cigarette-smoking-induced AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Related Diseases)
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Article
An Integrative Approach to Assess the Environmental Impacts of Gold Mining Contamination in the Amazon
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070149 - 26 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
As the number of legal and illegal gold mining sites increases in the Andes–Amazonia region, integrative methods to evaluate the effects of mining pollution on freshwater ecosystems are of paramount importance. Here, we sampled water and sediments in 11 sites potentially affected by [...] Read more.
As the number of legal and illegal gold mining sites increases in the Andes–Amazonia region, integrative methods to evaluate the effects of mining pollution on freshwater ecosystems are of paramount importance. Here, we sampled water and sediments in 11 sites potentially affected by gold mining activities in the Napo province (Ecuador). The environmental impacts were evaluated using the following lines of evidence (LOEs): water physicochemical parameters, metal exposure concentrations, macroinvertebrate community response (AAMBI), and toxicity by conducting bioassays with Lactuca sativa and Daphnia magna. Dissolved oxygen and total suspended solids were under (<80%) and above (>130 mg/Ls) quality standards 65% of the sites. Ag, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in water and V, B, and Cr in sediments were detected above quality standards at sampled sites. Nine out of eleven sites were classified as having bad environmental quality based on the AAMBI. L. sativa seed germination in both water (37% to 70%) and sediment (0% to 65%) indicate significant toxicity. In five sites, neonates of D. magna showed a 25% reduction in survival compared to the control. Our integrated LOEs index ranked sites regarding their environmental degradation. We recommend environmental impact monitoring of the mining expansion at the Andes–Amazonia region using multiple LOEs. Full article
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Article
Assessment of the Suitability of Melilotus officinalis for Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH and PAH), Zn, Pb and Cd Based on Toxicological Tests
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070148 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 573
Abstract
The article presents issues related to the possibility of using toxicological tests as a tool to monitor the progress of soil treatment contaminated with petroleum substances (TPH, PAH), Zn, Pb and Cd in bio-phytoremediation processes. In order to reduce the high content of [...] Read more.
The article presents issues related to the possibility of using toxicological tests as a tool to monitor the progress of soil treatment contaminated with petroleum substances (TPH, PAH), Zn, Pb and Cd in bio-phytoremediation processes. In order to reduce the high content of petroleum pollutants (TPH = 56,371 mg kg−1 dry mass, PAH = 139.3 mg kg−1 dry mass), the technology of stepwise soil treatment was applied, including basic bioremediation and inoculation with biopreparations based of indigenous non-pathogenic species of bacteria, fungi and yeasts. As a result of basic bioremediation in laboratory conditions (ex-situ method), the reduction of petroleum pollutants TPH by 33.9% and PAH by 9.5% was achieved. The introduction of inoculation with biopraparation-1 prepared on the basis of non-pathogenic species of indigenous bacteria made it possible to reduce the TPH content by 86.3%, PAH by 40.3%. The use of a biopreparation-1 enriched with indigenous non-pathogenic species of fungi and yeasts in the third series of inoculation increased to an increase in the degree of biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons with long carbon chains and PAH by a further 28.9%. In the next stage of soil treatment after biodegradation processes, which was characterized by an increased content of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd) and naphthalene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(ghi)perylene belonging to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phytoremediation with the use of Melilotus officinalis was applied. After the six-month phytoremediation process, the following was achieved: Zn content by 25.1%, Pb by 27.9%, Cd by 23.2% and TPH by 42.2% and PAH by 49.9%. The rate of removal of individual groups of hydrocarbons was in the decreasing order: C12–C18 > C6–C12 > C18–C25 > C25–C36. PAHs tended to be removed in the following order: chrysene > naphthalene > benzo(a)anthracene > benzo(ghi)perylene. The TF and BCF coefficients were calculated to assess the capacity of M. officinalis to accumulate metal in tissues, uptake from soil and transfer from roots to shoots. The values of TF translocation coefficients were, respectively, for Zn (0.44), Pb (0.12), Cd (0.40). The calculated BCF concentration factors (BCFroots > BCFshoots) show that heavy metals taken up by M. officinalis are mainly accumulated in the root tissues in the following order Zn > Pb > Cd, revealing a poor metal translocation from the root to the shoots. This process was carried out in laboratory conditions for a period of 6 months. The process of phytoremediation of contaminated soil using M. officinalis assisted with fertilization was monitored by means of toxicological tests: Microtox, Ostracodtoxkit FTM, MARA and PhytotoxkitTM. The performed phytotoxicity tests have indicated variable sensitivity of the tested plants on contaminants occurring in the studied soils, following the sequence: Lepidium sativum < Sorghum saccharatum < Sinapis alba. The sensitivity of toxicological tests was comparable and increased in the order: MARA < Ostracodtoxkit FTM < Microtox. The results of the toxicological monitoring as a function of the time of soil treatment, together with chemical analyses determining the content of toxicants in soil and biomass M. officinalis, clearly confirmed the effectiveness of the applied concept of bioremediation of soils contaminated with zinc, lead and cadmium in the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Toxicity Effects on Plants)
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Article
Impact of a Large Fire and Subsequent Pollution Control Failure at a Coke Works on Acute Asthma Exacerbations in Nearby Adult Residents
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070147 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Clairton, Pennsylvania, is home to the largest coke works facility in the United States (US). On 24 December 2018, a large fire occurred at this facility and damaged pollution control equipment. Although repairs were not completed for several months, production continued at pre-fire [...] Read more.
