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Medicines, Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Primary small cell carcinoma of the kidney (PSCCK) is an exceedingly rare disease, though recent advances in laboratory diagnosis and practice trends stand to increase its observed incidence, underscoring the need to familiarize clinicians with this aggressive malignancy. View this paper
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Article
Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney: Disease Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes
Medicines 2021, 8(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8010006 - 18 Jan 2021
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Abstract
Background: Primary small cell carcinoma of the kidney (PSCCK) is exceedingly rare and data on disease characteristics and outcomes are sparse. This study examines a nationally-representative cancer registry to better characterize PSCCK. Methods: We queried the National Cancer Database to identify patients with [...] Read more.
Background: Primary small cell carcinoma of the kidney (PSCCK) is exceedingly rare and data on disease characteristics and outcomes are sparse. This study examines a nationally-representative cancer registry to better characterize PSCCK. Methods: We queried the National Cancer Database to identify patients with histology-confirmed PSCCK from 2004 to 2015. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan–Meier analyses were employed to assess predictors of mortality and estimate median survival time, respectively. Results: A total of 110 patients were included (47:53% female:male, 77% ≥60 years of age, 86% Caucasian). Significant predictors of mortality included female sex, age 60–69 years, treatment at an Integrated Network Cancer Program, stage cM1, and lack of surgical and chemoradiotherapy treatment. Independent protective factors were high socioeconomic status and treatment at an Academic Research Program. The estimated median overall survival time was 9.31 (95% CI 7.28–10.98) months for all patients. No differences in estimated survival time were observed across individual treatment modalities among those patients who underwent treatment (p = 0.214). Conclusions: PSCCK is an aggressive malignancy with a median survival time of less than one year. Future studies that correlate clinical tumor staging with specific treatment modalities are needed to optimize and individualize management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nephrology and Urology)
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Case Report
Encephalic Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis during Treatment with Sunitinib for Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report
Medicines 2021, 8(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8010005 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 827
Abstract
Renal cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor that arises in the kidney parenchyma. For many years, sunitinib has represented the mainstay of medical treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Herein, we present the case of a 66-year-old woman with metastatic clear cell renal [...] Read more.
Renal cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor that arises in the kidney parenchyma. For many years, sunitinib has represented the mainstay of medical treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Herein, we present the case of a 66-year-old woman with metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma undergoing treatment with sunitinib for two years that developed encephalic leukocytoclastic vasculitis, probably due to a paraneoplastic syndrome. Full article
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Article
Risk Factors, Clinical Characteristics, and Prognosis of Acute Kidney Injury in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Medicines 2021, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines8010004 - 07 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of COVID-19. Methods: Records of hospitalized adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 1 March to 31 May 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 283 patients, AKI occurred in 40.6%. From multivariate analyses, the [...] Read more.
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of COVID-19. Methods: Records of hospitalized adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 1 March to 31 May 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 283 patients, AKI occurred in 40.6%. From multivariate analyses, the risk factors of AKI in COVID-19 can be divided into: (1) demographics/co-morbidities (male, increasing age, diabetes, chronic kidney disease); (2) other organ involvements (transaminitis, elevated troponin I, ST segment/T wave change on electrocardiography); (3) elevated biomarkers (ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase); (4) possible bacterial co-infection (leukocytosis, elevated procalcitonin); (5) need for advanced oxygen delivery (non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, mechanical ventilation); and (6) other critical features (ICU admission, need for vasopressors, acute respiratory distress syndrome). Most AKIs were due to pre-renal (70.4%) and intrinsic (34.8%) causes. Renal replacement therapy was more common in intrinsic AKI. Both pre-renal (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.7–5.9) and intrinsic AKI (HR 7.7; 95% CI 3.6–16.3) were associated with higher mortality. Male, stage 3 AKI, higher baseline and peak serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were prevalent in intrinsic AKI. Urine analysis and the fractional excretion of sodium and urea were not helpful in distinguishing intrinsic AKI from other causes. Conclusions: AKI is very common in COVID-19 and is associated with higher mortality. Characterization of AKI is warranted due to its diverse nature and clinical outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nephrology and Urology)
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Review
Neurogenic Erectile Dysfunction. Where Do We Stand?
Medicines 2021, 8(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8010003 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1066
Abstract
Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is the persistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual performance, causing tremendous effects on both patients and their partners. The pathophysiology of ED remains a labyrinth. The underlying mechanisms of ED may be vasculogenic, [...] Read more.
Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is the persistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual performance, causing tremendous effects on both patients and their partners. The pathophysiology of ED remains a labyrinth. The underlying mechanisms of ED may be vasculogenic, neurogenic, anatomical, hormonal, drug-induced and/or psychogenic. Neurogenic ED consists of a large cohort of ED, accounting for about 10% to 19% of all cases. Its diversity does not allow an in-depth clarification of all the underlying mechanisms nor a “one size fits all” therapeutical approach. In this review, we focus on neurogenic causes of ED, trying to elucidate the mechanisms that lie beneath it and how we manage these patients. Full article
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Review
Erectile Dysfunction Treatment Using Stem Cells: A Review
Medicines 2021, 8(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8010002 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a disorder that affects the quality of life and the sexual relations of more than half of the male population aged over 40 years. The prediction regarding the incidence of ED is devastating as it is expected that this [...] Read more.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a disorder that affects the quality of life and the sexual relations of more than half of the male population aged over 40 years. The prediction regarding the incidence of ED is devastating as it is expected that this disorder will affect more than 300 million men in the next five years. Several studies have suggested the use of stem cells for the treatment of ED and showed that this type of treatment is promising in terms of damaged tissue repair as well as of clinical efficacy; however, there are several gaps in the knowledge and evidence is lacking. In order to highlight a few of them in this review, we performed a research of the literature focusing on currently available clinical studies regarding the clinical efficacy of stem cell administration for the treatment of ED. We reviewed the methods of administration, the cell types used in the performed clinical trials and the safety and efficiency of such procedures. We conclude that there are rapidly expanding and promising results from the reported clinical studies indicating that stem cells could indeed be a potential treatment for patients with ED although more studies are necessary. Full article
Article
Predictive Effect of Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Carcinoma Development: Systematic Review and Quantitative Evidence Synthesis
Medicines 2021, 8(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8010001 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterial pathogen implicated in gastritis, gastric ulceration, and gastric carcinoma. This study aimed to synthesize literature in providing evidence on the causative role of H. pylori in gastric carcinoma development. This study is based on [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterial pathogen implicated in gastritis, gastric ulceration, and gastric carcinoma. This study aimed to synthesize literature in providing evidence on the causative role of H. pylori in gastric carcinoma development. This study is based on assessing public literature using an applied meta-analysis, namely, quantitative evidence synthesis (QES). The analytic procedure uses DerSimonian-Laird, including assessing heterogeneity. The QES also utilizes meta-regression and the environmental effect associated with H. pylori in gastric cancer development. Eighteen studies are included in the QES. There is increased prevalence of H. pylori exposure among the cases. The heterogeneity between the CES and individual effect sizes is also significant. Despite controlling for the confoundings, there is increased exposure to H. pylori among the gastric cancer cases, regardless of the differences in the geographic location. H. pylori in this synthesized literature illustrates the contributory role of this microbe in gastric carcinoma. Additionally, regardless of geographic locale, namely, South Korea or Spain, H. pylori is implicated in gastric cancer development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology and Anticancer Therapeutics)
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