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Medicines, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2015) – 9 articles , Pages 127-297

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Review
The Use of Conservative and Alternative Therapy for Low Back Pain
Medicines 2015, 2(3), 287-297; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines2030287 - 09 Sep 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
Low back pain may have complex patho-physiological causes leading to chronicity that resists conventional managements. Complementary and alternative treatment options have, therefore, gained popularity. In this chapter, acupuncture, manual therapy, and natural healing for low back pain will be discussed. Special emphasis is [...] Read more.
Low back pain may have complex patho-physiological causes leading to chronicity that resists conventional managements. Complementary and alternative treatment options have, therefore, gained popularity. In this chapter, acupuncture, manual therapy, and natural healing for low back pain will be discussed. Special emphasis is given on the role of the individual in the control and prevention of low back pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative Medicine)
Review
Modes of Action of Herbal Medicines and Plant Secondary Metabolites
Medicines 2015, 2(3), 251-286; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines2030251 - 08 Sep 2015
Cited by 235 | Viewed by 10100
Abstract
Plants produce a wide diversity of secondary metabolites (SM) which serve them as defense compounds against herbivores, and other plants and microbes, but also as signal compounds. In general, SM exhibit a wide array of biological and pharmacological properties. Because of this, some [...] Read more.
Plants produce a wide diversity of secondary metabolites (SM) which serve them as defense compounds against herbivores, and other plants and microbes, but also as signal compounds. In general, SM exhibit a wide array of biological and pharmacological properties. Because of this, some plants or products isolated from them have been and are still used to treat infections, health disorders or diseases. This review provides evidence that many SM have a broad spectrum of bioactivities. They often interact with the main targets in cells, such as proteins, biomembranes or nucleic acids. Whereas some SM appear to have been optimized on a few molecular targets, such as alkaloids on receptors of neurotransmitters, others (such as phenolics and terpenoids) are less specific and attack a multitude of proteins by building hydrogen, hydrophobic and ionic bonds, thus modulating their 3D structures and in consequence their bioactivities. The main modes of action are described for the major groups of common plant secondary metabolites. The multitarget activities of many SM can explain the medical application of complex extracts from medicinal plants for more health disorders which involve several targets. Herbal medicine is not a placebo medicine but a rational medicine, and for several of them clinical trials have shown efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Natural Products)
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Article
Right Place, Right Time: Preferences of Women with Ovarian Cancer for Delivery of CAM Education
Medicines 2015, 2(3), 236-250; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines2030236 - 31 Aug 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2716
Abstract
The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of on-site complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) education sessions to maximize quality of life for women with ovarian cancer. The pilot intervention consisted of four weekly sessions, each focusing the techniques and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of on-site complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) education sessions to maximize quality of life for women with ovarian cancer. The pilot intervention consisted of four weekly sessions, each focusing the techniques and benefits of a particular CAM topic (e.g., nutrition, massage, relaxation). Participants were recruited from the Center for Women’s Oncology at H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center from 2010 to 2012. Eligible participants had an ovarian cancer diagnosis with a life expectancy of at least 12 months, and were 18 years or older. The Gynecologic Oncology research nurse invited women in the outpatient clinic who matched the eligibility criteria. The research nurse explained the study and provided an informed consent form and return envelope. Because ovarian cancer is not only a rare cancer but, also, most patients seen at Moffitt have recurrent or advanced disease, many women did not have an adequate ECOG score. Many women who consented had rapid changes in health status, with morbidity and mortality outpacing recruitment of the 20 needed to proceed with the four education sessions. Baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted to assess changes in QOL, knowledge, and satisfaction with the intervention. While 27 women consented and 24 women completed the baseline survey, only five women participated in the intervention. The five women who participated were all white, and at time of consenting had a mean age of 60 (SD 9.08) and an average of 102 months (SD 120.65) since diagnosis, and were all on active treatment, except for one. The intervention pilot did not encounter difficulties with regard to recruitment, but suffered problems in achieving an adequate number of women to launch the on-site sessions because of rapidly changing morbidity and significant mortality. The team recognized that a larger-scaled intervention comprised of on-site sessions was impractical and compared attendance rates with a more convenient format currently underway in the Women’s Oncology program at Moffitt. While low participation prevented an intervention analysis of scientific merit, the study data is informative with regard to barriers, facilitators, and alternative methods for sharing useful information to women with advanced ovarian cancer. The comparison strongly suggested that CAM education for women compromised by the disease and treatment associated with ovarian cancer would best be delivered in the convenient-access format that allowed remote access to live and recorded discussions of specific topics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative Medicine)
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Article
Potent and Synergistic Extract Combinations from Terminalia Catappa, Terminalia Mantaly and Monodora tenuifolia Against Pathogenic Yeasts
Medicines 2015, 2(3), 220-235; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines2030220 - 26 Aug 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2940
Abstract
Mycoses caused by Candida and Cryptococcus species, associated with the advent of antifungal drug resistance have emerged as major health problems. Improved control measures and innovative therapies are needed. This paper describes results from the screening of bio-guided fractionated extracts alone and combinations [...] Read more.
