Next Issue
Volume 9, September
Previous Issue
Volume 9, July

Toxics, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2021) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A mixture composed by glyphosate, chlorpyrifos and copper, at different environmental concentrations, were applied to eyed-stage of rainbow trout. These three compounds have dissimilar mode of action and function and could be applied all together on crops. Since they are easily transported into water bodies by runoff, it could be valuable to consider the toxicity of their combined effect. To date, data on the effects of pesticides mixtures are still scarce in particular on early life stages of fish. The studied endpoints on rainbow trout included survival, swimming activity, DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and gene expression. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Ecological Risk Assessment of Amoxicillin, Enrofloxacin, and Neomycin: Are Their Current Levels in the Freshwater Environment Safe?
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 196; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080196 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Veterinary pharmaceuticals may cause unexpected adverse effects on non-target aquatic species. While these pharmaceuticals were previously identified as priority compounds in ambient water, their ecological risks are relatively unknown. In this study, a series of chronic toxicity tests were conducted for these pharmaceuticals [...] Read more.
Veterinary pharmaceuticals may cause unexpected adverse effects on non-target aquatic species. While these pharmaceuticals were previously identified as priority compounds in ambient water, their ecological risks are relatively unknown. In this study, a series of chronic toxicity tests were conducted for these pharmaceuticals using algae, two cladocerans, and a fish. After a 21-d exposure to amoxicillin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin, no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for the reproduction of Daphnia magna was detected at 27.2, 3.3, and 0.15 mg/L, respectively. For the survival of juvenile Oryzias latipes following the 40-d exposure, NOEC was found at 21.8, 3.2, and 0.87 mg/L, respectively. Based on the results of the chronic toxicity tests and those reported in the literature, predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were determined at 0.078, 4.9, and 3.0 µg/L for amoxicillin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin, respectively. Their hazard quotients (HQs) were less than 1 at their average levels of occurrence in ambient freshwater. However, HQs based on the maximum detected levels of amoxicillin and enrofloxacin were determined at 21.2 and 6.1, respectively, suggesting potential ecological risks. As the potential ecological risks of these veterinary pharmaceuticals at heavily contaminated sites cannot be ignored, hotspot delineation and its management are required. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
State of the Art on Toxicological Mechanisms of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Strategies to Reduce Toxicological Risks
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 195; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080195 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Metal nanoparticles have been extensively investigated for different types of pharmaceutical applications. However, their use has raised some concerns about their toxicity involving the increase of reactive oxygen species causing cellular apoptosis. Therefore, in this review we summarize the most relevant toxicity mechanisms [...] Read more.
Metal nanoparticles have been extensively investigated for different types of pharmaceutical applications. However, their use has raised some concerns about their toxicity involving the increase of reactive oxygen species causing cellular apoptosis. Therefore, in this review we summarize the most relevant toxicity mechanisms of gold, silver, copper and copper oxide nanoparticles as well as production methods of metal nanoparticles. Parameters involved in their toxicity such as size, surface charge and concentration are also highlighted. Moreover, a critical revision of the literature about the strategies used to reduce the toxicity of this type of nanoparticles is carried out throughout the review. Additionally, surface modifications using different coating strategies, nanoparticles targeting and morphology modifications are deeply explained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of the (Eco)Toxicity of Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Antibiotics in Aquaculture Wastewater: Is It Feasible to Use a Photodegradation-Based Treatment for Their Removal?
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080194 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 711
Abstract
Aquacultures are a sector facing a huge development: farmers usually applying antibiotics to treat and/or prevent diseases. Consequently, effluents from aquaculture represent a source of antibiotics for receiving waters, where they pose a potential threat due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) induction. This has [...] Read more.
Aquacultures are a sector facing a huge development: farmers usually applying antibiotics to treat and/or prevent diseases. Consequently, effluents from aquaculture represent a source of antibiotics for receiving waters, where they pose a potential threat due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) induction. This has recently become a major concern and it is expectable that regulations on antibiotics’ discharge will be established in the near future. Therefore, it is urgent to develop treatments for their removal from wastewater. Among the different possibilities, photodegradation under solar radiation may be a sustainable option. Thus, this review aims at providing a survey on photolysis and photocatalysis in view of their application for the degradation of antibiotics from aquaculture wastewater. Experimental facts, factors affecting antibiotics’ removal and employed photocatalysts were hereby addressed. Moreover, gaps in this research area, as well as future challenges, were identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Pharmaceuticals in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Review on Toxic Effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate on Zebrafish Embryos
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 193; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080193 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 914
Abstract
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in consumer products. People are continuously exposed to DEHP through ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption. From epidemiological studies, DEHP has been shown to associate with various adverse health effects, such as reproductive abnormalities and [...] Read more.
