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Volume 7, November

Medicines, Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2020) – 3 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The disease-modifying effect of boiogito (BO) on knee osteoarthritis (KOA) was evaluated in a surgically induced KOA rat model. We found that oral administration of BO reduced osteoarthritic changes and improved postoperative locomotive function. If BO is given after a knee injury or perioperatively, it may relieve pain and prevent progression of KOA. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Analgesic Efficacy of a Combination of Fentanyl and a Japanese Herbal Medicine “Yokukansan” in Rats with Acute Inflammatory Pain
Medicines 2020, 7(12), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines7120075 - 17 Dec 2020
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Abstract
Background: Fentanyl can induce acute opioid tolerance and postoperative hyperalgesia when administered at a single high dose; thus, this study examined the analgesic efficacy of a combination of fentanyl and Yokukansan (YKS). Methods: Rats were divided into control, formalin-injected (FOR), YKS-treated+FOR (YKS), fentanyl-treated+FOR [...] Read more.
Background: Fentanyl can induce acute opioid tolerance and postoperative hyperalgesia when administered at a single high dose; thus, this study examined the analgesic efficacy of a combination of fentanyl and Yokukansan (YKS). Methods: Rats were divided into control, formalin-injected (FOR), YKS-treated+FOR (YKS), fentanyl-treated+FOR (FEN), and YKS+FEN+FOR (YKS+FEN) groups. Acute pain was induced via subcutaneous injection of formalin into the paw. The time engaged in pain-related behavior was measured. Results: In the early (0–10 min) and intermediate (10–20 min) phases, pain-related behavior in the YKS+FEN group was significantly inhibited compared with the FOR group. In the late phase (20–60 min), pain-related behavior in the FEN group was the longest and significantly increased compared with the YKS group. We explored the influence on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in the spinal cord, and YKS suppressed the phosphorylated ERK expression, which may be related to the analgesic effect of YKS in the late phase. Conclusions: These findings suggest that YKS could reduce the use of fentanyl and combined use of YKS and fentanyl is considered clinically useful. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preventive Effect of the Japanese Traditional Herbal Medicine Boiogito on Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis in Rats
Medicines 2020, 7(12), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines7120074 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Background: Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of the Japanese traditional Kampo medicine Boiogito (BO), we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of BO to prevent the development of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in rats with surgically induced KOA. Methods: Destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) [...] Read more.
Background: Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of the Japanese traditional Kampo medicine Boiogito (BO), we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of BO to prevent the development of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in rats with surgically induced KOA. Methods: Destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) was performed to induce osteoarthritis in the right knees of 12-week-old Wistar rats under general anesthesia. The rats were orally administered 3% BO in standard powder chow for 4 weeks after surgery (controls: n = 6; sham group: n = 6; DMM group: n = 5; DMM + BO group: n = 5). During this period, the rotarod test was performed to monitor locomotive function. After 4 weeks, histological assessment was performed on the right knee. Results: Oral administration of BO improved locomotive function in the rotarod test. Walking time on postoperative days 1, 14, or later was significantly longer in the DMM + BO group than in the DMM group. Histologically, the DMM group showed significant progression of KOA, which, in the DMM + BO group, was strongly suppressed, as assessed by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International score. Conclusions: Our results showed that oral administration of BO had a clinically preventive effect on early stage posttraumatic KOA. Full article
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Open AccessProtocol
Auricular Acupuncture for Preoperative Anxiety—Protocol of Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Medicines 2020, 7(12), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines7120073 - 26 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Background: Preoperative anxiety causes profound psychological and physiological reactions that may lead to a worse postoperative recovery, higher intensity of acute and persistent postsurgical pain and impaired quality of life in the postoperative period. Previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that auricular acupuncture [...] Read more.
Background: Preoperative anxiety causes profound psychological and physiological reactions that may lead to a worse postoperative recovery, higher intensity of acute and persistent postsurgical pain and impaired quality of life in the postoperative period. Previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that auricular acupuncture (AA) is safe and effective in the treatment of preoperative anxiety; however there is a lack of systematic evidence on this topic. Therefore, this protocol was developed following the PRISMA guidelines to adequately evaluate the existing literature regarding the value of AA for the reduction in anxiety in patients in a preoperative setting, compared to other forms of acupuncture, pharmacological, or no control interventions and measured with questionnaires regarding anxiety and fear. Methods: The following databases will be searched: MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), ISI Web of Science, and Scopus Database. RCTs will be included if an abstract is available in English. Data collection and analysis will be conducted by two reviewers independently. Quality and risk assessment of included studies will be done using the Cochrane 5.1.0 handbook criteria and meta-analysis of effectiveness and symptom scores will be conducted using the statistical software RevMan V.5.3. Conclusions: This systematic review will evaluate the efficacy and safety of AA for preoperative anxiety. Since all data used in this systematic review and meta-analysis have been published, this review does not require ethical approval. The results may be published in a peer-reviewed journal or be presented in relevant conferences. Registration number: PROSPERO ID CRD42020. Full article
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