Mycoses caused by Candida and Cryptococcus species, associated with the advent of antifungal drug resistance have emerged as major health problems. Improved control measures and innovative therapies are needed. This paper describes results from the screening of bio-guided fractionated extracts alone and combinations of Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mantaly and Monodora tenuifolia harvested in Cameroon. Crude ethanolic, hydro-ethanolic and aqueous extracts and bio-guided fractions were screened for antifungal activity against isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and Cr. neoformans and the reference strain C. albicans NR-29450. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a broth micro dilution method according to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Time kill kinetics of extracts alone and in combination were also evaluated. Extracts from T. mantaly stem bark were the most active with the best MIC values ranging from 0.04 mg/mL to 0.16 mg/mL. Synergistic interactions were observed with combinations of sub-fractions from M. tenuifolia, T. mantaly and T. catappa. Combination of sub-fractions from M. tenuifolia and T. mantaly (C36/C12) showed synergistic interaction and fungicidal effect against four out of five tested yeasts. These results support further investigation of medicinal plant extracts alone and in combination as starting points for the development of alternative antifungal therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines)
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Review
Treatment of Diabetic Gastroparesis by Complementary and Alternative Medicines
Medicines 2015, 2(3), 212-219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines2030212 - 04 Aug 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2464
Abstract
Gastroparesis is a common gastrointestinal complication in diabetes, induced by hyperglycemia and characterized by delayed gastric emptying and upper abdominal symptoms, such asnausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating and epigastric pain. Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) affects life quality and glycemic control, and is a challenge [...] Read more.
Gastroparesis is a common gastrointestinal complication in diabetes, induced by hyperglycemia and characterized by delayed gastric emptying and upper abdominal symptoms, such asnausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating and epigastric pain. Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) affects life quality and glycemic control, and is a challenge to treat in both Western and Eastern medicine. Routine treatment in Western medicine includes gastric emptying promoted by prokinetic agents, gastric pacemaking, or surgery combined with lifetime hormono-therapy, all of which have unavoidable side effects and limitations, and are very expensive. Complementary and alternative medical treatments like acupuncture, moxibustion, and massage are becoming more and more attractive because of their effectiveness, fewer side effects, and reliable safety. This article aims to introduce representative methods of complementary and alternative medicine to treat DGP, which were searched in English through Pubmed and in Chinese through CNKI (China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database). Several lines of evidence demonstrated the effects of single or combined complementary alternative therapies on DGP outcomes; however, the mechanisms were rarely investigated. Randomized controlled trials are undoubtedly required in future studies. Full article
Review
Inhibiting Microbial Toxins Using Plant-Derived Compounds and Plant Extracts
Medicines 2015, 2(3), 186-211; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines2030186 - 31 Jul 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3016
Abstract
Many pathogenic bacteria and fungi produce potentially lethal toxins that cause cytotoxicity or impaired cellular function either at the site of colonization or other locations in the body through receptor-mediated interactions. Various factors, including biotic and abiotic environments, competing microbes, and chemical cues [...] Read more.