Clairton, Pennsylvania, is home to the largest coke works facility in the United States (US). On 24 December 2018, a large fire occurred at this facility and damaged pollution control equipment. Although repairs were not completed for several months, production continued at pre-fire capacity and daily emissions increased by 24 to 35 times, with multiple exceedances of monitored levels of outdoor air pollution (OAP). The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the impact of this industrial incident and resultant OAP exceedances on asthma morbidity. We assessed pre-fire and post-fire rate ratios (RR) of outpatient and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma exacerbations among nearby adult residents. Pre-fire versus post-fire RRs increased for both visit types: RR = 1.82 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.53; p < 0.001) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.05, 3.22; p = 0.032) for outpatient and ED visits, respectively. Additionally, total visit rates increased on days with OAP exceedances: RR = 2.47 (95% CI: 1.52, 4.01; p < 0.0001), 1.58 (95% CI: 1.00, 2.48; p = 0.048) and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.27, 2.54; p = 0.001) for PM2.5, SO2, and H2S exceedance days, respectively. These results show a near doubling of acute visits for asthma exacerbations in nearby adult residents during this industrial incident and underscore the need for prompt remediation and public notification of OAP exceedances to prevent adverse health impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exposure to Air Pollution on Respiratory Health)
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Article
A Review of the Impact of Selected Anthropogenic Chemicals from the Group of Endocrine Disruptors on Human Health
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070146 - 24 Jun 2021
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Background: The aim of the study was to review data on the impact of anthropogenic chemicals (endocrine disruptors) on various diseases, which, consequently, may facilitate their prevention and be used as a tool for managing public healthcare. Every day, humans are exposed to [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the study was to review data on the impact of anthropogenic chemicals (endocrine disruptors) on various diseases, which, consequently, may facilitate their prevention and be used as a tool for managing public healthcare. Every day, humans are exposed to chemicals, including xenoestrogens, which are similar to female hormones. Methods: This manuscript was prepared based on a meta-analysis of research on the impacts of selected EDCs on human health. Results: Special attention should be paid to bisphenol A (BPA), benzo-α-pyrene, and phthalates due to their proven endocrine activity and presence in our daily lives. Xenoestrogens are absorbed by human organisms through the digestive system since they can migrate to food from food packages and drinks as well as from plastic products used daily. The presence of these chemicals in human organisms is considered a potential cause for some diseases commonly referred to as ‘diseases of civilization’. Conclusions: The biomonitoring of xenoestrogens, which are chemicals with unfavorable impacts on human health, is a crucial tool for assessing the risk from the pollution of the environment. The novelty is a holistic approach to assessing the occurrence of risk factors for civilization diseases. Full article
Article
Comparison of the Potential Ecological and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metals from Sewage Sludge and Livestock Manure for Agricultural Use
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9070145 - 24 Jun 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Sewage sludge and livestock (chicken, swine and cattle) manure samples were collected from the Yanmenguan Cattle Herbivorous Livestock Area to compare the potential ecological and human health risks caused by heavy metals contained in them. In this study, the Class II level of [...] Read more.
Sewage sludge and livestock (chicken, swine and cattle) manure samples were collected from the Yanmenguan Cattle Herbivorous Livestock Area to compare the potential ecological and human health risks caused by heavy metals contained in them. In this study, the Class II level of Quality Control of Imported Organic Fertilizers is selected as the limit standard value of heavy metals. Based on the mean content values, no heavy metal in cattle manure was higher than the limit standard value; the content of Cu in swine manure was higher than the limit of Cu; the content of Zn in sewage sludge, chicken manure and swine manure were all higher than the limit of Zn; and the content of Cr in sewage sludge and chicken manure were all higher than the limit of Cr. Results indicated that sewage sludge and livestock manure all had high contents of Zn, Cu and Cr. The mean pollution index (PI) suggested that Cu, Zn, As and Cr in sewage sludge and livestock manures all induced potential ecological risks. According to the mean Nemerow’s synthetic pollution index (PN) values, swine manure had the highest potential ecological risk for agricultural use. Daily exposure to Cu, Zn and Cr was higher than other heavy metals from sewage sludge and livestock manures, and heavy metal exposure was always higher for children than adults, with ingestion as the main pathway. Non-carcinogenic risk was caused mainly by Cu and Cr, based on the higher hazard quotient (HQ) values for adults and children. There was no non-carcinogenic risk for all people, except exposure of Cu from swine manure for children, which was 1.76 times higher than the threshold value of 1. According to the mean hazard index (HI) values, only swine manure had a non-carcinogenic risk for children. As the carcinogenic risk index (Risk) values were continuously greater for As than Cd, As had a higher carcinogenic risk than Cd. There was no carcinogenic risk for any single heavy metal, although As exposure from sewage sludge was found to have an inapparent carcinogenic risk for both adults and children. Regarding the RISK value, sewage sludge had an unacceptable carcinogenic risk for adults and children, and swine manure had an unacceptable risk for children only. In general, for both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, ingestion was the main pathway, and children were more sensitive than adults. Comparing the four kinds of organic waste, cattle manure was the safest for agricultural use in terms of ecological and human health risks. In multiple comparisons, swine manure was significantly different regarding potential ecological risk and non-carcinogenic risk, and sewage sludge was significantly different regarding carcinogenic risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Elements)
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