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in consumer products. People are continuously exposed to DEHP through ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption. From epidemiological studies, DEHP has been shown to associate with various adverse health effects, such as reproductive abnormalities and metabolic diseases. Health concerns have been raised regarding DEHP exposures; therefore, relevant risk assessment has become necessary through toxicological testing of DEHP. In the past 10 years, an increasing number of DEHP toxicity studies have been using zebrafish embryos as an in vivo model due to their high fecundity, rapid embryonic development as well as optical transparency, which have now been established as an alternative of the more conventional rodent model. The aim of the present paper is to review the effects of acute (from embryo stage to 1 week) and chronic (from embryo stage to >1 week) DEHP exposures on zebrafish, which start from the embryonic stage, and to analyze acute and potential long-term effects induced by acute exposure and effects induced by chronic exposure of DEHP upon subjecting to exposures, starting from the embryonic stage to different developmental stages, with a view to facilitate risk assessments on DEHP exposures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phthalate Exposure: From Quantification to Risk Assessment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Cutaneous Effects of In Utero and Lactational Exposure of C57BL/6J Mice to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080192 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 689
Abstract
To determine the cutaneous effects of in utero and lactational exposure to the AHR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed by gavage to a vehicle or 5 μg TCDD/kg body weight at embryonic day 12 and epidermal barrier formation [...] Read more.
To determine the cutaneous effects of in utero and lactational exposure to the AHR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed by gavage to a vehicle or 5 μg TCDD/kg body weight at embryonic day 12 and epidermal barrier formation and function were studied in their offspring from postnatal day 1 (P1) through adulthood. TCDD-exposed pups were born with acanthosis. This effect was AHR-dependent and subsided by P6 with no evidence of subsequent inflammatory dermatitis. The challenge of adult mice with MC903 showed similar inflammatory responses in control and treated animals, indicating no long-term immunosuppression to this chemical. Chloracne-like sebaceous gland hypoplasia and cyst formation were observed in TCDD-exposed P21 mice, with concomitant microbiome dysbiosis. These effects were reversed by P35. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in the skin was increased in the exposed mice until P21, then declined. Both CYP proteins co-localized with LRIG1-expressing progenitor cells at the infundibulum. CYP1B1 protein also co-localized with a second stem cell niche in the isthmus. These results indicate that this exposure to TCDD causes a chloracne-like effect without inflammation. Transient activation of the AhR, due to the shorter half-life of TCDD in mice, likely contributes to the reversibility of these effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
First Evidence of In Vitro Effects of C6O4—A Substitute of PFOA—On Haemocytes of the Clam Ruditapes philippinarum
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 191; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080191 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Alternative chemicals to per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances have recently been introduced in various industrial processes. C6O4 (difluoro{[2,2,4,5-tetrafluoro-5-(trifluoromethoxy)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]oxy}acetic acid) is a new surfactant and emulsifier used as a replacement for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). From an ecotoxicological point of view, in vitro assays are useful [...] Read more.
Alternative chemicals to per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances have recently been introduced in various industrial processes. C6O4 (difluoro{[2,2,4,5-tetrafluoro-5-(trifluoromethoxy)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]oxy}acetic acid) is a new surfactant and emulsifier used as a replacement for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). From an ecotoxicological point of view, in vitro assays are useful tools for assessing the negative effects and understanding the mechanisms of action of chemicals at the cellular level. Here, we present the results of an in vitro study in which the effects of C6O4 were evaluated—for the first time—on haemocytes of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Cells were exposed to three concentrations of C6O4 (0.05, 0.5, 5 μg/mL) and the effects on haemocyte viability, haemocyte morphology, differential haemocyte count, lysosomal membrane stability, superoxide anion production, acid phosphatase, and β-glucuronidase activities, as well as on the percentage of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations were evaluated. The results demonstrated that C6O4 significantly affected haemocyte morphology, lysosomal membrane stability, hydrolytic enzyme activity, and superoxide anion production, and promoted chromosomal aberrations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study revealing the in vitro effects of C6O4, a substitute for PFOA, on haemocytes from a bivalve species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Contaminants on Aquatic Organisms)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Negative Consequences on the Growth, Morphometry, and Community Structure of the Kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae, Ochrophyta) by a Short Pollution Pulse of Heavy Metals and PAHs
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 190; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080190 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
The study of pollution effects in the marine environment has become important in recent decades, and the exposure to simultaneous pollutants has become especially relevant. Indeed, the study of key organisms, such as ecosystem engineers, can show a broader view of the effects [...] Read more.
