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Medicines, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2021) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Obesity represents a risk factor for a variety of diseases because of its inflammatory component, among other biological patterns. Recently, with the ongoing COVID-19 crisis, a special focus has been put on obesity as a status in which antibody production, among other immune functions, is impaired, which would impact both disease pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy. Herein, we illustrate that such patterns would be due to the increased adiposity and fat distribution pattern rather than obesity (as defined by the body mass index) itself. Within this context, we also highlight the importance of the weight-loss-independent effects of exercise.View this paper
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Review
Laparoscopy in Gynecologic and Abdominal Surgery in Regional (Spinal, Peridural) Anesthesia, the Utility of the Technique during COVID-19 Pandemic
Medicines 2021, 8(10), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8100060 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 735
Abstract
Background: laparoscopic surgery is mainly performed in general anesthesia. Symptomatic patients infected with COVID-19 needing surgery are however at higher risk for COVID-19 complications in general anesthesia than in regional anesthesia. Even so, Covid transfection is a hazard to medical personnel during the [...] Read more.
Background: laparoscopic surgery is mainly performed in general anesthesia. Symptomatic patients infected with COVID-19 needing surgery are however at higher risk for COVID-19 complications in general anesthesia than in regional anesthesia. Even so, Covid transfection is a hazard to medical personnel during the intubation procedure and treatment drugs may be in shortage during a pandemic. Recovery and hospital stay are also shorter after laparoscopy. Laparoscopy performed in regional anesthesia may have several advantages in limiting Covid. Methods: international literature on the risk of COVID-19 complications development was searched. 3 topics concerning laparoscopic surgery were reviewed: (1) Achievements in laparoscopy; (2) Advantages of regional anesthesia compared to general anesthesia; (3) Feasibility to perform laparoscopy in regional anesthesia in COVID-19 pandemic. The authors reviewed abstracts and full-text articles concerning laparoscopic surgery, gynecology, anesthesia and COVID-19. Studies published in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and found in Google Scholar before 1st FEB, 2021 were retrieved and analyzed. Results: a total of 83 studies were found, all of them written in English. 17 studies could be found in gynecology and in general surgery about laparoscopy with regional anesthesia. In Covid time only one study compared laparoscopic surgery in general anesthesia to laparotomy and another study laparotomy in general anesthesia to regional anesthesia. Laparoscopy showed no disadvantage compared to laparotomy in Covid pandemic and in another study laparotomy in general anesthesia was associated with higher mortality and more pulmonary complications. Trendelenburg position can be a threat if used by inexperienced personnel and can induce unintended anesthesia of breathing organs. On the other hand Trendelenburg position has advantages for cardiovascular and pulmonary functions. Pneumoperitoneum of low CO2 pressure is well tolerated by patients. Conclusions: elective surgery should be postponed in symptomatic Covid patients. In inevitable emergency surgery intubation anesthesia in COVID-19 pandemic is as far as possible to be avoided. In COVID-19 pandemic, regional anesthesia is the preferred choice. The optimum may be the combination of laparoscopic surgery with regional anesthesia. Reducing the pneumoperitoneum is a good compromise for the comfort of patients and surgeons. A special case is gynecology, which needs to be performed in Trendelenburg position to free pelvic organs. Full article
Opinion
COVID-19 Infection and Neuropathological Features
Medicines 2021, 8(10), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8100059 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 670
Abstract
The pathology associated with COVID-19 infection is progressively being revealed. Recent postmortem assessments have revealed acute airway inflammation as well as diffuse alveolar damage, which bears resemblance to severe acute respiratory syndromes induced by both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections. Although recent papers have [...] Read more.
The pathology associated with COVID-19 infection is progressively being revealed. Recent postmortem assessments have revealed acute airway inflammation as well as diffuse alveolar damage, which bears resemblance to severe acute respiratory syndromes induced by both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections. Although recent papers have highlighted some neuropathologies associated with COVID-19 infection, little is known about this topic of great importance in the area of public health. Here, we discuss how neuroinflammation related to COVID-19 could be triggered by direct viral neuroinvasion and/or cytokine release over the course of the infection. Full article
Review
Clinical Trials, Potential Mechanisms, and Adverse Effects of Arnica as an Adjunct Medication for Pain Management
Medicines 2021, 8(10), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8100058 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Arnica has traditionally been used in treating numerous medical conditions, including inflammation and pain. This review aims to summarize the results of studies testing Arnica products for pain management under different conditions, including post-operation, arthritis, low back pain, and other types of musculoskeletal [...] Read more.
Arnica has traditionally been used in treating numerous medical conditions, including inflammation and pain. This review aims to summarize the results of studies testing Arnica products for pain management under different conditions, including post-operation, arthritis, low back pain, and other types of musculoskeletal pain. Based on data from clinical trials, Arnica extract or gel/cream containing Arnica extract shows promising effects for pain relief. These medical benefits of Arnica may be attributed to its chemical components, with demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-microbial, and other biological activities. In conclusion, Arnica could be an adjunct therapeutical approach for acute and chronic pain management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PROTAC—From Bench to Bed)
Opinion
Impact of Adiposity and Fat Distribution, Rather Than Obesity, on Antibodies as an Illustration of Weight-Loss-Independent Exercise Benefits
Medicines 2021, 8(10), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8100057 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 647
Abstract
Obesity represents a risk factor for a variety of diseases because of its inflammatory component, among other biological patterns. Recently, with the ongoing COVID-19 crisis, a special focus has been put on obesity as a status in which antibody production, among other immune [...] Read more.
Obesity represents a risk factor for a variety of diseases because of its inflammatory component, among other biological patterns. Recently, with the ongoing COVID-19 crisis, a special focus has been put on obesity as a status in which antibody production, among other immune functions, is impaired, which would impact both disease pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy. Within this piece of writing, we illustrate that such patterns would be due to the increased adiposity and fat distribution pattern rather than obesity (as defined by the body mass index) itself. Within this context, we also highlight the importance of the weight-loss-independent effects of exercise. Full article
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Article
Lignosulfonate Rapidly Inactivates Human Immunodeficiency and Herpes Simplex Viruses
Medicines 2021, 8(10), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8100056 - 03 Oct 2021
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Background: Very few studies of the antiviral potential of lignosulfonates have been published. With the aim of oral application, among various groups of natural products, the relative antiviral potency of lignosulfonate and its ability to rapidly inactivate viruses were investigated. Methods: As target [...] Read more.
Background: Very few studies of the antiviral potential of lignosulfonates have been published. With the aim of oral application, among various groups of natural products, the relative antiviral potency of lignosulfonate and its ability to rapidly inactivate viruses were investigated. Methods: As target cells, MT-4 cells in suspension and attached Vero cells were used for infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human herpes simplex type-1 virus (HSV). Mock- or virus-infected cells were incubated for 3–5 days with various concentrations of test samples, and the viable cell number was determined with the MTT method. For the shorter exposure experiments, higher titers of HIV or HSV were exposed to test samples for 10 or 3 min, diluted to a normal multiplicity of infection (MOI), and applied to the cells. Antiviral activity was quantified by using the chemotherapy index. Results: In the long-exposure system, lignosulfonates showed comparable anti-HIV activity with those of AZT, ddC, and sulfated polysaccharides, and it exceeded those of hundreds of tannins and flavonoids. When the exposure time was shortened, the chemotherapeutic index of the lignosulfonates for HIV was increased 27-fold. At a physiological pH, lignosulfonate showed higher anti-HIV activity than commercial alkali-lignin, dealkali-lignin, and humic acid, possibly due to the higher solubility and purity. Conclusions: With their rapid virus-inactivation capabilities, lignosulfonates may be useful for the prevention or treatment of virally induced oral diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Medicine and Dentistry)
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Opinion
Autoimmune Disorders & COVID-19
Medicines 2021, 8(10), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8100055 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can progress to severe pneumonia with respiratory failure and is aggravated by the deregulation of the immune system causing an excessive inflammation including the cytokine storm. Since 2019, several studies regarding the interplay between autoimmune diseases and COVID-19 infections [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can progress to severe pneumonia with respiratory failure and is aggravated by the deregulation of the immune system causing an excessive inflammation including the cytokine storm. Since 2019, several studies regarding the interplay between autoimmune diseases and COVID-19 infections is increasing all over the world. In addition, thanks to new scientific findings, we actually know better why certain conditions are considered a higher risk in both situations. There are instances when having an autoimmune disease increases susceptibility to COVID-19 complications, such as when autoantibodies capable of neutralizing type I IFN are present, and other situations in which having COVID-19 infection precedes the appearance of various autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), Guillain-Barré syndrome, and Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), thus, adding to the growing mystery surrounding the SARS-CoV-2 virus and raising questions about the nature of its link with autoimmune and autoinflammatory sequelae. Herein, we discuss the role of host and virus genetics and some possible immunological mechanisms that might lead to the disease aggravation. Full article
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