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Medicines, Volume 8, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 12 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this study of the UNOS/OPTN database from 2015 through 2019, we aimed to assess the risk factors and feature importance of acute rejection among Black kidney transplant recipients utilizing RF vs. traditional multivariable logistic regression analysis. The application of tree-based RF feature importance and the feature interaction network analysis framework identified the recipient age, ESKD etiology, PRA, cold ischemia time, donor age, HLA DR mismatch, BMI, serum albumin, degree of HLA mismatch, education level, and dialysis duration as important variables in the RF models for acute rejection among Black kidney transplant recipients in the United States. View this paper
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Article
Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) Predicts Long-Term Mortality in Adult Patients after Cardiac Arrest: Results from a Prospective Trial
Medicines 2021, 8(11), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8110072 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Background: We investigated whether Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) serum concentration predicts long-term mortality and poor neurological outcome in adult cardiac arrest patients. Methods: Within this prospective observational study, we included consecutive adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac arrest. NSE [...] Read more.
Background: We investigated whether Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) serum concentration predicts long-term mortality and poor neurological outcome in adult cardiac arrest patients. Methods: Within this prospective observational study, we included consecutive adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac arrest. NSE was measured upon ICU admission and on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7. Results: Of 403 patients, 176 (43.7%) survived. Median follow-up duration was 43.7 months (IQR 14.3 to 63.0 months). NSE levels on day 3 were increased more than threefold in non-survivors compared to survivors (median NSE (ng/mL) 19.8 (IQR 15.7 to 27.8) vs. 72.6 (IQR 26 to 194)) and showed the highest prognostic performance for mortality compared to other days of measurement, with an AUC of 0.81 and an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.55 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.71, p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed an excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100% of NSE in patients <54 years of age. Conclusion: NSE measured three days after cardiac arrest is associated with long-term mortality and neurological outcome and may provide prognostic information that improves clinical decision making. Particularly in the subgroup of younger patients (<54 years), NSE showed excellent negative predictive value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PROTAC—From Bench to Bed)
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Article
Effect of Breastfeeding and Its Duration on Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2019
Medicines 2021, 8(11), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8110071 - 12 Nov 2021
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: To examine the effect of maternal breastfeeding on the subsequent risk of diabetes in parous Korean women aged >50 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 14,433 participants from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were included. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: To examine the effect of maternal breastfeeding on the subsequent risk of diabetes in parous Korean women aged >50 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 14,433 participants from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were included. The subjects were divided into three groups: normal, impaired fasting glucose, and diabetes. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results: A total of 2301 (15.94%) women were classified as having diabetes, and 3670 (25.43%) women were classified as having impaired fasting glucose. Breastfeeding was associated with an OR for diabetes of 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61, 0.95) compared with non-breastfeeding after adjustment for possible confounders in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Breastfeeding for 13–24 months was associated with an OR of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.5, 0.91), and breastfeeding for 25–36 months was associated with an OR of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.52, 0.87) for diabetes compared with breastfeeding for <1 month in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Our results suggest that long-term breastfeeding, particularly breastfeeding for 13–36 months, may be associated with a lower risk for diabetes later in life. Full article
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Article
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Medical Imaging Case Volumes in Aseer Region: A Retrospective Study
Medicines 2021, 8(11), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8110070 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 356
Abstract
COVID-19 has had a significant impact on global health systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how imaging volumes and imaging types in radiology departments have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic across different locations. Methods: Imaging volumes in the Aseer [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has had a significant impact on global health systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how imaging volumes and imaging types in radiology departments have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic across different locations. Methods: Imaging volumes in the Aseer region (in the south of Saudi Arabia) across main hospitals were reviewed retrospectively including all cases referred from different locations (outpatient, inpatient and emergency departments). Data for years 2019 and 2020 were compared. The mean monthly cases were compared using a t-test. Results: The total imaging volumes in 2019 were 205,805 compared to 159,107 in 2020 with a 22.7% overall reduction. A substantial decline was observed in both the April to June and the July to September periods of approximately 42.9% and 44.4%, respectively. With respect to location, between April and June, the greatest decline was observed in outpatient departments (76% decline), followed by emergency departments (25% decline), and the least impact was observed in inpatient departments, with only 6.8% decline over the same period. According to modality type, the greatest decreases were reported in nuclear medicine, ultrasound, MRI, and mammography, by 100%, 76%, 74%, and 66%, respectively. Our results show a statistically significant (p-value 0.05) decrease of cases in 2020 compared to 2019, except for mammography procedures. Conclusion: There has been a significant decline in radiology volumes due to COVID-19. The overall reduction in radiology volumes was dependent on the stage/period of lockdown, location, and imaging modality. Full article
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Review
Natural Products Induce Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization as an Anticancer Strategy
Medicines 2021, 8(11), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8110069 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 415
Abstract
Cancer is a global health and economic issue. The majority of anticancer therapies become ineffective due to frequent genomic turnover and chemoresistance. Furthermore, chemotherapy and radiation are non-specific, killing all rapidly dividing cells including healthy cells. In this review, we examine the ability [...] Read more.