The study of pollution effects in the marine environment has become important in recent decades, and the exposure to simultaneous pollutants has become especially relevant. Indeed, the study of key organisms, such as ecosystem engineers, can show a broader view of the effects of pollutants. In this context, we evaluate in situ the effects of a short (7-day) pollution pulse of combined solutions of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Cu + PAHs, Cd + PAHs, Cu + Cd, and Cu + Cd + PAHs) on the development and morphological features of Macrocystis pyrifera sporophytes over a period of 90 days. Additionally, we determined the effects on the community structure associated with this kelp. This study evidenced a smaller number of blades and a decreased size of blades and holdfasts, as well as the death of individuals exposed to a secondary mix of metals (Cu + Cd) and a tertiary mix of pollutants (Cu + Cd + PAHs). Regarding the effects on the accompanying fauna, low richness and diversity were registered. M. pyrifera grazers, according to the mixture of pollutants, were either absent or diminished. These results show that the pulse of contamination in the early stages of M. pyrifera negatively affects its development and morphometry, as well as its role as an ecosystem engineer, due to a negative alteration in the species composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Concentrations of Lead, Mercury, Selenium, and Manganese in Blood and Hand Grip Strength among Adults Living in the United States (NHANES 2011–2014)
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 189; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080189 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Exposure to lead and mercury can cause deficits in neuromotor function. Selenium and manganese are essential elements, hence both deficiency and excess could result in decreased neuromotor function. We aimed to examine hand grip strength, a marker of neuromotor function, and blood concentrations [...] Read more.
Exposure to lead and mercury can cause deficits in neuromotor function. Selenium and manganese are essential elements, hence both deficiency and excess could result in decreased neuromotor function. We aimed to examine hand grip strength, a marker of neuromotor function, and blood concentrations of lead, mercury, selenium, and manganese in the general U.S. population. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2011–2014) on 6199 participants ages 20–79 years. We assessed associations of blood concentration for these elements and grip strength with generalized regression models, and cubic splines to detect possible nonlinear relations, adjusting for confounders. The results showed that mercury and manganese were not associated with grip strength. Lead was associated with weaker grip strength in women (for 10-fold increase in lead, −2.4 kg; 95% CI: −4.2, −0.5), but not in men. Higher selenium was associated with stronger grip strength in women (8.5 kg; 95% CI: 1.9, 15.1) and men (4.6; 95% CI: −11.9, 21.0), although the association was not significant in the latter. In conclusion, lead exposure was associated with weaker grip strength in women, even at the low exposure levels in the population. Furthermore, low blood selenium level was associated with weaker grip strength, suggesting that some individuals might have selenium deficiency manifesting with poorer neuromotor function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurotoxicity of Environmental Metal Toxicants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Exposure to Environmental Arsenic and Emerging Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease: Perspective Mechanisms, Management Strategy, and Future Directions
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 188; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080188 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prevailing neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by memory dysfunction and the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β (Aβ) aggregates in multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus and cortex. The exact etiology of AD has not yet [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prevailing neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by memory dysfunction and the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β (Aβ) aggregates in multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus and cortex. The exact etiology of AD has not yet been confirmed. However, epidemiological reports suggest that populations who were exposed to environmental hazards are more likely to develop AD than those who were not. Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring environmental risk factor abundant in the Earth’s crust, and human exposure to As predominantly occurs through drinking water. Convincing evidence suggests that As causes neurotoxicity and impairs memory and cognition, although the hypothesis and molecular mechanism of As-associated pathobiology in AD are not yet clear. However, exposure to As and its metabolites leads to various pathogenic events such as oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunctions, ER stress, apoptosis, impaired protein homeostasis, and abnormal calcium signaling. Evidence has indicated that As exposure induces alterations that coincide with most of the biochemical, pathological, and clinical developments of AD. Here, we overview existing literature to gain insights into the plausible mechanisms that underlie As-induced neurotoxicity and the subsequent neurological deficits in AD. Prospective strategies for the prevention and management of arsenic exposure and neurotoxicity have also been discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurotoxicity of Environmental Metal Toxicants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Pharmacological Modulation of Behaviour, Serotonin and Dopamine Levels in Daphnia magna Exposed to the Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor Deprenyl
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 187; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080187 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 689
Abstract
This study assessed the effects of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor deprenyl in Daphnia magna locomotor activity. The mechanisms of action of deprenyl were also determined by studying the relationship between behaviour, MAO activity and neurotransmitter levels. Modulation of the D. magna monoamine [...] Read more.
