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Volume 8, January

Medicines, Volume 8, Issue 2 (February 2021) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Infantile hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy is associated with the homozygous variant (Cys4-to-Ser (C4S)) of the c11orf73 (also called hikeshi) gene. The C4S mutation of cytoplasmic and nuclear C11orf73 proteins leads to protein aggregation. The mutation localizes C11orf73 proteins to the lysosomes, where cytoskeletal Filamin A and C11orf73 proteins are unexpectedly co-localized. View this paper
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Review
Use of Acellular Umbilical Cord-Derived Tissues in Corneal and Ocular Surface Diseases
Medicines 2021, 8(2), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8020012 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2155
Abstract
Blood derived products have become a valuable source of tissue for the treatment of ocular surface diseases that are refractory to conventional treatments. These can be obtained from autologous or allogeneic sources (patient’s own blood or from healthy adult donors/umbilical cord blood, respectively). [...] Read more.
Blood derived products have become a valuable source of tissue for the treatment of ocular surface diseases that are refractory to conventional treatments. These can be obtained from autologous or allogeneic sources (patient’s own blood or from healthy adult donors/umbilical cord blood, respectively). Allogeneic cord blood demonstrates practical advantages over alternatives and these advantages will be discussed herein. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) can be divided, generally speaking, into two distinct products: first, mononuclear cells, which can be used in regenerative ophthalmology, and second, the plasma/serum (an acellular fraction), which may be used in the form of eyedrops administered directly to the damaged ocular surface. The rationale for using umbilical cord serum (UCS) to treat ocular surface diseases such as severe dry eye syndrome (DES), persistent epithelial defects (PED), recurrent epithelial erosions, ocular chemical burns, graft versus host disease (GVHD), among others, is the considerably high concentration of growth factors and cytokines, mimicking the natural healing properties of human tears. Allogeneic serum also offers the opportunity for therapeutic treatment to patients who, due to poor heath, cannot provide autologous serum. The mechanism of action involves the stimulation of endogenous cellular proliferation, differentiation and maturation, which is highly efficient in promoting and enhancing corneal epithelial healing where other therapies have previously failed. Full article
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Review
Sexually Transmitted Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections—Update on Drug Treatment and Vaccine Development
Medicines 2021, 8(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines8020011 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
Background: Sexually transmitted gonorrhea, caused by the Gram-negative diplococcus Neisseria gonorrhoeae, continues to be a serious global health challenge despite efforts to eradicate it. Multidrug resistance among clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates has limited treatment options, and attempts to develop vaccines have not [...] Read more.
Background: Sexually transmitted gonorrhea, caused by the Gram-negative diplococcus Neisseria gonorrhoeae, continues to be a serious global health challenge despite efforts to eradicate it. Multidrug resistance among clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates has limited treatment options, and attempts to develop vaccines have not been successful. Methods: A search of published literature was conducted, and information extracted to provide an update on the status of therapeutics and vaccine development for gonorrheal infection. Results: Recommended pharmacological treatment for gonorrhea has changed multiple times due to increasing acquisition of resistance to existing antibiotics by N. gonorrhoeae. Only broad-spectrum cephalosporin-based combination therapies are currently recommended for treatment of uncomplicated urogenital and anorectal gonococcal infections. With the reported emergence of ceftriaxone resistance, successful strategies addressing the global burden of gonorrhea must include vaccination. Century-old efforts at developing an effective vaccine against gonorrhea, leading to only four clinical trials, have not yielded any successful vaccine. Conclusions: While it is important to continue to explore new drugs for the treatment of gonorrhea, the historical trend of resistance acquisition suggests that any long-term strategy should include vaccine development. Advanced technologies in proteomics and in silico approaches to vaccine target identification may provide templates for future success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section New Drugs Exploration and Development)
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Article
Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS): Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in the Treatment of Stargardt Disease
Medicines 2021, 8(2), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8020010 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2378
Abstract
Background: Stargardt Disease is the most common inherited macular degeneration, typically resulting in progressive central vision loss and legal blindness at an early age. We report regarding 34 eyes with Stargardt Disease treated in the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS and SCOTS2). [...] Read more.
