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Oral Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Role of Non-Invasive Surrogate Markers of Disease Activity

1
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy
2
Bow Lane Dental Group, St George’s Hospital, Bupa Dental Care, London SW17 0QT, UK
3
Unit of Gastroenterology, Molinette Hospital, 10126 Turin, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2020 / Revised: 3 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 16 June 2020
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), can be associated with several extra-intestinal manifestations requiring a multidisciplinary management both in terms of work-up and therapy. Oral lesions are common in patients with IBD, with a prevalence ranging from 5% to 50%. These can represent an oral location of IBD as well as a side-effect of drugs used to treat the intestinal disease. Oral manifestations, occurring in patients with IBD, can be divided in nonmalignant, specific, and non-specific ones, and malignant lesions. While there is undoubtedly a need to search for an IBD in patients with oral lesions associated with intestinal symptoms, the work-up of those with an exclusive oral lesion should be personalized. Fecal calprotectin is a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation and may be used to select which patients need to undergo endoscopic examination, thereby avoiding unnecessary investigations. The pharmacological armamentarium to treat oral lesions associated with IBD includes topical or systemic corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, and biologic drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis; extra-intestinal manifestations; orofacial granulomatosis; tag-like lesions; cobblestoning; mucogingivitis; lip swelling; aphthous stomatitis inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis; extra-intestinal manifestations; orofacial granulomatosis; tag-like lesions; cobblestoning; mucogingivitis; lip swelling; aphthous stomatitis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ribaldone, D.G.; Brigo, S.; Mangia, M.; Saracco, G.M.; Astegiano, M.; Pellicano, R. Oral Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Role of Non-Invasive Surrogate Markers of Disease Activity. Medicines 2020, 7, 33. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines7060033

AMA Style

Ribaldone DG, Brigo S, Mangia M, Saracco GM, Astegiano M, Pellicano R. Oral Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Role of Non-Invasive Surrogate Markers of Disease Activity. Medicines. 2020; 7(6):33. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines7060033

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ribaldone, Davide G., Selvaggia Brigo, Michela Mangia, Giorgio M. Saracco, Marco Astegiano, and Rinaldo Pellicano. 2020. "Oral Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Role of Non-Invasive Surrogate Markers of Disease Activity" Medicines 7, no. 6: 33. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines7060033

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