This study assessed the effects of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor deprenyl in Daphnia magna locomotor activity. The mechanisms of action of deprenyl were also determined by studying the relationship between behaviour, MAO activity and neurotransmitter levels. Modulation of the D. magna monoamine system was accomplished by 24 h exposure to two model psychotropic pharmaceuticals with antagonistic and agonistic serotonin signalling properties: 10 mg/L of 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine (PCPA) and 1 mg/L of deprenyl, respectively. Contrasting behavioural outcomes were observed for deprenyl and PCPA reflected in decreased basal locomotor activity and enhanced habituation for the former compound and delayed habituation for the latter one. Deprenyl exposure inhibited monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and increased the concentrations of serotonin, dopamine and the dopamine metabolite 3-methoxytyramine in whole D. magna extracts. Our findings indicate that D. magna is a sensitive and useful nonvertebrate model for assessing the effects of short-term exposure to chemicals that alter monoamine signalling changes. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Efficient and Fast Removal of Oils from Water Surfaces via Highly Oleophilic Polyurethane Composites
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 186; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080186 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 854
Abstract
In this study we evaluated the oil adsorption capacity of an aliphatic polyurethane foam (PU 1) and two of its composites, produced through surface coating using microparticles of silica (PU-Si 2) and activated carbon (PU-ac 3). The oil adsorption capacity [...] Read more.
In this study we evaluated the oil adsorption capacity of an aliphatic polyurethane foam (PU 1) and two of its composites, produced through surface coating using microparticles of silica (PU-Si 2) and activated carbon (PU-ac 3). The oil adsorption capacity in diesel was improved up to 36% using the composite with silica and up to 50% using the composite with activated carbon with respect to the initial PU 1. Excellent performances were retained in gasoline and motor oil. The adsorption was complete after a few seconds. The process follows a monolayer adsorption fitted by the Langmuir isotherm, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 29.50 g/g of diesel for the composite with activated carbon (PU-ac 3). These materials were proved to be highly oleophilic for oil removal from fresh water and sea water samples. Regeneration and reuse can be repeated up to 50 times by centrifugation, without a significant loss in adsorption capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies to Decontaminate Pollutants in Water)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Accelerated Weathering Increases the Release of Toxic Leachates from Microplastic Particles as Demonstrated through Altered Toxicity to the Green Algae Raphidocelis subcapitata
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 185; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080185 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Studies that evaluate the impact of microplastic particles (MPs) often apply particles of pristine material. However, MPs are affected by various abiotic and biotic processes in the environment that possibly modify their physical and chemical characteristics, which might then result in their altered [...] Read more.
Studies that evaluate the impact of microplastic particles (MPs) often apply particles of pristine material. However, MPs are affected by various abiotic and biotic processes in the environment that possibly modify their physical and chemical characteristics, which might then result in their altered toxic effect. This study evaluated the consequence of weathering on the release of toxic leachates from microplastics. MPs derived from six marine antifouling paints, end-of-life tires, and unplasticised PVC were exposed to UV-C radiation to simulate weathering. Non-weathered and weathered MPs were leached in algae growth medium for 72 h to demonstrate additive release under freshwater conditions. The model organism, green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, was exposed to the resulting leachates of both non-weathered and weathered MPs. The results of the growth inhibition tests showed that the leachates of weathered microparticles were more toxic than of the non-weathered material, which was reflected in their lower median effect concentration (EC50) values. Chemical analysis of the leachates revealed that the concentration of heavy metals was several times higher in the leachates of the weathered MPs compared to the non-weathered ones, which likely contributed to the increased toxicity. Our findings suggest including weathered microplastic particles in exposure studies due to their probably differing impact on biota from MPs of pristine materials. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Towards a Soil Remediation Strategy Using Biochar: Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Bioavailability of Potentially Toxic Elements
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 184; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080184 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Soil contamination with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is considered one of the most severe environmental threats, while among remediation strategies, research on the application of soil amendments has received important consideration. This review highlights the effects of biochar application on soil properties and [...] Read more.
