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Review

The Effective Strategies to Avoid Medication Errors and Improving Reporting Systems

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Research Center, Almoosa Specialist Hospital, Al-Ahsa 36342, Saudi Arabia
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College of Nursing, Princess Norah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 12214, Saudi Arabia
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School of Nursing, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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Administration of Pharmaceutical Care, Al-Ahsa Health Cluster, Ministry of Health, Al-Ahsa 36342, Saudi Arabia
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Research Center, Dr. Sulaiman Al Habib Medical Group, Riyadh 12214, Saudi Arabia
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College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh 12214, Saudi Arabia
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Basic Sciences Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Alhasa 31982, Saudi Arabia
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Basic Sciences Department, College of applied Medical Sciences, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Alhasa 31982, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Medina 54321, Saudi Arabia
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Microbiology Department, Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Alhasa 31982, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Public Health and Nutrition, The University of Haipur, Haripur 22610, Pakistan
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Commitment Administration, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Medina 54321, Saudi Arabia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Cho
Received: 5 August 2021 / Revised: 22 August 2021 / Accepted: 25 August 2021 / Published: 27 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PROTAC—From Bench to Bed)
Background: Population-based studies from several countries have constantly shown excessively high rates of medication errors and avoidable deaths. An efficient medication error reporting system is the backbone of reliable practice and a measure of progress towards achieving safety. Improvement efforts and system changes of medication error reporting systems should be targeted towards reductions in the likelihood of injury to future patients. However, the aim of this review is to provide a summary of medication errors reporting culture, incidence reporting systems, creating effective reporting methods, analysis of medication error reports, and recommendations to improve medication errors reporting systems. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, Ovid, EBSCOhost, EMBASE, and ProQuest) were examined from 1 January 1998 to 30 June 2020. 180 articles were found and 60 papers were ultimately included in the review. Data were mined by two reviewers and verified by two other reviewers. The search yielded 684 articles, which were then reduced to 60 after the deletion of duplicates via vetting of titles, abstracts, and full-text papers. Results: Studies were principally from the United States of America and the United Kingdom. Limited studies were from Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Korea, Japan, Greece, France, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. Detection, measurement, and analysis of medication errors require an active rather than a passive approach. Efforts are needed to encourage medication error reporting, including involving staff in opportunities for improvement and the determination of root cause(s). The National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention taxonomy is a classification system to describe and analyze the details around individual medication error events. Conclusion: A successful medication error reporting program should be safe for the reporter, result in constructive and useful recommendations and effective changes while being inclusive of everyone and supported with required resources. Health organizations need to adopt an effectual reporting environment for the medication use process in order to advance into a sounder practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: medical errors; medication error; improve; medication error reporting program; health care professional; patients; health organizations medical errors; medication error; improve; medication error reporting program; health care professional; patients; health organizations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mutair, A.A.; Alhumaid, S.; Shamsan, A.; Zaidi, A.R.Z.; Mohaini, M.A.; Al Mutairi, A.; Rabaan, A.A.; Awad, M.; Al-Omari, A. The Effective Strategies to Avoid Medication Errors and Improving Reporting Systems. Medicines 2021, 8, 46. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8090046

AMA Style

Mutair AA, Alhumaid S, Shamsan A, Zaidi ARZ, Mohaini MA, Al Mutairi A, Rabaan AA, Awad M, Al-Omari A. The Effective Strategies to Avoid Medication Errors and Improving Reporting Systems. Medicines. 2021; 8(9):46. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8090046

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mutair, Abbas A., Saad Alhumaid, Abbas Shamsan, Abdul R.Z. Zaidi, Mohammed A. Mohaini, Alya Al Mutairi, Ali A. Rabaan, Mansour Awad, and Awad Al-Omari. 2021. "The Effective Strategies to Avoid Medication Errors and Improving Reporting Systems" Medicines 8, no. 9: 46. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines8090046

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