Cancer is a global health and economic issue. The majority of anticancer therapies become ineffective due to frequent genomic turnover and chemoresistance. Furthermore, chemotherapy and radiation are non-specific, killing all rapidly dividing cells including healthy cells. In this review, we examine the ability of some natural products to induce lysosomal-mediated cell death in neoplastic cells as a way to kill them more specifically than conventional therapies. This list is by no means exhaustive. We postulate mechanisms to explain lysosomal membrane permeabilization and its role in triggering cell death in cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PROTAC—From Bench to Bed)
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Case Report
Effects of Systemic Enzyme Supplements on Symptoms and Quality of Life in Patients with Pulmonary Fibrosis—A Pilot Study
Medicines 2021, 8(11), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8110068 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Current FDA-approved antifibrotic treatments for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis slow down disease progression but have little impact on symptoms or quality of life in patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of systemic enzymes in relieving symptoms associated with PF and improving [...] Read more.
Current FDA-approved antifibrotic treatments for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis slow down disease progression but have little impact on symptoms or quality of life in patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of systemic enzymes in relieving symptoms associated with PF and improving quality of life. Methods: an open-label, prospective study on subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of PF was conducted as proof-of-concept. The subjects (n = 13) received the oral systemic enzyme supplements Serracor-NK and Serra Rx for 12 weeks and completed Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) questionnaires. The effect of this regimen was examined by comparing the end-of-treatment questionnaire scores with baseline values. Results: significant improvement was seen in 61.5% of subjects, as assessed by the WHO well-being index; an improvement in scores was seen in 84.6% of the subjects, as assessed by the UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire, with 38.4% of the subjects showing minimal clinically important difference; the supplementation was found to be efficacious in 69.2%, 84.6%, 69.2% and 61.5% of the subjects, as assessed by the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total, symptom, activity, and impact scores, respectively. Conclusions: Serracor-NK and Serra Rx improve symptoms, as well as mental and physical wellbeing and HRQL in patients with PF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PROTAC—From Bench to Bed)
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Case Report
A Rare Case of Recurrent Generalized Peritonitis Caused by Spontaneous Urinary Bladder Rupture after Radiotherapy: A Case Report and Literature Review
Medicines 2021, 8(11), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8110067 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 467
Abstract
Since generalized peritonitis is a fatal disease, accurate diagnosis and treatment are important. In this paper, we report a case of recurrent generalized peritonitis associated with spontaneous urinary bladder rupture (SBR). A 65 year old woman, who underwent radiotherapy 21 years prior, was [...] Read more.
Since generalized peritonitis is a fatal disease, accurate diagnosis and treatment are important. In this paper, we report a case of recurrent generalized peritonitis associated with spontaneous urinary bladder rupture (SBR). A 65 year old woman, who underwent radiotherapy 21 years prior, was diagnosed with generalized peritonitis. Although the cause of the generalized peritonitis could not be identified, the patient recovered with conservative treatment in short period. However, recurrent episodes of generalized peritonitis occurred four times. We diagnosed the patient with urinary ascites due to SBR, based on a history of radiotherapy and dysuria. No recurrence of generalized peritonitis had occurred after accurate diagnosis and treatment with long-term bladder catheter placement. Since SBR often occurs as a late complication after radiotherapy, it is difficult to diagnose SBR, which leads to delayed treatment. This case and literature review of similar cases suggest that the information of the following might be helpful in the diagnosis of SBR: (i) history of recurrent generalized peritonitis, (ii) pseudo-renal failure, (iii) history of radiotherapy, (iv) dysuria, and (v) increase or decrease of ascites in a short period. It is important to list SBR in the differential diagnosis by knowing the disease and understanding its clinical features. This case and literature review will serve as a reference for future practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PROTAC—From Bench to Bed)
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Article
Feature Importance of Acute Rejection among Black Kidney Transplant Recipients by Utilizing Random Forest Analysis: An Analysis of the UNOS Database
Medicines 2021, 8(11), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8110066 - 02 Nov 2021
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Background: Black kidney transplant recipients have worse allograft outcomes compared to White recipients. The feature importance and feature interaction network analysis framework of machine learning random forest (RF) analysis may provide an understanding of RF structures to design strategies to prevent acute [...] Read more.
Background: Black kidney transplant recipients have worse allograft outcomes compared to White recipients. The feature importance and feature interaction network analysis framework of machine learning random forest (RF) analysis may provide an understanding of RF structures to design strategies to prevent acute rejection among Black recipients. Methods: We conducted tree-based RF feature importance of Black kidney transplant recipients in United States from 2015 to 2019 in the UNOS database using the number of nodes, accuracy decrease, gini decrease, times_a_root, p value, and mean minimal depth. Feature interaction analysis was also performed to evaluate the most frequent occurrences in the RF classification run between correlated and uncorrelated pairs. Results: A total of 22,687 Black kidney transplant recipients were eligible for analysis. Of these, 1330 (6%) had acute rejection within 1 year after kidney transplant. Important variables in the RF models for acute rejection among Black kidney transplant recipients included recipient age, ESKD etiology, PRA, cold ischemia time, donor age, HLA DR mismatch, BMI, serum albumin, degree of HLA mismatch, education level, and dialysis duration. The three most frequent interactions consisted of two numerical variables, including recipient age:donor age, recipient age:serum albumin, and recipient age:BMI, respectively. Conclusions: The application of tree-based RF feature importance and feature interaction network analysis framework identified recipient age, ESKD etiology, PRA, cold ischemia time, donor age, HLA DR mismatch, BMI, serum albumin, degree of HLA mismatch, education level, and dialysis duration as important variables in the RF models for acute rejection among Black kidney transplant recipients in the United States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PROTAC—From Bench to Bed)
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Article
Recent Trends of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Military Recruits from Saudi Arabia
Medicines 2021, 8(11), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8110065 - 30 Oct 2021
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (Met-S) constitutes the risk factors and abnormalities that markedly increase the probability of developing diabetes and coronary heart disease. An early detection of Met-S, its components and risk factors can be of great help in preventing or controlling its adverse consequences. [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (Met-S) constitutes the risk factors and abnormalities that markedly increase the probability of developing diabetes and coronary heart disease. An early detection of Met-S, its components and risk factors can be of great help in preventing or controlling its adverse consequences. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors in young army recruits from Saudi Arabia. A total of 2010 Saudis aged 18–30 years were randomly selected from groups who had applied to military colleges. In addition to designed questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected to measure Met-S components according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Met-S prevalence was 24.3% and it was higher in older subjects than the younger ones. There were significant associations between Met-S and age, education level and marital status. The most common Met-S components were high fasting blood sugar (63.6%) followed by high blood pressure (systolic and diastolic, 63.3% and 37.3% respectively) and high body mass index (57.5%). The prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes were found to be 55.2% and 8.4%, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia was found in 19.3% and low levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in 11.7% of subjects. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of Met-S in young adults of Saudi Arabia. There is a need for regular monitoring of Met-S in young populations to keep them healthy and fit for nation building. It is also important to design and launch community-based programs for educating people about the importance of physical activity, cessation of smoking and eating healthy diet in prevention of chronic diseases. Full article
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Article
Seroprevalence of the Serological Markers of Transfusion-Transmissible Infections among Volunteer Blood Donors of Kosti Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital
Medicines 2021, 8(11), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8110064 - 29 Oct 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
Background: Transfusion-transmissible infections are well-known global health challenges. The present study is proposed to investigate the seropositivity of anti-HIV1/2, anti-HCV, HBsAg, and anti-T.pallidum among volunteer blood donors of Kosti Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital. Methods: Our study was conducted in a cross-sectional retrospective [...] Read more.
Background: Transfusion-transmissible infections are well-known global health challenges. The present study is proposed to investigate the seropositivity of anti-HIV1/2, anti-HCV, HBsAg, and anti-T.pallidum among volunteer blood donors of Kosti Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital. Methods: Our study was conducted in a cross-sectional retrospective manner. The data of donors who attended Kosti Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital throughout 2016 to 2018 were reviewed and retrieved manually from blood bank records. Results: Out of 8139 donors, 22.52% were seropositive for serological markers of TTIs and 1.67% were seropositive for at least two serological markers of TTIs. The overall seropositivity rate of anti-HIV1/2, HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-T.pallidum was 1.77%, 6.07%, 1.14%, and 11.87%, respectively (p < 0.000). Anti-T.pallidum was the most frequently detected (p < 0.05) marker across all study variables. TTIs seroprevalence was significantly (p < 0.05) varied according to the age, residence, occupations, and blood groups. Notably, there was a rising trend in the rate of anti-HIV1/2 and seropositivity for more than one marker with age (p < 0.000). Regionally, rural area residents had a higher rate of anti-HIV1/2 (2.20%), HBsAg (6.31%), anti-HCV (1.42%), anti-T.pallidum (18.38%), and multiple markers seropositivity (2.28%) compared to urban areas. Between occupations, the highest rate of anti-HIV1/2 (p = 0.483), HBsAg (p = 0.003), anti-HCV (p = 0.408), anti-T.pallidum (p < 0.000), and multiple markers seropositivity (p < 0.000) were detected in farmers. Regarding the screening, we also found that the frequency of anti-T.pallidum was significantly (p = 0.003) higher in donors who carry the AB+ve blood group, whereas anti-HCV (1.83%) was more frequent in donors carry O−ve blood group (p = 0.255). As seen, anti-T.pallidum+HBsAg was the most frequently (1.22%) co-occurring markers. In contrast, anti-T.pallidum+anti-HIV1/2+HBsAg was the lowest frequency one (p < 0.000). Conclusions: The study showed an alarming rate of TTIs, which suggests the requirement for comprehensive surveillance and health education programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PROTAC—From Bench to Bed)
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Brief Report
Concordance in mSEGA Tool to Frailty Diagnosis between Medical Doctors and Nurses
Medicines 2021, 8(11), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8110063 - 29 Oct 2021
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Introduction: It is currently considered that screening for frailty in elderly subjects is a major public health issue. Methods: a cross-sectional pilot study involving elderly subjects (over 75 years of age) admitted at the emergency department of the hospital of Troyes, France in [...] Read more.
Introduction: It is currently considered that screening for frailty in elderly subjects is a major public health issue. Methods: a cross-sectional pilot study involving elderly subjects (over 75 years of age) admitted at the emergency department of the hospital of Troyes, France in the period from 24 August to 30 August 2017 was conducted. The patients were screened for frailty using the modified SEGA (Short Emergency Geriatric Assessment) (part A) grid (mSEGA), correlated with the subjective opinion of the triage nurse and the senior physician. Results: 100 patients were included during the pilot study period, the mean age was 84.34 years (range: 75–97), 56 patients (56%) were female, and the average CHARLSON score was 4.28 (range: 0–11). The patients’ previous medical histories were remarkable for cardiovascular diseases. The main reason for hospital admission was fall (26 subjects, 26%). Hospitalization was required for 52 subjects (52%). The average mSEGA score was 6.3 +/− 3.59. The completion time for the SEGAm (part A) score was about 5 minutes. According to Cohen’s kappa, the concordance between the subjective opinion of the triage nurse and the mSEGA grid was average, while the concordance between the subjective opinions of the senior physicians was good. Conclusion: The mSEGA score appears to be well-suited and useful in the emergency department. It is easy to use, allows an overall evaluation of the patient, and is not time-consuming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frailty Syndrome in the Elderly: a Real Challenge for Our Society)
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Article
Factors Affecting Dietary Improvements in Elderly Residents of Long-Term Care Institutions Receiving Domiciliary Dental Care
Medicines 2021, 8(11), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8110062 - 21 Oct 2021
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Background: Oral disabilities occur due to tooth loss. This study aimed to investigate oral and systemic factors related to diet in elderly residents receiving domiciliary dental care. Methods: The subjects were 74 consenting residents. Survey items included whether subjects could eat independently and [...] Read more.
Background: Oral disabilities occur due to tooth loss. This study aimed to investigate oral and systemic factors related to diet in elderly residents receiving domiciliary dental care. Methods: The subjects were 74 consenting residents. Survey items included whether subjects could eat independently and diet type. Subjects were examined by the dentist for the number of teeth, occlusal support index, and wearing dentures. Contingency table analysis was performed to determine what levels of decline in general and oral functions led to difficulties eating a normal diet. Results: There was a significant difference in the mean number of activities of daily living (ADL) requiring assistance evident between subjects eating a normal diet and those eating fluid boiled rice (p < 0.01). A comparison of occlusal support and diet type showed that most subjects who ate a soft diet or gruel had no occlusal support. Almost all subjects who ate a normal diet wore dentures. However, only 38% of subjects eating a soft diet and 40% of those eating gruel did wear dentures; both group differences were significant (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Future studies need to further investigate oral factors related to the type of diet and their relationships to domiciliary dental care in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frailty Syndrome in the Elderly: a Real Challenge for Our Society)
Article
Clinical Outcome of Patients Submitted to Liver Resection in the Context of Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Study of a Tertiary Hospital Center
Medicines 2021, 8(11), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8110061 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Introduction: Breast cancer is the most incident cancer in the world, accounting for 25% of new cancers per year in females. It is the most frequent malignancy in women, being the fifth cause of death from cancer worldwide. Approximately 5 to 10% of [...] Read more.
Introduction: Breast cancer is the most incident cancer in the world, accounting for 25% of new cancers per year in females. It is the most frequent malignancy in women, being the fifth cause of death from cancer worldwide. Approximately 5 to 10% of patients already present with metastases at diagnosis, and the liver is the site of metastases in half of these cases. Liver metastasis (LM) resection, performed after neoadjuvant systemic treatment, has been reported to increase median overall survival in this population. Aim: The aim of this analysis is to assess the outcomes of patients undergoing breast cancer liver metastasis surgical resection, including impact on survival, compared to patients where metastasectomy was not performed. Methods: retrospective review of 55 female patients with breast cancer liver metastases, diagnosed and treated in a single tertiary university hospital from January 2011 to December 2016 was performed. Results: In 32/55 patients (58.2%), multi-organ metastases were identified (the most common sites being bone, lungs, and lymph nodes). Of the remaining 23 patients, the liver was the unique metastatic site; thirteen patients had diffuse bilobar hepatic metastases. The remaining ten patients were proposed for surgical treatment; three of them had peritoneal carcinomatosis identified during surgery, and no hepatic metastasectomy was performed. As a result, only seven (12.7%) patients underwent liver metastasectomy. Overall survival was higher in patients who had LM surgery (65 months [Interquartile Range (IQR) 54–120]), in comparison to those diagnosed with diffuse bilobar hepatic metastases (17.5 months [IQR 11–41]), and with those showing concurrent liver and bone metastases (16.5 months [IQR 6–36]) (p = 0.012). In univariable analysis, the latter two groups showed worse overall survival outcomes (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 3.447, 95%CI: 1.218–9.756, p = 0.02 and HR = 3.855, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.475–10.077, p = 0.006, respectively) when compared to patients with LM. Conclusion: In our series, patients submitted to metastasectomy had a median overall survival after diagnosis of LM three times greater than the non-operated patients with isolated LM, or concurrent LM and bone metastases (65 vs. 17.5 and 16.5 months, respectively). As is vastly known for colorectal cancer liver metastasis, resection of breast cancer liver metastasis may reduce tumor burden, and therefore may improve patient outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PROTAC—From Bench to Bed)
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