Soil contamination with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is considered one of the most severe environmental threats, while among remediation strategies, research on the application of soil amendments has received important consideration. This review highlights the effects of biochar application on soil properties and the bioavailability of potentially toxic elements describing research areas of intense current and emerging activity. Using a visual scientometric analysis, our study shows that between 2019 and 2020, research sub-fields like earthworm activities and responses, greenhouse gass emissions, and low molecular weight organic acids have gained most of the attention when biochar was investigated for soil remediation purposes. Moreover, biomasses like rice straw, sewage sludge, and sawdust were found to be the most commonly used feedstocks for biochar production. The effect of biochar on soil chemistry and different mechanisms responsible for PTEs’ immobilization with biochar, are also briefly reported. Special attention is also given to specific PTEs most commonly found at contaminated soils, including Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As, and therefore are more extensively revised in this paper. This review also addresses some of the issues in developing innovative methodologies for engineered biochars, introduced alongside some suggestions which intend to form a more focused soil remediation strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Elements)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Rapid Determination of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Harbour Porpoise Liver Tissue by HybridSPE®–UPLC®–MS/MS
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 183; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080183 - 01 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1238
Abstract
A rapid hybrid solid phase extraction (HybridSPE®) protocol tailored to ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC®–ESI–MS/MS) analysis was developed for the determination of 15 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in liver tissue from harbour porpoises (Phocoena [...] Read more.
A rapid hybrid solid phase extraction (HybridSPE®) protocol tailored to ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC®–ESI–MS/MS) analysis was developed for the determination of 15 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in liver tissue from harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). The HybridSPE® technique has been applied in trace concentration bioanalysis, but it was mainly used for liquid biological media until now. In this study, the protocol was applied on tissue matrix, and it demonstrated acceptable absolute recoveries (%) ranging from 44.4 to 89.4%. The chromatographic separation was carried out using a gradient elution program with a total run time of 4 min. The inter-day method precision ranged from 2.15 to 15.4%, and the method limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.003 to 0.30 ng/g wet weight (w.w.). A total of 20 liver samples were analyzed to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method in liver tissue from a wildlife species. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Growth and Antioxidant Responses in Iron-Biofortified Lentil under Cadmium Stress
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 182; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080182 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is a hazardous heavy metal, toxic to our ecosystem even at low concentrations. Cd stress negatively affects plant growth and development by triggering oxidative stress. Limited information is available on the role of iron (Fe) in ameliorating Cd stress tolerance in [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is a hazardous heavy metal, toxic to our ecosystem even at low concentrations. Cd stress negatively affects plant growth and development by triggering oxidative stress. Limited information is available on the role of iron (Fe) in ameliorating Cd stress tolerance in legumes. This study assessed the effect of Cd stress in two lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) varieties differing in seed Fe concentration (L4717 (Fe-biofortified) and JL3) under controlled conditions. Six biochemical traits, five growth parameters, and Cd uptake were recorded at the seedling stage (21 days after sowing) in the studied genotypes grown under controlled conditions at two levels (100 μM and 200 μM) of cadmium chloride (CdCl2). The studied traits revealed significant genotype, treatment, and genotype × treatment interactions. Cd-induced oxidative damage led to the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde in both genotypes. JL3 accumulated 77.1% more H2O2 and 75% more lipid peroxidation products than L4717 at the high Cd level. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased in response to Cd stress, with significant genotype, treatment, and genotype × treatment interactions (p < 0.01). L4717 had remarkably higher catalase (40.5%), peroxidase (43.9%), superoxide dismutase (31.7%), and glutathione reductase (47.3%) activities than JL3 under high Cd conditions. In addition, L4717 sustained better growth in terms of fresh weight and dry weight than JL3 under stress. JL3 exhibited high Cd uptake (14.87 mg g−1 fresh weight) compared to L4717 (7.32 mg g−1 fresh weight). The study concluded that the Fe-biofortified lentil genotype L4717 exhibited Cd tolerance by inciting an efficient antioxidative response to Cd toxicity. Further studies are required to elucidate the possibility of seed Fe content as a surrogacy trait for Cd tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Toxicity Effects on Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Modeling and Assessing the Spatial and Vertical Distributions of Potentially Toxic Elements in Soil and How the Concentrations Differ
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 181; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080181 - 31 Jul 2021
Viewed by 614
Abstract
A healthy soil is a healthy ecosystem because humans, animals, plants, and water highly depend upon it. Soil pollution by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a serious concern for humankind. The study is aimed at (i) assessing the concentrations of PTEs in soils [...] Read more.