Many pathogenic bacteria and fungi produce potentially lethal toxins that cause cytotoxicity or impaired cellular function either at the site of colonization or other locations in the body through receptor-mediated interactions. Various factors, including biotic and abiotic environments, competing microbes, and chemical cues affect toxin expression in these pathogens. Recent work suggests that several natural compounds can modulate toxin production in pathogenic microbes. However, studies explaining the mechanistic basis for their effect are scanty. This review discusses the potential of various plant-derived compounds for reducing toxin production in foodborne and other microbes. In addition, studies highlighting their anti-toxigenic mechanism(s) are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines)
Review
Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery
Medicines 2015, 2(3), 157-185; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines2030157 - 27 Jul 2015
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4346
Abstract
Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. [...] Read more.
Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to predict, it is prudent to advise their discontinuation before surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Natural Products)
Review
Sulforaphane (SFN): An Isothiocyanate in a Cancer Chemoprevention Paradigm
Medicines 2015, 2(3), 141-156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines2030141 - 17 Jul 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 7268
Abstract
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in its latest World Cancer Report (2014) has projected the increase in the global cancer burden from 14 million (2012) to 22 million incidence annually within the next two decades. Such statistics warrant a collaborative [...] Read more.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in its latest World Cancer Report (2014) has projected the increase in the global cancer burden from 14 million (2012) to 22 million incidence annually within the next two decades. Such statistics warrant a collaborative engagement of conventional and complementary and alternative therapies to contain and manage cancer. In recent years, there has been a shift in the cancer chemoprevention paradigm with a significant focus turning towards bioactive components of human diets for their anticancer properties. Since diet is an integral part of lifestyle and given that an estimated one third of human cancers are believed to be preventable though appropriate lifestyle modification including dietary habits, the current shift in the conventional paradigm assumes significance. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that consumption of broccoli is associated with a lower risk of cancer incidence including breast, prostate, lung, stomach and colon cancer. The edible plant belonging to the family of cruciferae such as broccoli is a rich source of glucoraphanin, a precursor of isothiocyanate sulforaphane which is considered to be a potent anti-cancer agent. Plant-based dietary agents such as sulforaphane mimic chemotherapeutic drugs such as vorinostat, possessing histone deacetylase inhibition activity. Evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies have emerged, enhancing the clinical plausibility and translational value of sulforaphane in cancer chemoprevention. The present review provides the current understanding of the cancer chemopreventive pharmacology of sulforaphane towards its potential as an anticancer agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Natural Products)
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Review
Natural Product and Natural Product-Derived Gamma Secretase Modulators from Actaea Racemosa Extracts
Medicines 2015, 2(3), 127-140; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines2030127 - 30 Jun 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by pathogenic oligomerization, aggregation, and deposition of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), resulting in severe neuronal toxicity and associated cognitive dysfunction. In particular, increases in the absolute or relative level of the major long form of Aβ, Aβ42, are associated [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by pathogenic oligomerization, aggregation, and deposition of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), resulting in severe neuronal toxicity and associated cognitive dysfunction. In particular, increases in the absolute or relative level of the major long form of Aβ, Aβ42, are associated with increased cellular toxicity and rapidity of disease progression. As a result of this observation, screening to identify potential drugs to reduce the level of Aβ42 have been undertaken by way of modulating the proteolytic activity of the gamma secretase complex without compromising its action on other essential substrates such as Notch. In this review we summarize results from a program that sought to develop such gamma secretase modulators based on novel natural products identified in the extract of Actaea racemosa, the well-known botanical black cohosh. Following isolation of compound 1 (SPI-014), an extensive medicinal chemistry effort was undertaken to define the SAR of 1 and related semisynthetic compounds. Major metabolic and physicochemical liabilities in 1 were overcome including replacement of both the sugar and acetate moieties with more stable alternatives that improved drug-like properties and resulted in development candidate 25 (SPI-1865). Unanticipated off-target adrenal toxicity, however, precluded advancement of this series of compounds into clinical development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Natural Products)
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