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Article

A Combination of GM-CSF and Released Factors from Gamma-Irradiated Tumor Cells Enhances the Differentiation of Macrophages from Bone Marrow Cells and Their Antigen-Presenting Function and Polarization to Type 1

1
Department of Molecular and Genomic Biomedicine, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan
2
Radioisotope Division, Lab of Collaborative Research, Division of Cellular Signaling, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
3
Division of BNCT, EPOC, National Cancer Center, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
4
Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Seiichi Tanuma
Received: 5 June 2021 / Revised: 29 June 2021 / Accepted: 30 June 2021 / Published: 4 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cancer Biology and Anticancer Therapeutics)
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) promotes dendritic cell differentiation from precursors, and consequently, enhances the antigen presentation process and adaptive immune responses. With such functions, GM-CSF has been used as immunotherapy in combination with radiotherapy for cancer treatment to augment the survival and activity of immune cells. However, an immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment may cause anergy of T cells. It has also been reported that GM-CSF contributes to the development of myeloid-derived suppressor cells from the precursors. In this study, to analyze the combined effect of GM-CSF and released factors from cancer cells after gamma-ray irradiation on bone marrow cell differentiation and dynamics, we established an in vitro culture system using mouse bone marrow cells, GM-CSF, and conditioned medium from gamma ray irradiated mouse melanoma B16 cells at 24 Gy. We analyzed the gene expression changes of the bone marrow-derived cells on day 6. The results showed that GM-CSF dose-dependently enhanced the differentiation of macrophages from bone marrow cells, their antigen-presenting function and polarization to type I. The results implied the induced macrophages from the bone marrow may potentially contribute to tumor immune responses in a systemic manner when GM-CSF is boosted during photon-beam radiation therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: GM-CSF; macrophage; radiotherapy GM-CSF; macrophage; radiotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, L.; Imamichi, S.; Tong, Y.; Sasaki, Y.; Onodera, T.; Nakamura, S.; Igaki, H.; Itami, J.; Masutani, M. A Combination of GM-CSF and Released Factors from Gamma-Irradiated Tumor Cells Enhances the Differentiation of Macrophages from Bone Marrow Cells and Their Antigen-Presenting Function and Polarization to Type 1. Medicines 2021, 8, 35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8070035

AMA Style

Chen L, Imamichi S, Tong Y, Sasaki Y, Onodera T, Nakamura S, Igaki H, Itami J, Masutani M. A Combination of GM-CSF and Released Factors from Gamma-Irradiated Tumor Cells Enhances the Differentiation of Macrophages from Bone Marrow Cells and Their Antigen-Presenting Function and Polarization to Type 1. Medicines. 2021; 8(7):35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8070035

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Lichao, Shoji Imamichi, Ying Tong, Yuka Sasaki, Takae Onodera, Satoshi Nakamura, Hiroshi Igaki, Jun Itami, and Mitsuko Masutani. 2021. "A Combination of GM-CSF and Released Factors from Gamma-Irradiated Tumor Cells Enhances the Differentiation of Macrophages from Bone Marrow Cells and Their Antigen-Presenting Function and Polarization to Type 1" Medicines 8, no. 7: 35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8070035

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