A healthy soil is a healthy ecosystem because humans, animals, plants, and water highly depend upon it. Soil pollution by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a serious concern for humankind. The study is aimed at (i) assessing the concentrations of PTEs in soils under a long-term heavily industrialized region for coal and textiles, (ii) modeling and mapping the spatial and vertical distributions of PTEs using a GIS-based ordinary kriging technique, and (iii) identifying the possible sources of these PTEs in the Jizerské Mountains (Jizera Mts.) using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Four hundred and forty-two (442) soil samples were analyzed by applying the aqua regia method. To assess the PTE contents, the level of pollution, and the distribution pattern in soil, the contamination factor (CF) and the pollution load index load (PLI) were applied. ArcGIS-based ordinary kriging interpolation was used for the spatial analysis of PTEs. The results of the analysis revealed that the variation in the coefficient (CV) of PTEs in the organic soil was highest in Cr (96.36%), followed by Cu (54.94%) and Pb (49.40%). On the other hand, the mineral soil had Cu (96.88%), Cr (66.70%), and Pb (64.48%) as the highest in CV. The PTEs in both the organic soil and the mineral soil revealed a high heterogeneous variability. Though the study area lies within the “Black Triangle”, which is a historic industrial site in Central Europe, this result did not show a substantial influence of the contamination of PTEs in the area. In spite of the rate of pollution in this area being very low based on the findings, there may be a need for intermittent assessment of the soil. This helps to curtail any excessive accumulation and escalation in future. The results may serve as baseline information for pollution assessment. It might support policy-developers in sustainable farming and forestry for the health of an ecosystem towards food security, forest safety, as well as animal and human welfare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Chemistry)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Association between Pesticides in House Dust and Residential Proximity to Farmland in a Rural Region of Taiwan
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080180 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Pesticide drift was reported in many international studies, but rarely studied in Taiwan. We conducted a study in a rural region of Taiwan to examine the associations between pesticides in house dust and nearby agricultural areas using geographic information system (GIS). A questionnaire [...] Read more.
Pesticide drift was reported in many international studies, but rarely studied in Taiwan. We conducted a study in a rural region of Taiwan to examine the associations between pesticides in house dust and nearby agricultural areas using geographic information system (GIS). A questionnaire regarding home characteristics and pesticide use, and indoor and outdoor dust samples were collected from 47 rural homes. Dust samples were analyzed for six pesticides, and agricultural land data for GIS analysis were retrieved from a national website. All but prallethrin were frequently detected from indoor dust samples (>50%), and the maximum concentrations were all below 1000 ng/g. Detection frequencies and concentrations of pesticides in outdoor dust samples were even lower than that in indoor dust samples. Only “work involving pesticides” in the questionnaire was significantly associated with four pesticides in house dust (p < 0.05). Carbofuran and tetramethrin in house dust were significantly correlated with rice cultivation area at certain buffer distances (ρ > 0.33, p < 0.05), and chlorpyrifos was found to be associated with abandoned cultivation area, suggesting the occurrence of pesticide drift. Despite the low levels of pesticides in house dust, residents in the rural region should be cautious of pesticide drift from nearby active or abandoned farmlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Risk Assessment and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Polystyrene Microplastics on Rice Seed Germination and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 179; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080179 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
The accumulation and distribution of microplastics (MPs) in agricultural soils, including rice fields, is well studied. However, only a few studies have investigated the uptake of MPs by rice plants and the consequential toxic effects of MPs under solid-phase culture conditions. Hence, in [...] Read more.