Background: Stargardt Disease is the most common inherited macular degeneration, typically resulting in progressive central vision loss and legal blindness at an early age. We report regarding 34 eyes with Stargardt Disease treated in the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS and SCOTS2). Methods: Autologous bone marrow was processed, separating the stem cell fraction which was provided Arms using retrobulbar, subtenons, intravitreal or subretinal and intravenous. The follow-up period was one year. Results: Of the 34 treated eyes, 21 (61.8%) improved, 8 (23.5%) remained stable, and 5 (14.7%) showed continued progression of their disease. Results were statistically significant with p = 0.0004. The average central vision improvement following treatment was 17.96% (95%CI, 16.39–19.53%) and ranged up to 80.5%. Of 17 patients treated, 13 (76.5%) showed visual acuity improvement in one or both eyes, 3 patients (17.6%) showed no net loss, and 1 worsened as a consequence of disease progression; 94.1% of patients had improved vision or remained stable. There were no adverse events. Conclusions: Patients with Stargardt Disease may potentially benefit from autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) as provided in SCOTS. Improvement or stabilization of vision was found to occur for the vast majority of reported patients and findings were highly statistically significant. Full article
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Article
The Infantile Leukoencephalopathy-Associated Mutation of C11ORF73/HIKESHI Proteins Generates De Novo Interactive Activity with Filamin A, Inhibiting Oligodendroglial Cell Morphological Differentiation
Medicines 2021, 8(2), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8020009 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Background: Genetic hypomyelinating diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders involving the white matter. One infantile hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy is associated with the homozygous variant (Cys4-to-Ser (C4S)) of the c11orf73 gene. Methods: We observed that in mouse oligodendroglial FBD-102b cells, the C4S mutant [...] Read more.
Background: Genetic hypomyelinating diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders involving the white matter. One infantile hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy is associated with the homozygous variant (Cys4-to-Ser (C4S)) of the c11orf73 gene. Methods: We observed that in mouse oligodendroglial FBD-102b cells, the C4S mutant proteins but not the wild type ones of C11orf73 are microscopically localized in the lysosome. And, they downregulate lysosome-related signaling in an immunoblotting technique. Results: The C4S mutant proteins specifically interact with Filamin A, which is known to anchor transmembrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton; the C4S mutant proteins and Filamin A are also observed in the lysosome fraction. While parental FBD-102b cells and cells harboring the wild type constructs exhibit morphological differentiation, cells harboring C4S mutant constructs do not. It may be that morphological differentiation is inhibited because expression of these C4S mutant proteins leads to defects in the actin cytoskeletal network involving Filamin A. Conclusions: The findings that leukoencephalopathy-associated C11ORF73 mutant proteins specifically interact with Filamin A, are localized in the lysosome, and inhibit morphological differentiation shed light on the molecular and cellular pathological mechanisms that underlie infantile hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology and Neurologic Diseases)
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Article
Prevalence of Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in General Practice
Medicines 2021, 8(2), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8020008 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1511
Abstract
Background: One of the lesser recognized complications of diabetes mellitus are musculoskeletal (MSK) complications of the upper and lower extremity. No prevalence studies have been conducted in general practice. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of upper extremity [...] Read more.
Background: One of the lesser recognized complications of diabetes mellitus are musculoskeletal (MSK) complications of the upper and lower extremity. No prevalence studies have been conducted in general practice. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of upper extremity MSK disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the Netherlands. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with two different approaches, namely a representative Dutch primary care medical database study and a questionnaire study among patients with T2DM. Results: In the database study, 2669 patients with T2DM and 2669 non-diabetes patients were included. MSK disorders were observed in 16.3% of patients with T2DM compared to 11.2% of non-diabetes patients (p < 0.001, OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.31, 1.80). In the questionnaire study, 200 patients with T2DM were included who reported a lifetime prevalence of painful upper extremity body sites for at least four weeks of 67.3%. Conclusion: We found that upper extremity MSK disorders have a high prevalence in Dutch patients with T2DM presenting in general practice. The prevalence ranges from 16% based on GP registered disorders and complaints to 67% based on self-reported diagnosis and pain. Early detection and treatment of these disorders may play a role in preventing the development of chronic MSK disorders. Full article
Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Medicines in 2020
by
Medicines 2021, 8(2), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8020007 - 20 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Medicines maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
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