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Review

Clinical Trials, Potential Mechanisms, and Adverse Effects of Arnica as an Adjunct Medication for Pain Management

1
Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy, Clinton, SC 29325, USA
2
Department of Biology, College of Art and Sciences, Presbyterian College, Clinton, SC 29325, USA
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC 27506, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Cho
Received: 23 August 2021 / Revised: 10 September 2021 / Accepted: 2 October 2021 / Published: 9 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PROTAC—From Bench to Bed)
Arnica has traditionally been used in treating numerous medical conditions, including inflammation and pain. This review aims to summarize the results of studies testing Arnica products for pain management under different conditions, including post-operation, arthritis, low back pain, and other types of musculoskeletal pain. Based on data from clinical trials, Arnica extract or gel/cream containing Arnica extract shows promising effects for pain relief. These medical benefits of Arnica may be attributed to its chemical components, with demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-microbial, and other biological activities. In conclusion, Arnica could be an adjunct therapeutical approach for acute and chronic pain management. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arnica; pain; herbal medication; alternative therapy; inflammation Arnica; pain; herbal medication; alternative therapy; inflammation
MDPI and ACS Style

Smith, A.G.; Miles, V.N.; Holmes, D.T.; Chen, X.; Lei, W. Clinical Trials, Potential Mechanisms, and Adverse Effects of Arnica as an Adjunct Medication for Pain Management. Medicines 2021, 8, 58. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8100058

AMA Style

Smith AG, Miles VN, Holmes DT, Chen X, Lei W. Clinical Trials, Potential Mechanisms, and Adverse Effects of Arnica as an Adjunct Medication for Pain Management. Medicines. 2021; 8(10):58. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8100058

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smith, Amanda G., Victoria N. Miles, Deltrice T. Holmes, Xin Chen, and Wei Lei. 2021. "Clinical Trials, Potential Mechanisms, and Adverse Effects of Arnica as an Adjunct Medication for Pain Management" Medicines 8, no. 10: 58. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8100058

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