The accumulation and distribution of microplastics (MPs) in agricultural soils, including rice fields, is well studied. However, only a few studies have investigated the uptake of MPs by rice plants and the consequential toxic effects of MPs under solid-phase culture conditions. Hence, in this study, we explored the effects of different concentrations of polystyrene MPs (PS-MPs, with a size of 200 nm) on rice seed germination, root growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, and transcriptome. PS-MPs exhibited no significant effect on the germination of rice seeds (p > 0.05). However, PS-MPs significantly promoted root length (10 mg L−1; p < 0.05), and significantly reduced antioxidant enzyme activity (1000 mg L−1; p < 0.05). Staining with 3,3-diaminobenzidine and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride further revealed significant accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the roots of rice treated with PS-MPs. In addition, transcriptome data analysis revealed that PS-MPs induce the expression of genes related to antioxidant enzyme activity in plant roots. Specifically, genes related to flavonoid and flavonol biosynthesis were upregulated, whereas those involved in linolenic acid and nitrogen metabolism were downregulated. These results enhance our understanding of the responses of agricultural crops to MP toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Formaldehyde in Hospitals Induces Oxidative Stress: The Role of GSTT1 and GSTM1 Polymorphisms
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 178; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080178 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Despite the toxicity and health risk characteristics of formaldehyde (FA), it is currently used as a cytological fixative and the definition of safe exposure levels is still a matter of debate. Our aim was to investigate the alterations in both oxidative and inflammatory [...] Read more.
Despite the toxicity and health risk characteristics of formaldehyde (FA), it is currently used as a cytological fixative and the definition of safe exposure levels is still a matter of debate. Our aim was to investigate the alterations in both oxidative and inflammatory status in a hospital working population. The 68 workers recruited wore a personal air-FA passive sampler, provided a urine sample to measure 15-F2t-Isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and a blood specimen to measure tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα). Subjects were also genotyped for GSTT1 (Presence/Absence), GSTM1 (Presence/Absence), CYP1A1 exon 7 (A > G), and IL6 (−174, G > C). Workers were ex post split into formalin-employers (57.3 μg/m3) and non-employers (13.5 μg/m3). In the formalin-employers group we assessed significantly higher levels of 15-F2t-IsoP, MDA and TNFα (<0.001) in comparison to the non-employers group. The air-FA levels turned out to be positively correlated with 15-F2t-IsoP (p = 0.027) and MDA (p < 0.001). In the formalin-employers group the MDA level was significantly higher in GSTT1 Null (p = 0.038), GSTM1 Null (p = 0.031), and CYP1A1 exon 7 mutation carrier (p = 0.008) workers, compared to the wild type subjects. This study confirms the role of FA in biomolecular profiles alterations, highlighting how low occupational exposure can also result in measurable biological outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Indirect Effect of Pesticides on Insects and Other Arthropods
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 177; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080177 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
Pesticides released to the environment can indirectly affect target and non-target species in ways that are often contrary to their intended use. Such indirect effects are mediated through direct impacts on other species or the physical environment and depend on ecological mechanisms and [...] Read more.
Pesticides released to the environment can indirectly affect target and non-target species in ways that are often contrary to their intended use. Such indirect effects are mediated through direct impacts on other species or the physical environment and depend on ecological mechanisms and species interactions. Typical mechanisms are the release of herbivores from predation and release from competition among species with similar niches. Application of insecticides to agriculture often results in subsequent pest outbreaks due to the elimination of natural enemies. The loss of floristic diversity and food resources that result from herbicide applications can reduce populations of pollinators and natural enemies of crop pests. In aquatic ecosystems, insecticides and fungicides often induce algae blooms as the chemicals reduce grazing by zooplankton and benthic herbivores. Increases in periphyton biomass typically result in the replacement of arthropods with more tolerant species such as snails, worms and tadpoles. Fungicides and systemic insecticides also reduce nutrient recycling by impairing the ability of detritivorous arthropods. Residues of herbicides can reduce the biomass of macrophytes in ponds and wetlands, indirectly affecting the protection and breeding of predatory insects in that environment. The direct impacts of pesticides in the environment are therefore either amplified or compensated by their indirect effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Effects of Agricultural Pesticides on Insects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
A Scientometric Study on Industrial Effluent and Sludge Toxicity
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080176 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 821
Abstract
The growth of industrialization has led to an increase in the production of highly contaminated wastewater. Industrial wastewater contains highly complex compounds varying in characteristics and required to be treated before its discharge into a water medium from various industries. However, the efficiency [...] Read more.
The growth of industrialization has led to an increase in the production of highly contaminated wastewater. Industrial wastewater contains highly complex compounds varying in characteristics and required to be treated before its discharge into a water medium from various industries. However, the efficiency of the treated wastewater from the toxicity reduction perspective is unclear. In order to overcome this barrier, toxicity assessment of the industrial wastewater before and after treatment is crucial. Thus, in this study, a scientometric analysis has been performed on the toxicity assessment of industrial wastewater and sludges, which have been reported in the literature. Web of Science (WoS) core collection database has been considered the main database to execute this analysis. Via the search of pre-researched keywords, a total number of 1038 documents were collected, which have been published from 1951 to 2020. Via CiteSpace software and WoS analyser, these documents went under analysis regarding some of the scientometry criteria, and the detailed results obtained are provided in this study. The total number of published documents on this topic is relatively low during such a long period of time. In conclusion, the need for more detailed contributions among the scientific and industrial communities has been felt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Contaminants in Soil and Wastewater)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Synthesis of Silver-Impregnated Magnetite Mesoporous Silica Composites for Removing Iodide in Aqueous Solution
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080175 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 699
Abstract
[email protected] composite has a high sorption ability for I in aqueous solution due to its high surface area and strong affinity for the studied anion. The material adsorbed I rapidly during the initial contact time (in 45 min, η = 80%) [...] Read more.
[email protected] composite has a high sorption ability for I in aqueous solution due to its high surface area and strong affinity for the studied anion. The material adsorbed I rapidly during the initial contact time (in 45 min, η = 80%) and reached adsorption equilibrium after 2 h. Moreover, [email protected] proved to selectively remove I from a mixture of Cl, NO3 and I. The adsorption behavior fitted the Langmuir isotherm perfectly and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Based on the Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity of [email protected] was 0.82 mmol/g, which is significantly higher than previously developed adsorbents. This study introduces a practical application of a high-capacity adsorbent in removing radioactive I from wastewaters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on the Removal of Pollutants by Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Pesticides Affect Mobility and DNA Integrity of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 174; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080174 - 22 Jul 2021
Viewed by 820
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of three concentrations of a pesticide mixture on the first development stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The mixture was made up of three commonly used pesticides in viticulture: glyphosate (GLY), [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of three concentrations of a pesticide mixture on the first development stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The mixture was made up of three commonly used pesticides in viticulture: glyphosate (GLY), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and copper sulfate (Cu). Eyed stage embryos were exposed for 3 weeks to three concentrations of the pesticide mixture. Lethal and sub-lethal effects were assessed through a number of phenotypic and molecular endpoints including survival, hatching delay, hatching success, biometry, swimming activity, DNA damage (Comet assay), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl content and gene expression. Ten target genes involved in antioxidant defenses, DNA repair, mitochondrial metabolism and apoptosis were analyzed using real-time RT-qPCR. No significant increase of mortality, half-hatch, growth defects, TBARS and protein carbonyl contents were observed whatever the pesticide mixture concentration. In contrast, DNA damage and swimming activity were significantly more elevated at the highest pesticide mixture concentration. Gene transcription was up-regulated for genes involved in detoxification (gst and mt1), DNA repair (ogg1), mitochondrial metabolism (cox1 and 12S), and cholinergic system (ache). This study highlighted the induction of adaptive molecular and behavioral responses of rainbow trout larvae when exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of a mixture of pesticides. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Rutin-Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Molecular Docking, Physicochemistry and Cytotoxicity in Fibroblasts
Toxics 2021, 9(8), 173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9080173 - 22 Jul 2021
Viewed by 854
Abstract
Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) have been functionalized with rutin through three steps (i. reaction step; ii. purification step; iii. drying step) and their physicochemical properties investigated with respect to morphological structure, thermal analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and cytotoxicity. The molecular docking [...] Read more.
Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) have been functionalized with rutin through three steps (i. reaction step; ii. purification step; iii. drying step) and their physicochemical properties investigated with respect to morphological structure, thermal analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and cytotoxicity. The molecular docking suggested the rutin-functionalized MWCNT occurred by hydrogen bonds, which was confirmed by FTIR assays, corroborating the results obtained by thermal analyses. A tubular shape, arranged in a three-dimensional structure, could be observed. Mild cytotoxicity observed in 3T3 fibroblasts suggested a dose–effect relationship after exposure. These findings suggest the formation of aggregates of filamentous structures on the cells favoring the cell penetration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research on the Cytotoxicity of Drugs to Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop